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bow fishing essay The Fallacy of Sport Hunting. Every year, hunters kill more than 130 million animals in sage weil the United States. Except for a few aboriginal cultures that still hunt for food, most hunters in self in contradiction essay the U.S. hunt for recreation -- for the apparent pleasure of sage weil thesis stalking and killing. Sport hunters kill animals for trophies in the form of pelts, heads, antlers, and other body parts. Services Harvard? Commonly hunted species include deer, bears, mountain lions, wolves, foxes, coyotes, raccoons, opossums, badgers, skunks, boar, moose, pronghorn antelopes, bobcats, ducks, turkeys, woodcocks, mourning doves, geese, grouse, swans, rabbits, hares, and squirrels. Below are some of the myths and thesis, common arguments used to justify sport hunting. How Has Technology Our Lives Better Essay? Myth: Americans consider sport hunting to be an acceptable use of wildlife. A growing number of Americans believe sport hunting is unethical, wasteful, and unnecessary. When the Press asked in a December 1985 poll, Do you think there are circumstances where it is perfectly O.K. to sage weil, hunt an animal for sport?, 51% responded that it was always wrong.

In a 1994 statewide poll, 73% of Arizona voters said they disapproved of how has technology made our lives essay hunting animals for recreational reasons. The success of recent hunting-related state ballot initiatives across the country also highlights the growing opposition to unethical hunting practices. Since 1990, voters in six states have banned bear-baiting; the use of hounds to weil thesis, hunt bears, cougars, and lynxes; hunting wolves from airplanes; and spring bear hunts. Technology Made Our Lives Essay? These successes demonstrate that Americans clearly and resoundingly oppose cruel and unethical hunting practices. Myth: Hunting is an increasingly popular sport. Weil Thesis? Despite claims made by hunting proponents that sport hunting is technology better a popular, widely accepted traditional American pastime, the number of hunters in the U.S. has declined over the past 20 years. In 1996, only 5.1% of Americans purchased hunting licenses, compared to 7.4% in weil 1991 and 9.9% in 1975, according to the U.S. In Contradiction Essay? Fish and Wildlife Service. In response to declining hunter numbers and weil, growing opposition to sport hunting, the U.S.

Fish and Wildlife Service and state wildlife agencies have joined with private pro-hunting organizations to try and self in contradiction, boost hunter numbers. To improve the public image of hunting, wildlife managers refer to hunting as regulated as opposed to sage, sport, trophy, or recreational. Additionally, hunters downplay their desire for a big rack (antlers) and edexcel gcse, emphasize the need for meat to feed their families, and state wildlife agencies actively recruit women and children to increase hunter license sales. Studies have shown that if a young person has not started hunting before age 18, it is unlikely they will ever hunt. Weil? With that in mind, the $21-billion-a-year hunting industry works with state wildlife agencies to recruit young men and power, women before they graduate from high school. A 1995 Fund for Animals survey revealed that three out of four states offered hunter education classes in public schools. These classes, which teach children how to kill animals in the name of so-called sport, are often funded by the very state agencies mandated to conserve and protect our wildlife. Funding also comes from hunting groups such as the National Rifle Association, the National Shooting Sports Foundation, Safari Club International, and Ducks Unlimited. On the federal level, the U.S.

Fish and Wildlife Service has joined state wildlife agencies to sage weil thesis, sponsor regular Youth Hunts and Becoming an wind Outdoors Woman programs across the sage weil, nation. Moreover, such programs work directly against efforts to decrease youth violence by desensitizing children to animal suffering, and by extolling killing as entertainment. Myth: Hunting provides a primary source of self in contradiction essay food. A popular argument made by sport hunting groups is that hunters live by their wits and put food on the table through hard work, skill, and intelligence. A very small percentage of indigenous and rural hunters do kill animals as their main source of food. However, the sage weil thesis, vast majority of hunters do not. Licensed hunters spend $1.8 billion on hunting-related equipment in the U.S. and it is estimated that after license fees, equipment, and travel expenses, it costs an gcse coursework average of $20 per pound for weil a deer hunter to put venison on the table.

Most hunting today is essay services done for recreational purposes -- for the pure pleasure of pursuing and killing an weil animal. Hunters generally target trophy animals; i.e. those with the largest racks (antlers), the biggest horns, etc. Often the prized parts are removed, while the rest of the body is left to rot in self in contradiction the field. Myth: Hunting involves fair chase. Hunters often claim that hunting is a sport involving fair chase. However, a fair sport involves two individuals on equal grounds who have a mutual agreement to engage in the activity. It is hard to argue that an sage weil thesis animal pursued by a hunter riding a snowmobile or off-road vehicle and equipped with high-powered firearms and electronic calling devices is on equal footing. Moreover, since hunting involves deliberate death, no mutual consent, and no outside judges, hunting can never be considered a sport. Here are just a few of the devices and particularly unethical practices employed by hunters today: Predator Calling: Electronic calling devices, which emulate distress calls of predator young, are used by many hunters to editing, lure foxes, coyotes, bobcats, and wolves into point-blank range. With such devices, hunters can literally wait for their prey to appear, and simply blast away when the weil, distressed and confused animal comes into view. Hounding: Radio-collared hounds are used to track and technology essay, tree black bears, cougars, raccoons, foxes, lynx, bobcats, and other animals.

Using a portable receiver, the thesis, hunter can determine when the pursued animal is trapped in a tree and edexcel geography, ready to be shot at thesis point-blank range. Hounded animals are sometimes maimed by the hounds during the pursuit. Baiting: The practice of bear and deer baiting -- where hunters bait at specific sites and await their quarry with readied guns -- is essay editing services harvard considered to be one of the most unethical hunting practices allowed in the U.S. today. Although baiting is thesis still allowed in many areas of the country, a number of states have banned this practice through legislation or citizen initiatives. How Has Technology Our Lives Better? Bowhunting: Bowhunting (the use of bows and arrows) causes more injuries to wildlife than any other hunting practice. Scientific studies indicate that for weil thesis every animal killed and retrieved by a bowhunter, another is left to die a slow and painful death from wounds. 1. When educated about such unethical hunting practices, few Americans believe the claim that hunting involves subsistence survival skills, intelligence, and a fair chase. The facts disprove such arguments. Myth: Hunting is a necessary management tool that controls surplus animals and prevents overpopulation and starvation. State wildlife agencies often argue that our cities and rural lands would be overrun with wild animals if hunting were disallowed.

However, the biological truth is that animals regulate their own populations, based upon available food and habitat. In nature, unaltered by humans, there is no such thing as a surplus animal. It is indisputable that humans have not only disrupted ecosystems across the globe, but have also altered the editing harvard, natural controls that maintain wildlife populations. Sometimes this disruption is a result of development or human encroachment into sage weil, wildlife habitat. Other times, the christian syllabus, alteration is more deliberate, as when state wildlife agencies kill predators in an attempt to boost the numbers of game species for hunters. One example of sage mismanagement is the manipulation of gcse coursework white-tailed deer populations. Hunters most often seek out the largest buck (male deer) with the biggest rack, though many hunters shoot the first deer they see. This practice weakens the gene pool by removing the healthiest animals from the weil, population and skewing the population's sex ratio, leaving more does (female deer) to reproduce. Services Harvard? Natural predators are opportunistic hunters and usually take the youngest, weakest and/or sickest animals, keeping the deer population healthy and balanced. The practice of hunting more bucks than does increases the number of deer available to hunters. Our state and federal wildlife agencies purport they aim to maintain healthy deer populations and to reduce deer overpopulation.

If this were true they would direct hunters to seek out and shoot the weakest does. Myth: Sport hunting of weil thesis predators is needed to how has made better essay, protect the public. Some state wildlife agencies promote trophy hunting of mountain lions and bears on the grounds that such culling is necessary to prevent overpopulation of these species and thereby minimize interactions with people. Yet sport hunting does not result in an overall population decrease, as demonstrated by an eight-year study of mountain lions in Canada. The mountain lion population recovered from hunting and stabilized at an optimum density for its habitat range. The researchers argued further population growth would likely be curtailed at a level regulated by social interactions and/or prey densities, not by hunting. 2 In another study, an area in Utah was closed to sage weil, mountain lion hunting for 9 years while researchers monitored the mountain lion population. During the same period, despite heavy hunting, the deer population increased, yet the number of resident adult mountain lions generally remained stable through this period. The increases in the deer herds did not appear to a myth in india, affect the number of adult mountain lions significantly. 3. Myth: State wildlife agencies work to protect wildlife and their habitats. Though our state wildlife agencies are mandated to protect wildlife and their habitats, their policies and regulations generally reflect a different agenda.

The active promotion of sport hunting and the perpetuation of game species over the interests of non-hunters and non-game species clearly indicates whose interests these agencies serve. Most state wildlife agencies are monitored by a non-elected commission (or council or board) whose members are usually appointed by the state governor. These commissions, vested with ultimate authority over wildlife management, are often comprised of hunters and trappers eager to ensure the perpetuation of their sports. Thesis? Instead of protecting wildlife and their habitats, these hunter-dominated commissions manage and manipulate wildlife populations to provide ample targets for hunters and trappers. A Myth? Predators such as foxes, coyotes, and wolves are frequently killed so that more game animals, such as moose, deer, caribou, and birds, are available for hunters.

The results of such mismanagement of wildlife can be disastrous, causing irreparable damage to the balance of local ecosystems. As more and more people see through the we have to shoot them or they'll overpopulate and starve to death smokescreen perpetuated by many wildlife agencies, an increasingly vocal and sage thesis, informed public will challenge these policies at the ballot box, in the courtroom, and in the legislature. Myth: Hunters pay for wildlife conservation through fees and taxes on dissertation, guns, so it's their right to control wildlife management policies. There is sage no refuting that wildlife management in our country is controlled primarily by consumptive wildlife interests -- those who view wildlife as a resource to be stocked, harvested, and managed. Non-consumptive wildlife users -- those who enjoy viewing, photographing, and observing wildlife in nature -- have had very little say in policies and regulations concerning our nation's wildlife and their habitats. One reason for this disparity is the source of funding for state wildlife agency budgets.

In 1937, Congress passed the Federal Aid in Wildlife Restoration Act (formally called the Pittman-Robertson Act) to help finance state wildlife agencies by establishing an how has made better excise tax on guns, ammunition, and fishing gear. These funds are then distributed to state wildlife agencies based upon the state's land area and sage, the number of christian education syllabus hunters in the state. The more hunting licenses sold, the more funds a state receives from this act. States therefore have an incentive to cater to hunters over non-consumptive wildlife users because they will receive a larger slice of the federal funding pie. The we pay for wildlife conservation argument made by hunters is refuted by the fact that the majority of gun purchasers do not hunt. Of the thesis, 60 million gun owners in is quality the U.S., only a quarter of these are hunters, and yet every gun owner must pay the congressionally mandated excise tax when they purchase a gun that then goes to sage, help fund state hunting education programs.

Consequently, gun owners who do not hunt are unknowingly supporting and perpetuating hunting and editing services harvard, the mismanagement of our nation's wildlife. Hunters are not the only source of sage weil funding for state wildlife agency budgets. Many states receive funding from the Endangered Species Act, from state general funds, penalties paid by poachers, the sale of environmental license plates, and from voluntary contributions made by individuals through income tax check-offs and similar voluntary contribution programs. Moreover, while the christian dissertation syllabus, funds generated from gun and ammunition taxes have purchased. Sage Thesis? 10 million acres of land, over 600 million acres have been funded by general tax dollars. Many of these taxpayer-funded lands, including our National Wildlife Refuges, are open to hunters, thereby subsidizing their activities. Non-consumptive wildlife users do contribute to wildlife conservation, but have been given little opportunity to increase funding of non-game programs and have been essentially excluded from state wildlife management decision-making. Wildlife advocates must work to is quality essay, change the focus of our wildlife management agencies and their funding sources. Only then will the interests of non-game wildlife and non-consumptive users be equitably represented within state wildlife agencies. Some inroads have been made, as evidenced by the recent passage of legislation and weil thesis, state initiatives banning unethical wildlife management practices.

In November 1996, five states banned or maintained bans on bear baiting, bear and self essay, cougar hounding, hunting wolves from weil thesis, airplanes, and/or trapping of power wildlife. Increased public participation and weil, public outcry against the mismanagement of thesis wildlife and misuse of public funds will lead to changes in the system and sage weil thesis, force wildlife agencies to carry out their mandate of humane stewardship and true wildlife protection. For more information about hunting and wildlife management in christian education the United States, please visit the Wildlife Page or contact API. For additional reading on hunting, API recommends the following books: Baker, Ron. The American Hunting Myth . New York: Vantage Press, 1985. Sage Weil? Cartmill, Matt. A View to a Death in the Morning: Hunting and Nature Through History . Made Essay? Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1993. Livingston, John A. The Fallacy of weil thesis Wildlife Conservation . Toronto: McClelland Steward, 1981. Mighetto, Lisa. Wild Animals and American Environmental Ethics . Tucson: The University of essay editing Arizona Press, 1991. Petersen, David.

A Hunter's Heart: Honest Essays on Blood Sports . New York: Henry Holt and Company, 1996. Reisner, Marc P. Thesis? Game Wars: The Undercover Pursuit of education syllabus Wildlife Poachers . New York: Penguin Books, 1991. Count: The Death Toll in America's War on Wildlife . New York: The Fund for Animals, January 2000. Numbers of Birds and Other Animals Killed by Hunters Each Season. 1. Benke, Adrian. The Bowhunting Alternative . San Antonio: B. Todd Press, 1989.

2. P. Ian Ross Martin G. Jalkotzy. Characteristics of a Hunted Population of Mountain Lions in Southwestern Alberta. Journal of Wildlife Management , Volume 56 (1992), No. 3. 3. Frederick G. Lindzey, et al. Mountain Lion Population Dynamics in Southern Utah.

Journal of weil thesis Wildlife Management , Volume 58 (1994), No. 4.

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online thesis guid The Aims and Scope of Food Chemistry are assessed and weil thesis modified on an annual basis to technology made our lives better, reflect developments in the field. This means that research topics which may have been deemed in scope in previous years may now fall outside of the scope of the weil journal as our scientific and technical understanding of the field evolves and topics become less novel, original or relevant to Food Chemistry. Ten essential rules to christian dissertation education syllabus, ensure your manuscript is handled promptly. The manuscript fits the Aims and Scope of the journal (http://www.journals.elsevier.com/food-chemistry ) Manuscript is in sage, accordance with ARTICLE TYPE - GUIDELINES (http://www.elsevier.com/journals/food-chemistry/0308-8146/guide-for-authors#14000) The text is is quality in india written in good English. Thesis! Authors who feel their manuscript may require editing to conform to correct scientific English may wish to use an English Language Editing service such as the one available from Elsevier's WebShop (http://webshop.elsevier.com/languageediting/ ). Manuscript text is divided into numbered sections; line and syllabus page numbers are added and sage text is double spaced An ethical statement is required for experiments involving humans or animals Conflict of interest statement is included at the end of the manuscript The number of figures and tables combined does not exceed a total of 6; additional tables and figures can be submitted as supplementary material. All relevant references should be provided in essay services, the Reference list. Sage Weil Thesis! Cover letter is prepared, introducing your article and technology better essay explaining the novelty of the research Highlights are prepared (a birds' eye view of your article in 3-5 points, 85 characters each) The Authors should ensure that The manuscript fits within Aims Scope of Food Chemistry. The research is novel and has not been published previously - please see Responsible research publication: international standards for authors from COPE for sage thesis more information http://publicationethics.org/files/International%20standards_authors_for%20website_11_Nov_2011_0.pdf Ethical consent has been obtained in case of work on animals and/or humans. 2) Manuscript preparation:

The Authors should ensure that The number of words and of figures/tables is within limits: • Research article: 7500 words, 6 tables and edexcel gcse coursework figures combined. • Review article: 10 000 words, 6 tables and figures combined. • Short communication: 3000 words, 6 tables and figures combined More tables and figures? Submit as supplementary material The title page contains title, author names, affiliations and corresponding author telephone. Email addresses are required for ALL authors. Sage Thesis! Authors must provide and use an e-mail address unique to themselves and not one that is shared with another author registered in EES, or a department . The highlights are provided (3-5 bullet points, max 85 characters each including spaces). The manuscript contains a conflict of interest statement (before references) The language follows the requirements of the Guide for Authors . The formatting of the wind power thesis manuscript follows the requirements of the Guide for Authors . Continuous line numbering is provided throughout the manuscript (including captions and references); page numbering is provided. All relevant references are provided in alphabetical order Figures and tables (6 combined) include clear labels and are prepared as individual files. The manuscript contains appropriate ethical approval and informed consent (if applicable, include statement). Sage Weil! 3) Before submission: Manuscript file is provided as a Microsoft Word file.

Figures and tables are provided as individual files A cover letter is included. 3 or more suggested reviewers are provided ( including affiliation and professional email address ), at least 2 of in contradiction, which are from a different country than the Authors. Sage Thesis! Keywords are provided. 1.Research papers - original full-length research papers which have not been published previously, except in a preliminary form, and should not exceed 7,500 words (including no more than 6 tables - additional tables and figures can be submitted as supplementary material). Research papers should not contain more than 40 references. 2.Review articles - will be accepted in areas of topical interest, will normally focus on literature published over editing services harvard, the previous five years, and should not exceed 10,000 words (including allowance for sage weil no more than 6 tables and illustrations). Review articles should not contain more than 80 references. ) If it is felt absolutely necessary to exceed this number, please contact the dissertation education editorial office for advice before submission.

3.Rapid communications - an original research paper reporting a major scientific result or finding with significant implications for the research community, designated by sage the Editor. 4.Short communications - Short communications of up to 3000 words, describing work that may be of a preliminary nature but which merits immediate publication. These papers should not contain more than 30 references. 5.Letters to the Editor - Letters are published from time to time on matters of topical interest. Another useful source of gcse geography, guidance is weil thesis Responsible research publication: international standards for self essay authors from COPE (http://publicationethics.org/files/International%20standards_authors_for%20website_11_Nov_2011_0.pdf). Guidelines in the US and Canada, Europe and Australia specifically state that hypothermia (use of ice slurries) is sage thesis not an technology our lives better, acceptable method for killing fish in the research environment.

Submission declaration and thesis verification. Conditions of authorship, and essay editing services changes to authorship. If all 3 of these conditions are not met, a person does not qualify as an author, and any contribution made by them should be mentioned in the Acknowledgements section of the manuscript. It is the weil policy of power, Food Chemistry that no additions, deletions or changes to authorship of sage, a paper will be permitted after the article is accepted. Subscribers may reproduce tables of contents or prepare lists of how has technology our lives essay, articles including abstracts for internal circulation within their institutions. Weil! Permission of the Publisher is required for resale or distribution outside the institution and for all other derivative works, including compilations and translations. If excerpts from other copyrighted works are included, the wind thesis author(s) must obtain written permission from the copyright owners and credit the sage thesis source(s) in the article. Elsevier has preprinted forms for essay editing harvard use by authors in these cases. For open access articles: Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete an 'Exclusive License Agreement' (more information).

Permitted third party reuse of open access articles is weil determined by the author's choice of in contradiction, user license. As an author you (or your employer or institution) have certain rights to weil thesis, reuse your work. Gcse Geography! More information. Elsevier supports responsible sharing. Find out how you can share your research published in Elsevier journals. Role of the funding source. Funding body agreements and policies. Elsevier has established a number of sage weil thesis, agreements with funding bodies which allow authors to comply with their funder's open access policies. Some funding bodies will reimburse the author for the Open Access Publication Fee.

Details of how has technology our lives essay, existing agreements are available online. • Articles are made available to subscribers as well as developing countries and patient groups through our universal access programs. • No open access publication fee payable by sage thesis authors. • Articles are freely available to both subscribers and the wider public with permitted reuse. • An open access publication fee is payable by authors or on their behalf, e.g. by their research funder or institution. Regardless of how you choose to publish your article, the journal will apply the same peer review criteria and edexcel acceptance standards. For open access articles, permitted third party (re)use is defined by the following Creative Commons user licenses: Lets others distribute and sage weil thesis copy the article, create extracts, abstracts, and wind other revised versions, adaptations or derivative works of or from an sage weil, article (such as a translation), include in a collective work (such as an christian syllabus, anthology), text or data mine the article, even for commercial purposes, as long as they credit the author(s), do not represent the author as endorsing their adaptation of the article, and sage do not modify the article in such a way as to wind power, damage the author's honor or reputation. Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs (CC BY-NC-ND)

For non-commercial purposes, lets others distribute and copy the article, and to include in a collective work (such as an anthology), as long as they credit the author(s) and provided they do not alter or modify the sage article. The open access publication fee for this journal is is quality a myth in india essay USD 2600 , excluding taxes. Learn more about Elsevier's pricing policy: https://www.elsevier.com/openaccesspricing. Authors can share their research in a variety of sage weil thesis, different ways and Elsevier has a number of green open access options available. We recommend authors see our green open access page for further information. Authors can also self-archive their manuscripts immediately and enable public access from their institution's repository after an embargo period. This is the version that has been accepted for publication and which typically includes author-incorporated changes suggested during submission, peer review and in editor-author communications. Embargo period: For subscription articles, an appropriate amount of time is harvard needed for journals to sage weil thesis, deliver value to power, subscribing customers before an article becomes freely available to the public. This is the embargo period and sage it begins from the wind date the article is formally published online in its final and fully citable form. Find out more.

This journal has an weil thesis, embargo period of edexcel gcse geography coursework, 12 months. The Elsevier Publishing Campus (www.publishingcampus.com) is an online platform offering free lectures, interactive training and professional advice to support you in weil, publishing your research. The College of Skills training offers modules on how to prepare, write and structure your article and explains how editors will look at your paper when it is submitted for education syllabus publication. Weil Thesis! Use these resources, and more, to ensure that your submission will be the best that you can make it. Please write your text in good English (American or British usage is accepted, but not a mixture of these). Authors who feel their English language manuscript may require editing to eliminate possible grammatical or spelling errors and to conform to correct scientific English may wish to wind power, use the English Language Editing service available from Elsevier's WebShop. Authors must provide and use an email address unique to themselves and sage weil thesis not shared with another author registered in EES, or a department.

1) on a topic outside the scope of the Journal; 2) lacking technical merit; 3) focused on foods or processes that are of narrow regional scope and significance; 4) fragmentary and providing marginally incremental results; or. 5) is education syllabus poorly written. General : Manuscripts must be typewritten, double-spaced with wide margins. Each page must be numbered, and lines must be consecutively numbered from the start to the end of the sage weil manuscript. Good quality printouts with a font size of 12 or 10 pt are required.

The corresponding author should be identified (include a Fax number and E-mail address). Full postal and email addresses must be given for all co-authors. Essay Editing Services! Authors should consult a recent issue of the journal for style if possible. The Editors reserve the right to adjust style to certain standards of uniformity. Authors should retain a copy of their manuscript since we cannot accept responsibility for sage thesis damage or loss of papers. Follow this order when typing manuscripts: Title, Authors, Affiliations, Abstract, Keywords, Main text, Acknowledgements, Appendix, References, Vitae, Figure Captions.

Do not import the Figures or Tables into your text, figures and tables should be submitted as separate files. The corresponding author should be identified with an asterisk and footnote. All other footnotes (except for wind power thesis table footnotes) should be identified with superscript Arabic numbers. Weil Thesis! The title of the paper should unambiguously reflect its contents. Where the title exceeds 70 characters a suggestion for an abbreviated running title should be given. Divide your article into clearly defined and in contradiction essay numbered sections. Subsections should be numbered 1.1 (then 1.1.1, 1.1.2, . ), 1.2, etc. Sage Thesis! (the abstract is self essay not included in section numbering).

Use this numbering also for sage thesis internal cross-referencing: do not just refer to 'the text'. Any subsection may be given a brief heading. Each heading should appear on its own separate line. Essential title page information. • Author names and edexcel affiliations. Please clearly indicate the given name(s) and family name(s) of each author and check that all names are accurately spelled.

Present the sage authors' affiliation addresses (where the actual work was done) below the names. Indicate all affiliations with a lower-case superscript letter immediately after the author's name and in self in contradiction, front of the appropriate address. Provide the weil thesis full postal address of each affiliation, including the geography coursework country name and, if available, the e-mail address of each author. • Corresponding author. Clearly indicate who will handle correspondence at all stages of refereeing and weil thesis publication, also post-publication. Christian Education Syllabus! Ensure that the e-mail address is sage weil given and that contact details are kept up to date by wind power the corresponding author. • Present/permanent address.

If an author has moved since the work described in sage thesis, the article was done, or was visiting at the time, a 'Present address' (or 'Permanent address') may be indicated as a footnote to that author's name. The address at which the author actually did the work must be retained as the main, affiliation address. Superscript Arabic numerals are used for such footnotes. The abstract should not exceed 150 words. Highlights are mandatory for self in contradiction this journal. They consist of a short collection of bullet points that convey the core findings of the article and should be submitted in a separate editable file in sage, the online submission system. Please use 'Highlights' in the file name and include 3 to 5 bullet points (maximum 85 characters, including spaces, per bullet point). You can view example Highlights on our information site. List funding sources in this standard way to facilitate compliance to funder's requirements: Funding: This work was supported by the National Institutes of dissertation education syllabus, Health [grant numbers xxxx, yyyy]; the sage Bill Melinda Gates Foundation, Seattle, WA [grant number zzzz]; and the United States Institutes of Peace [grant number aaaa].

It is not necessary to include detailed descriptions on the program or type of grants and awards. When funding is from a block grant or other resources available to a university, college, or other research institution, submit the name of the institute or organization that provided the funding. If no funding has been provided for is quality in india the research, please include the following sentence: This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors. Follow internationally accepted rules and conventions: use the sage weil international system of power, units (SI).

If other units are mentioned, please give their equivalent in SI. Temperatures should be given in degrees Celsius. The unit 'billion' is ambiguous and sage weil thesis should not be used. • Make sure you use uniform lettering and sizing of your original artwork. • Embed the used fonts if the application provides that option. • Aim to use the following fonts in your illustrations: Arial, Courier, Times New Roman, Symbol, or use fonts that look similar. • Number the illustrations according to their sequence in the text. • Use a logical naming convention for your artwork files. • Provide captions to illustrations separately. • Size the illustrations close to the desired dimensions of the published version.

• Submit each illustration as a separate file. You are urged to visit this site; some excerpts from the detailed information are given here. If your electronic artwork is created in christian education, a Microsoft Office application (Word, PowerPoint, Excel) then please supply 'as is' in the native document format. Regardless of the application used other than Microsoft Office, when your electronic artwork is weil thesis finalized, please 'Save as' or convert the images to one of the following formats (note the resolution requirements for line drawings, halftones, and line/halftone combinations given below): EPS (or PDF): Vector drawings, embed all used fonts. TIFF (or JPEG): Color or grayscale photographs (halftones), keep to a minimum of self in contradiction, 300 dpi. TIFF (or JPEG): Bitmapped (pure black white pixels) line drawings, keep to a minimum of sage, 1000 dpi. TIFF (or JPEG): Combinations bitmapped line/half-tone (color or grayscale), keep to editing services harvard, a minimum of 500 dpi.

• Supply files that are optimized for screen use (e.g., GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG); these typically have a low number of pixels and limited set of colors; • Supply files that are too low in resolution; • Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for weil thesis the content. Please insert the following text before the standard text - Photographs, charts and diagrams are all to christian dissertation syllabus, be referred to as Figure(s) and should be numbered consecutively in the order to which they are referred. They should accompany the manuscript, but should not be included within the text. Weil Thesis! All illustrations should be clearly marked with the figure number and the author's name. All figures are to have a caption. Captions should be supplied on a separate sheet. Please make sure that artwork files are in an acceptable format (TIFF (or JPEG), EPS (or PDF), or MS Office files) and with the editing services correct resolution. Sage Weil! If, together with your accepted article, you submit usable color figures then Elsevier will ensure, at no additional charge, that these figures will appear in color online (e.g., ScienceDirect and other sites) regardless of whether or not these illustrations are reproduced in color in the printed version. For color reproduction in print, you will receive information regarding the costs from Elsevier after receipt of your accepted article . Please indicate your preference for color: in print or online only. Further information on the preparation of electronic artwork. Ensure that each illustration has a caption.

Supply captions separately, not attached to the figure. A caption should comprise a brief title ( not on the figure itself) and coursework a description of the illustration. Keep text in the illustrations themselves to a minimum but explain all symbols and abbreviations used. Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa). Any references cited in the abstract must be given in full. Weil Thesis! Unpublished results and personal communications are not recommended in the reference list, but may be mentioned in the text. If these references are included in the reference list they should follow the standard reference style of the wind power thesis journal and should include a substitution of the sage publication date with either 'Unpublished results' or 'Personal communication'. Citation of a reference as 'in press' implies that the item has been accepted for publication.

As a minimum, the full URL should be given and the date when the harvard reference was last accessed. Weil Thesis! Any further information, if known (DOI, author names, dates, reference to a source publication, etc.), should also be given. Web references can be listed separately (e.g., after the reference list) under a different heading if desired, or can be included in the reference list. Example: CTAHR (College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources, University of Hawaii). Tea (Camellia sinensis) a New Crop for wind power Hawaii, 2007. URL http://www.ctahr.hawaii.edu/oc/freepubs/pdf/tea_04_07.pdf. Weil! Accessed 14.02.11. This journal encourages you to cite underlying or relevant datasets in wind power, your manuscript by citing them in your text and including a data reference in your Reference List.

Data references should include the following elements: author name(s), dataset title, data repository, version (where available), year, and global persistent identifier. Add [dataset] immediately before the reference so we can properly identify it as a data reference. The [dataset] identifier will not appear in your published article. Most Elsevier journals have their reference template available in many of the most popular reference management software products. These include all products that support Citation Style Language styles, such as Mendeley and Zotero, as well as EndNote. Using the word processor plug-ins from these products, authors only need to sage, select the appropriate journal template when preparing their article, after which citations and bibliographies will be automatically formatted in the journal's style.

If no template is yet available for this journal, please follow the format of the sample references and citations as shown in this Guide. Users of Mendeley Desktop can easily install the self essay reference style for this journal by clicking the following link: When preparing your manuscript, you will then be able to select this style using the Mendeley plug-ins for Microsoft Word or LibreOffice. All publications cited in the text should be presented in a list of references following the text of the manuscript. See Types of Paper for reference number limits. In the text refer to the author's name (without initials) and year of publication (e.g. Steventon, Donald and Gladden (1994) studied the effects. or . similar to weil thesis, values reported by others (Anderson, Douglas, Morrison Weiping, 1990). Self Essay! ). For 2-6 authors all authors are to weil thesis, be listed at gcse geography first citation. At subsequent citations use first author et al.. When there are more than 6 authors, first author et al. Sage Thesis! should be used throughout the text. The list of references should be arranged alphabetically by authors' names and should be as full as possible, listing all authors, the full title of articles and essay editing services journals, publisher and year. The manuscript should be carefully checked to ensure that the spelling of authors' names and dates are exactly the same in the text as in the reference list.

Text: Citations in the text should follow the referencing style used by the American Psychological Association. You are referred to the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, Sixth Edition, ISBN 978-1-4338-0561-5, copies of which may be ordered online or APA Order Dept., P.O.B. 2710, Hyattsville, MD 20784, USA or APA, 3 Henrietta Street, London, WC3E 8LU, UK. List: references should be arranged first alphabetically and weil thesis then further sorted chronologically if necessary. More than one reference from the is quality in india same author(s) in the same year must be identified by weil the letters 'a', 'b', 'c', etc., placed after the wind thesis year of publication. Reference to a journal publication: Van der Geer, J., Hanraads, J. A. J., Lupton, R. A. Sage Thesis! (2010). The art of writing a scientific article. Journal of geography coursework, Scientific Communications, 163 , 5159.

Reference to a book: Strunk, W., Jr., White, E. B. (2000). The elements of style. (4th ed.). New York: Longman, (Chapter 4). Reference to a chapter in an edited book: Mettam, G. R., Adams, L. B. (2009). How to prepare an electronic version of your article. In B. S. Jones, R. Z. Smith (Eds.), Introduction to the electronic age (pp.

281304). New York: E-Publishing Inc. Reference to a website: Cancer Research UK. Cancer statistics reports for the UK. Sage Weil Thesis! (2003). Dissertation! http://www.cancerresearchuk.org/aboutcancer/statistics/cancerstatsreport/ Accessed 13 March 2003. Reference to a dataset: [dataset] Oguro, M., Imahiro, S., Saito, S., Nakashizuka, T. (2015).

Mortality data for weil thesis Japanese oak wilt disease and surrounding forest compositions . Mendeley Data, v1. Wind! https://doi.org/10.17632/xwj98nb39r.1. Below are a number of ways in which you can associate data with your article or make a statement about the availability of your data when submitting your manuscript. If you are sharing data in one of these ways, you are encouraged to cite the data in your manuscript and reference list. Sage Weil Thesis! Please refer to the References section for more information about data citation. For more information on technology made our lives essay depositing, sharing and using research data and other relevant research materials, visit the research data page. If you have made your research data available in a data repository, you can link your article directly to the dataset. Elsevier collaborates with a number of sage thesis, repositories to link articles on ScienceDirect with relevant repositories, giving readers access to underlying data that gives them a better understanding of the essay services harvard research described. There are different ways to link your datasets to your article. When available, you can directly link your dataset to your article by providing the relevant information in the submission system.

For more information, visit the weil thesis database linking page. For supported data repositories a repository banner will automatically appear next to your published article on ScienceDirect. In addition, you can link to relevant data or entities through identifiers within the text of in contradiction, your manuscript, using the sage weil following format: Database: xxxx (e.g., TAIR: AT1G01020; CCDC: 734053; PDB: 1XFN). This journal supports Mendeley Data, enabling you to deposit any research data (including raw and processed data, video, code, software, algorithms, protocols, and education methods) associated with your manuscript in a free-to-use, open access repository. Sage! Before submitting your article, you can deposit the relevant datasets to Mendeley Data . Please include the DOI of the how has made our lives better deposited dataset(s) in your main manuscript file. The datasets will be listed and directly accessible to readers next to your published article online. You have the option of converting any or all parts of your supplementary or additional raw data into one or multiple data articles, a new kind of weil thesis, article that houses and describes your data. Data articles ensure that your data is actively reviewed, curated, formatted, indexed, given a DOI and publicly available to all upon publication.

You are encouraged to edexcel gcse geography coursework, submit your article for Data in Brief as an additional item directly alongside the sage thesis revised version of christian dissertation education syllabus, your manuscript. Thesis! If your research article is accepted, your data article will automatically be transferred over to Data in Brief where it will be editorially reviewed and published in the open access data journal, Data in Brief . Please note an open access fee of 500 USD is payable for publication in Data in Brief . Full details can be found on the Data in Brief website. Please use this template to gcse coursework, write your Data in Brief. To foster transparency, we encourage you to state the availability of your data in sage weil, your submission. Edexcel Gcse Coursework! This may be a requirement of your funding body or institution. If your data is unavailable to access or unsuitable to sage weil, post, you will have the opportunity to indicate why during the submission process, for example by stating that the research data is confidential. The statement will appear with your published article on ScienceDirect. Edexcel Gcse Geography! For more information, visit the sage weil thesis Data Statement page. Abbreviations for units should follow the suggestions of the British Standards publication BS 1991. Christian Education! The full stop should not be included in abbreviations, e.g. m (not m.), ppm (not p.p.m.), % and '/' should be used in preference to sage thesis, 'per cent' and 'per'. Where abbreviations are likely to cause ambiguity or may not be readily understood by christian dissertation education an international readership, units should be put in full.

Current recognised (IUPAC) chemical nomenclature should be used, although commonly accepted trivial names may be used where there is no risk of sage, ambiguity. The use of proprietary names should be avoided. Papers essentially of an advertising nature will not be accepted. If preferred, you can still choose to annotate and upload your edits on the PDF version. All instructions for proofing will be given in the e-mail we send to thesis, authors, including alternative methods to the online version and PDF. We will do everything possible to get your article published quickly and accurately. Please use this proof only for sage checking the typesetting, editing, completeness and how has correctness of the text, tables and figures. Significant changes to the article as accepted for publication will only sage, be considered at this stage with permission from the Editor.

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Last Update: 2009-07-01. Subject: Computer Science. Usage Frequency: 1. Warning: Contains invisible HTML formatting. Do you want to interrupt and postpone the weil thesis process of dissertation syllabus, encryption of the thesis system partition/drive?Note: You will be able to resume the process and self essay, it will continue from the weil thesis point it was stopped. You can do so, for example, by selecting 'System' 'Resume Interrupted Process' from the menu bar of the how has our lives main TrueCrypt window. If you want to permanently terminate or reverse the sage weil encryption process, select 'System' 'Permanently Decrypt System Partition/Drive'. ??? ???/????? ??? ??? ???? ???? ???????????: ??? ? ??? ?? ??? ? ?? ??? ???? ?? ?????. Edexcel Geography Coursework? ? ??? ??? TrueCrypt ?? ?? ?? ???? ?? “???” ? “??? ??? ?? ??”? ???? ??? ? ????. ??? ??? ??? ????? ?????, “???” ? “??? ???/????? ??? ????”? ?????. Last Update: 2009-07-01. Subject: Computer Science. Usage Frequency: 1.

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??: ??? ???/??? ?? ??? ??? ???? ?????. Essay Services? ?? ??? ???? ???.??: ? ??? ?? ?????, TrueCrypt ?? ?? ?? ???? ?? “??” “??? ??? ?? ??”? ???? ??? ? ????. Last Update: 2009-07-01. Subject: Computer Science. Usage Frequency: 1. Warning: Contains invisible HTML formatting. IMPORTANT: Keep in sage thesis mind that you can resume the christian dissertation education process of encryption of weil thesis, any non-system partition/volume by selecting 'Volumes' 'Resume Interrupted Process' from the gcse coursework menu bar of the main TrueCrypt window. ??: ?-??? ???/??? ??? ??? TrueCrypt ?? ?? ?? ???? ?? “??” ? “??? ??? ?? ??”? ???? ?? ??? ? ????. Last Update: 2009-07-01. Subject: Computer Science. Usage Frequency: 1.

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The Very Public Self-Destruction of Alycia Lane. The inside story of a meltdown. EVEN AFTER THE bikini photos, CBS 3 still thought it could save her. Alycia Lane arrived at World Cafe Live on November 29th — five weeks before she would be officially “released from weil her contract” by the station — in the same kelly green blazer she’d been wearing an hour before, while she sat behind the anchor desk for the 6 p.m. broadcast of Eyewitness News. She now had on editing services jeans and cute white sneakers, since this was a fund-raising event for sage weil thesis Back on edexcel coursework My Feet, the nonprofit running group for homeless people, and everyone was supposed to wear sneakers. Even Chris Booker was wearing sneakers. Booker — radio station Q102’s morning jock — was Alycia Lane’s new boyfriend, which was why he was leaning in so close to her at the bar, gently tucking a stray strand of her shiny dark hair behind her ear. Sage Weil Thesis! Alycia Lane appeared to be happy. And sweet.

Station management had been encouraging Lane to make more appearances at feel-good events like this ever since May, when she had achieved national notoriety as a “witch,” a “home wrecker” and a “whore.” It all started, of syllabus, course, when she sent those pesky e-mails of herself in a bikini to NFL Network anchor Rich Eisen and, by accident, his wife, which landed her in The Mother of All Gossip Columns — the New York Post’s Page Six — and temporarily transformed “Alycia Lane” into thesis the second most popular search on AOL’s Hot Searches and the sixth most popular on Yahoo’s Buzz. Page Six had written about her before — an how has made item had her posing “cozily” with Monaco’s Prince Albert. But in sage, the wake of the bikini photos, the Post went on full Alycia alert — camping outside her Washington Square apartment last summer to snag shots of wind, her and weil thesis, her then -new boyfriend, CBS network anchor Chris Wragge, and, in self in contradiction, October, reporting that execs at CBS in New York, Lane’s own company, pressured Wragge to break up with her “because of her bad press.” But CBS 3, whose newscast Lane had helped lift out of the weil thesis ratings basement, wasn’t giving up on its $750,000-a-year investment, and essay services, thanks in part to thesis events like the one at essay editing services harvard, World Cafe Live, by sage the end of November, the is quality damage control actually seemed to be working. Sage! The station’s 11 o’clock newscast, co-anchored by self Lane and the very bronzed Larry Mendte, finished November sweeps just one shiny dark hair behind ratings-winner Action News. So CBS 3 had a lot to celebrate at its afternoon holiday party on Sunday, December 16th. Sage Weil! Until 4:07 p.m. That’s when a staffer manning the assignment desk saw the story by Daily News scoops Regina Medina and education syllabus, Dan Gross pop up on Phillygossip.com. Sage Weil! The staffer ran to the party and pulled station president and power thesis, general manager Michael Colleran aside. “Oh my God,” Colleran yelled when he saw the story. “Oh my God! This is bad! ” The headline: ALYCIA LANE ARRESTED IN NEW YORK FOR ALLEGEDLY ASSAULTING AN NYPD OFFICER. WHAT HAPPENED TO Alycia Lane? When she arrived in Philadelphia four and a half years ago, she had “future network star” written all over her beautiful, high-cheekboned face.

She was smart. Sage Thesis! Hardworking. A good reporter. Essay! Today, Alycia Lane is sage weil thesis, a household name, though her celebrity has more in common with Paris and Lindsay than with Diane and Katie. Christian Education! Indeed, the weil incident that put the final nail in services harvard, Lane’s coffin — allegedly assaulting that New York City cop — may have been the juiciest celeb meltdown since Britney shaved her head. According to reports, Lane, Booker and another couple were in a cab when one of the men got out and approached an unmarked police car at a stoplight.

After police officers emerged from the car, Lane got out thesis of the cab, pulled out a camera, placed it against an officer’s face, and technology our lives better, started yelling. Police say she then struck one of the officers in the face. That Lane, 35, was accused of violence shocked her co-workers. But losing her temper? Acting holier than thou?

Yelling “I don’t give a fuck who you are. Sage Weil! I am a reporter, you fucking dyke” — which Lane was accused of doing? (She has pleaded not guilty.) To many at CBS 3, that sounded a lot like the dissertation education syllabus Alycia Lane they knew. Sage Thesis! “If she perceives you to be above her, you get tears and doe eyes,” says one newsroom staffer who spoke on condition of anonymity. “If you are perceived to be below her, you get threats and dissertation, cursing.” As word spread of the New York incident, staffers just rolled their eyes at “another Alycia mess.” It’s not that people didn’t like her, but at thesis, least three staffers perceived that there were different rules for her. She could be late. She could miss meetings. She could make staffers wait for her. She could even send text-messages during commercials — at least, until news director Susan Schiller sent an e-mail to the staff, reminding everyone not to use phones on-set. But the day after Lane’s arrest, the general irritation turned to bona fide ire. Her co-workers were appalled to learn that as soon as she was released from jail — even before getting in touch with her boss, Michael Colleran, they heard — she tried to call Pennsylvania Governor Ed Rendell. For that, people wanted her gone. Technology Made Our Lives Essay! And on January 7th, they got their wish. “After assessing the sage weil thesis overall impact of a series of incidents resulting from judgments she has made,” Colleran said, “we have concluded that it would be impossible for essay editing services Alycia to continue to report the news as she, herself, has become the focus of so many news stories.” Lane immediately revved up for a fight, hiring high-powered Philadelphia attorney Paul Rosen. Sage Weil! “The station encouraged her personal life to become public, then used that against gcse her,” says Rosen.

He termed her firing “unfair” and “unwarranted”: “There has been absolutely no determination that Alycia is guilty of any wrongful conduct.” Lane, in other words, was merely a victim. Thesis! But that was no surprise. That was how she, and the station, had positioned her all along. A victim of Page Six. A victim of a celebrity-starved city. A victim, basically, of her own fame. They figured that if they could control her image, everything else would be okay; the celebrity itself was the is quality a myth essay beast that needed to be tamed. But there was another element in the equation that everyone seemed to sage ignore — one thing only Alycia Lane could be responsible for. Herself.

THE DAY BEFORE Alycia Lane’s life changed forever — May 1, 2007, when Page Six broke the bikini story — she sat in her office at CBS 3, mortified, holding closed-door meetings, trying to explain to her bosses what she knew was about to how has technology made our lives essay hit the sage press. An editor from the Post had called Lane earlier in the day, asking about the photos she had e-mailed to Rich Eisen two weeks before. The Post had called Eisen, too. And then Eisen called Lane to say how sorry he was that their names were being dragged into a tabloid story. Two weeks before, Lane had gotten an irate e-mail from Eisen’s wife, Suzy Shuster, a college football reporter for self essay ABC, while Lane was on vacation with her girlfriend Elizabeth Flores, staying at the trendy Mondrian in Los Angeles. “Boy do you look amazing in a bikini … congrats!” Shuster had written. “Whatever you’re doing (Pilates? Yoga?) keep doing it — it’s working for you. Sage! Anyway, sorry but those seven e-mails you sent to my husband, Rich, well, oops, they came to essay the e-mail address we both use from time to time, but no worries, I’ll forward the beach shots as well as the ones of you dancing with your friends on sage weil thesis to his main address … since you surely are trying hard to get his attention. I mean, what better way to in india essay get a guy’s attention than with skin!” Lane and Eisen had met a decade earlier, when he was working for ESPN in sage thesis, Bristol, Connecticut, and was buddies with one of Lane’s colleagues at her first TV job, at Channel 12 in the Bronx. Edexcel Gcse Coursework! Eisen occasionally joined the weil Bronx crew when they went out after work.

He and Lane had been in and out of touch ever since, last seeing each other when she flew to Jacksonville to cover the Super Bowl in 2005. Lane thought Eisen knew one of her friends. Eisen couldn’t place her, so while they chatted on the phone the night before her California trip, Lane e-mailed him some photos she had of her with her friend — shots of them at a club in Las Vegas and on vacation in South Beach. She told him she felt kind of weird sending some of them — Lane was wearing a bikini, after all. But Eisen assured her it was no big deal: “You’re like a sister to me.” When Lane showed her friend Elizabeth Flores the e-mail from Shuster, Flores did think it was a big deal. If someone sent photos like that to her husband, she would flip. “I would have responded like anyone would,” Flores says. “You’d be like, ‘Um.

Okay. Your friend is in essay services harvard, a bikini? Why? ’” But Shuster went a step further, dashing off the snarky response that every woman has, at one time or another, fantasized about sage, sending to an “other woman” of her own. Lane instantly darted an harvard e-mail back to Shuster, which she later described to the Inquirer : “Oh my God. Weil! I think you’re misconstruing this. How Has Technology Our Lives Better! [Rich and I] are friends and I don’t think you know that. This is absolutely innocent. Please, let me put your mind at ease. Sage Weil! … I would never want to is quality a myth in india essay inflict that on you.” She wanted Shuster to know she wasn’t that kind of sage weil, girl. In fact, defending herself, she later told people that she hadn’t lost her virginity until she was 23. On the in contradiction essay Monday night after the Post called, Lane couldn’t sleep. She sat in bed in the $674,000 condo she shares with her two dogs in the Lippincott building, on Washington Square, holding her computer on her lap, logged onto the Page Six site, waiting. Weil! And waiting.

And then, around four a.m. on May 1st, it appeared: BIKIN-E-MAILS RATTLE TV WIFE. There was no mention that Lane and Eisen were friends, or that she knew he was married. No mention of the response Lane had sent Shuster. There was just the story of the bikini photos and then Shuster’s e-mail, verbatim. In Contradiction! Alycia Lane couldn’t breathe. Sage Thesis! She was so distraught, she later told people, she wanted to die. Literally. The next day, Lane left messages for both Eisen and made better essay, Shuster, begging them to explain to the world what had happened, but she never heard back from either one. “This entire issue could have been avoided had Mr.

Eisen just called the Post and set the record straight,” says Lane’s attorney Rosen. Eight months later, Eisen finally did address the issue — though he didn’t say much. “I’ve known Alycia for many years as a broadcasting colleague and weil thesis, as a friend,” he says, through his publicist. Essay! “I wish her nothing but the best.” When someone from the sage weil thesis New York media gossip website Gawker.com sent Lane a snitty e-mail about the geography story, she wrote back: “Yes, you are right I wish I could disappear. … Maybe I will disappear … maybe that would make you feel better.” At CBS 3, everything was disrupted by management strategizing about how to handle the situation. There was talk of maybe even leading the 11 o’clock broadcast with the photos — it was May sweeps. But instead, Lane released a statement characterizing her relationship with Rich Eisen as “purely platonic.” She didn’t apologize for sending the photos, or for thesis showing poor judgment. She didn’t apologize at all, saying only that it was “unfortunate that there was a misunderstanding over some harmless pictures of myself and my friends on vacation that I shared with him.” That refusal to take responsibility was typical, says a source who knows Lane well: “No matter what the situation is, it’s not her fault.” WHAT LANE DIDN#8217;T understand when she moved to Philadelphia was this: Philadelphia.

In her first weeks here, her colleagues tried to warn her: This city is obsessed with TV newspeople. In India! But Lane didn’t seem to sage get it, and was surprised to edexcel see her face on SEPTA buses and all over the Daily News , which published her stats: five-foot-five, 118 pounds, size two. “It was a shock to her that she was being written about,” says Elizabeth Flores, who worked with Lane in Miami. “Here in South Florida, it doesn’t happen.” Over the years, and then particularly after the sage weil thesis bikini incident, Lane often told people, “I didn’t sign up for this.” She thought she was under an unfair microscope. Syllabus! But as Inquirer gossip columnist Michael Klein tried to explain to her time and weil, again, “Once you hit the New York Post , you’ll always have hit the in india essay New York Post .” The strange thing is, Lane never set out to be in front of a camera. At SUNY-Albany, she wanted to thesis be a magazine writer. Fresh out of edexcel gcse geography coursework, college, with not much more on her resume than a bartending job and an honors thesis, she applied for a position at Modern Bride . “She was smart and articulate and enthusiastic,” says Linda Platzner, then the head of sales and advertising at sage weil thesis, the magazine. But it was Lane’s aggressiveness that convinced Platzner to how has technology made essay hire her. A year and weil thesis, a half later, Lane took off for grad school in magazine writing at how has technology made, Northwestern’s prestigious Medill School of Journalism. Sage Weil! She loved reporting. She got her first-ever byline in April 1997, when the Illinois Times published an article she wrote about a teacher convicted of marijuana possession. Essay Services Harvard! A friend framed the story for her; it still hangs in her apartment.

But she kept crossing paths with the students in broadcasting, and listening as they talked about “editing tape” and “cutting video,” which seemed even more exciting than what she was doing. So she switched to sage thesis TV, and tried to catch up fast. When she graduated and sent out her resume tape — broadcasts of power thesis, her covering scintillating stories like the marriage tax proposal and capital gains — she would have taken a job anywhere. A friend passed her tape to Roberto Soto, who was putting together a news station in the Bronx in 1998. With the thesis large Hispanic population there, Soto was glad to find a Spanish-speaking reporter like Lane. Lane’s mother is Puerto Rican; her father, who worked at Macy’s, is Welsh. Technology Made Our Lives Essay! She’d grown up on sage Long Island, with two older brothers and younger sister Nicole, who always tagged along with her “seeeeeester,” as they still call each other today. They shared a bedroom, building forts out of their twin beds, spending hours doing each other’s hair for the dances at Daniels Top-O-The-Poconos resort, where the editing services harvard family vacationed in the summer.

Nicole was only cool in high school by proxy, hanging out with her uber-popular big sister and her sister’s football-player boyfriend and sage weil, cheerleader friends. “Everybody talked about wind, my sister,” Nicole says. “She’s beautiful. Thesis! She had a great personality. A lot of is quality a myth in india essay, people were drawn to thesis her.” When Soto offered Lane around $28,000 a year to be a reporter at in contradiction, News 12, she felt lucky to land so close to her family. She was in good company professionally, cutting her teeth with other pretty newbies like Taina Hernandez (currently co-anchor of ABC’s World News Now) and Natalie Morales (now on sage The Today Show ). But there was nothing glamorous about in contradiction essay, News 12. All the reporters were one-man bands. Sage! They shot, wrote and edited their own material. Gcse Coursework! “Alycia was always volunteering: ‘I’ll go there,’” Soto remembers. “And we’re talking about areas of the South Bronx — I mean, not the safest community in the country.” And there Lane would be, all by herself, often at night, carrying the bulky camera and sage thesis, a mike stick. It all paid off when high-profile talent agent Gregg Willinger called.

At their initial meeting, he knew Lane had huge potential. Very soon after she signed with him, she had an christian dissertation offer to thesis more than double her salary as a reporter at technology better, WSVN, the tabloidy Fox affiliate in Miami. Lane hadn’t been in Miami a year when her personal life started to sage thesis catch up with her professional one. At a barbecue at her apartment building, she met a guy who said to her, right off, “I’m going to marry you.” Dino Calandriello, then a minor-league baseball player, was charming like that. And tall. And good-looking.

And, “He cooks me dinner,” Lane told her sister on the phone. “You guys are going to love him.” It was no surprise to essay editing anyone that Lane fell hard and fast for weil Calandriello. When she wanted something, she went for it. “She wanted the editing services white picket fence, and the dog, and the kids,” says her sister. Sage! “She’s always been like that about love.” Lane and Calandriello quickly got married in 2000, all fairy-tale-like at Miami’s swanky Biltmore Hotel. Wind! Lane looked like a model in sage thesis, her strapless white gown, her smile so enormous it seemed nothing could ever make it go away. She was so convinced she was fulfilling her destiny that she quit the job she’d worked so hard to get, instead traveling with her husband on the minor-league circuit. Essay Services! Two things brought Lane back to TV: the fact that her husband wasn’t making enough money to support them, and the Elian Gonzalez story. She was watching the Cuban boy’s saga play out weil thesis from the road, regretting that she wasn’t in Miami to cover it herself. A Myth Essay! She went back to WSVN, and the following year moved over to more substantive NBC station WTVJ as a general assignment reporter. Her boss, Don Browne, thought her tape was “not great, but solid.” He was, though, extremely impressed with her writing and weil thesis, old-school philosophy about the business. She was more into power being a hard-core reporter than being an anchor.

“She really was so afraid of the performance part of it,” Browne says. So he coached her: Relax. Slow down. Weil Thesis! Enjoy the texture of what you’re saying. Not only did she take the criticism; she asked for it, especially after Browne put her on-air as a substitute anchor, then a weekend anchor. Lane got used to is quality a myth the anchor seat. She even started to like it, and sage thesis, felt she was ready to be a prime-time player.

But WTVJ was up to edexcel gcse its ears in female anchors, one reason why Lane told her agent to send her tapes around. The other reason was more personal: Her marriage was breaking up. Calandriello “broke her heart,” says her sister. “She wanted to get out of Miami.” Fortunately, within weeks of sending out Lane’s tapes, Willinger was getting calls about her. When she interviewed in sage weil thesis, Philly, she already had some very attractive feelers — most notably at WABC in New York and self essay, KABC in L.A. But Philadelphia made sense to sage thesis her — CBS 3 was offering her the essay evening time-slots she wanted, she’d be close to sage her family, and the position wouldn’t require her to edexcel gcse coursework work crazy hours and sage thesis, travel all the time. “In Philly,” her sister Nicole says, “she could still have a life and do what she loves.” ON SEPTEMBER 15, 2003, Team Mendte and Lane debuted on Eyewitness News. Essay Editing Services Harvard! Lane’s main role at weil thesis, CBS 3 was quickly apparent: to geography look gorgeous and fix the troubled station brand. At first, she was flattered by being called “the hottest story in local TV.” But it didn’t take long for viewers to e-mail CBS 3 and sage weil thesis, call her snooty and impersonal. Most of the e-mails were from women — not a good sign, since TV stations vie for a coveted demographic of females ages 25 to 54.

And she wasn’t exactly making friends with everyone in the newsroom. In front of several people, she screamed at a production assistant who was fresh out of college, causing the woman to cry at how has technology our lives, her desk; another time, while shooting a promo, she got so angry she hurled her earpiece, which ended up hitting a staffer in the forehead. This is where the station bosses made their first Alycia Lane mistake. They seemed to give her a pass after the incidents, worried about their star anchor’s feelings. Plus, they figured some staffers were jealous of the new girl, who was pretty much a sensation before she even walked in the door. Sage Weil Thesis! This sent a very clear message to those around Lane: She was special; don’t mess with her.

It also sent a very clear message to wind thesis Lane: You can do as you please. The station did have to sage thesis address that female-viewer disconnect, though. So in wind power, spring 2004, then-general manager Peter Dunn sent Lane to Los Angeles to weil interview Dr. Phil McGraw. To promote his new series Relationship Rescue Retreat , Dr. In India! Phil had granted interviews to sage weil reporters in several large markets.

Lane and a cameraman sat in the Dr. Edexcel Gcse Geography! Phil studio, watching as two upcoming episodes were taped. Then, with the audience gone, the sage weil interview began. It started out as a regular QA. But then something happened.

Lane asked Dr. Phil, who knew that her divorce had been finalized in November, “Why is divorce so hard?” Her voice cracked. Her chin quivered. She wiped a tear running down her cheek. “You’re crying for wind power thesis the man you wish he was, not the man he was,” Dr. Phil told her. At the end, she hugged him.

Back in Philly, when people at the station watched the raw tape, they realized Lane was suffering more than anyone knew. But management was aware that other stations in Philly were having lots of success with female newscasters airing first-person stories about their own struggles. The previous fall, pregnant NBC 10 anchor Renee Chenault-Fattah brought cameras to sage her ultrasound. And it was May sweeps. Lane expressed her misgivings about the footage — she hated to appear weak. “She didn’t want it to air,” says her sister Nicole. Self Essay! But Lane also knew that the sage thesis station had spent lots of money to edexcel gcse coursework send her to L.A. Sage Weil! Plus, if viewers saw her in is quality a myth essay, this light, they might stop calling her an ice queen. Weil Thesis! The station advertised Lane’s segment — titled “Demons of Divorce” — during CSI and Without a Trace , with Lane’s face filling the screen, that tear running down her cheek. A Myth! Portions of her interview aired for two days. “I was bawling my eyes out just to see how much pain she was in,” Nicole remembers. Lane never watched it, though it aired while she was on-set. Instead of looking at the monitor, she turned around in sage weil thesis, her anchor’s chair and plugged her fingers in her ears.

Even so, she got thousands of e-mails of support from viewers. People stopped her on how has technology our lives better the street and hugged her. The Dr. Phil interview gave the station its highest Nielsen ratings of the month. Weil Thesis! It was CBS 3’s best May sweeps since 1995. ALYCIA LANE DIDN#8217;T realize her appearance with Dr. Phil would haunt her. Yet once she let the genie of her private life out of the bottle, there was no way to shove it back in, no matter how often she told reporters, “I don’t discuss my personal life.” “Whenever she used to complain about the coverage I was giving her, I’d say, ‘Alycia. You went on Dr. Phil,’” says the Inquirer ’s Michael Klein. “She has a very complicated relationship with the power press, in that she does want publicity, and sage thesis, then she doesn’t.” Two months before she interviewed Dr. Self Essay! Phil, she’d met a new guy in Miami.

Jay Adkins, an insurance entrepreneur from North Carolina, saw her on the beach. Weil Thesis! “[Jay] came in with roses and flares. Literally,” Lane’s sister Nicole recalls. Made Our Lives Better Essay! “He swept her off her feet. Weil Thesis! She said, ‘This is it. I found the is quality guy that I’m going to sage weil spend the rest of my life with.’” “My world stopped when I met her,” Adkins says. Self Essay! The Daily News trumpeted their engagement on December 20, 2004.

In pure Lane fashion, it was less than a year after the two had met. Sage Weil! Dan Gross called in the story while on wind power vacation; he was tipped off — presumably by Lane herself — just a day after Adkins gave her “a ‘big and weil, beautiful’ diamond solitaire” in Miami. She agreed to fly back to Dr. Dissertation Education Syllabus! Phil’s studio, with fiance Adkins in weil thesis, tow, when the station suggested a follow-up interview, to give closure to the story from the previous year. It was a smart move on CBS 3’s part: A happily married gal would be far less appealing to the gossip columns than a single one. Plus, the follow-up would air during May sweeps. Is Quality! For now, Lane and Adkins only saw each other on weekends, traveling back and forth between Philly and North Carolina, but the plan was for sage thesis her to move south. Christian Education Syllabus! Her sister and parents had already relocated to Raleigh to weil thesis be near her, and she’d landed an offer at the number-one station in the ­market — though she didn’t much like moving from the fourth largest market in the country to the 29th. Editing Services! “She says she doesn’t like all the attention on her, but she ate it up,” says a source who knows Lane well.

As the sage August wedding approached, Lane and Adkins’s relationship started to unravel. “Promises he had made, he took back,” Nicole claims. She encouraged her sister to hold off on dissertation syllabus the ceremony. Lane thought plans were too far along, and she swore everything would work out. But Adkins says that once they got married, she pushed him into a corner. They both wanted children, but all of a sudden, “She wanted kids immediately.

I didn’t,” he says. “She said she wasn’t going to move unless she was pregnant. She said that over sage weil, and over.” He came to believe she’d only married him so she could have kids. Lane’s camp tells a different story. “From the outset of the relationship, Adkins was unfaithful and dishonorable,” says Rosen. “He cheated on her,” Nicole says. “She said, ‘What’s wrong with me? Why do these guys come after me, make me fall in love with them, and then break my heart?’” “That is definitely not true,” Adkins says. “I loved Alycia with all my heart. Essay Editing Services Harvard! Ending that relationship was the sage hardest thing I’ve ever done in my life.” Lane’s broken heart didn’t stop her from thesis screaming at her ex-husband-to-be on the phone from her office at the station. Her colleagues could hear the f-bomb tantrums even through her closed door. And Adkins wasn’t the weil thesis only one she was yelling at. “When I was working on a story about her and Adkins separating, she sorta lost her shit and told me, ‘You’re cut off! You’re cut off!’ and then hung up on me,” says Dan Gross. Power Thesis! “I’m sure the whole situation was upsetting, but I felt like she didn’t get that if I reported on the marriage, I had to report on the breakup as well.” NOT UNDERSTANDING THE allure of her celebrity?

That was understandable. Almost overnight, Lane had gone from sage being one of the crowd in Miami to christian being a veritable rock star in Philadelphia. But not understanding why a reporter would need to sage thesis write the follow-up to a previously reported story? That didn’t make sense, not for someone who always said she was “a journalist first.” And she had been a journalist first. But since coming to Philly, Lane hadn’t been doing much journalism. Her primary job wasn’t to hunt down stories, like she used to gcse geography do. She wasn’t really expected to work sources or dig up leads. “When stuff hits the weil thesis fan, you don’t want her without a teleprompter,” a newsroom staffer says. “[Larry] Mendte and [just-retired Marc] Howard? If the technology better essay lights went off, they could keep reporting the news. Not her. Sage Thesis! And that’s okay.

That’s what TV news is.” This past fall, in the midst of the campaign to power repair Lane’s celebrity image, Michael Colleran stood onstage at the Back on Your Feet fund-raiser at weil, World Cafe Live to welcome the sneakered masses — the station co-sponsored the event — and listed the members of wind power thesis, his Eyewitness team who’d made appearances that night. “We’ve got Larry Mendte, and sage thesis, Alycia, and Kathy Orr,” Colleran said. Just “Alycia.” Like Lindsay. Like Britney. It was his $750,000 single-name brand: “Alycia.” Once a person is on Page Six, a person’s on how has better Page Six. And now that they’d all made it through to the other side, now that the situation was under control and Lane was smiling hopefully at new beau Chris Booker in the back corner of the dance floor under a gigantic disco ball, maybe Colleran was thinking that a little Page Six wasn’t so bad for the station after all. ALYCIA LANE COULD have been fine. And she would have been fine — if she’d been laying low, tempering her impulsiveness, keeping herself under control. In other words, Alycia Lane would have been fine if she hadn’t been Alycia Lane.

Because it was Alycia Lane who chose to get out of that cab in New York around 2 a.m. on thesis December 16th. It was Alycia Lane who got involved. It was Alycia Lane who, after thinking this through all night in gcse geography coursework, jail, tried to call the Governor — right around the time she was supposed to be at the CBS 3 holiday party with the people who’d been working so hard for sage thesis so long to save her face. So the technology our lives essay outcome was inevitable. Alycia Lane got out of the cab. She stepped onto the street, the same streets in the same city where she’d started 10 years before, when she was getting paid $28,000 and begging to go out and get the sage thesis story, all alone, carrying her own camera. Except that person was long gone. In her place was Alycia, out with her celebrity DJ boyfriend and a powerful radio exec, wearing that expensive black designer jacket, her makeup as perfect as it always was on-air, pulling out her iPhone and snapping shots of what she must have thought was news. And then she said the is quality in india words that both begin and end the story of thesis, Alycia Lane, the words that describe who she had been, and had lost, that might actually sound somewhat poetic, in technology our lives better essay, the desperate way that famous last words always are. Michael Schulson Cooks for the #8220;Hot Chicks#8221; — and That#8217;s Sexist. The Return of Daniel Johnston.

Amber Rose Stars in PSA to sage weil Fight Tampon Tax. I Love My Job: The Woman Changing the dissertation education syllabus Face of Auto Repair. Be respectful of our online community and weil thesis, contribute to an engaging conversation. We reserve the right to ban impersonators and remove comments that contain personal attacks, threats, or profanity, or are flat-out offensive. By posting here, you are permitting Philadelphia magazine and Metro Corp. to edit and republish your comment in all media.

Your morning dose of headlines, opinions, sports, photos and gossip, Monday through Friday. The Curtis, 601 Walnut Street, Suite 200 East, Philadelphia PA 19106. Copyright 2017 Metro Corp. All rights reserved. Member, American Society of how has our lives better essay, Magazine Editors and City and Regional Magazine Association.

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ethical values essay Strategic Leadership and Decision Making. Values and ethics are central to any organization; those operating in the national security arena are no exception. What exactly do we mean by values and ethics? Both are extremely broad terms, and we need to focus in on sage thesis the aspects most relevant for strategic leaders and decision makers. What we will first discuss is the distinctive nature of ethics for public officials; second, the forces which influence the wind power ethical behavior of individuals in organizations; and third, explore the actions strategic leaders can take to build ethical climates in their organizations. THE CHARACTER OF VALUES AND ETHICS. Values can be defined as those things that are important to or valued by someone.

That someone can be an individual or, collectively, an organization. One place where values are important is in relation to vision. Sage Weil! One of the imperatives for organizational vision is that it must be based on and consistent with the organization's core values. In one example of a vision statement we'll look at later, the in contradiction organization's core values - in this case, integrity, professionalism, caring, teamwork, and stewardship - were deemed important enough to sage weil, be included with the statement of the organization's vision. Dr. Wind Power! John Johns, in an article entitled The Ethical Dimensions of weil National Security, mentions honesty and loyalty as values that are the ingredients of integrity. When values are shared by all members of an organization, they are extraordinarily important tools for making judgments, assessing probable outcomes of is quality essay contemplated actions, and choosing among alternatives. Perhaps more important, they put all members on the same sheet of thesis music with regard to what all members as a body consider important. The Army, in 1986, had as the theme for edexcel coursework, the year values, and listed four organizational values -loyalty, duty, selfless service, and integrity-and four individual values - commitment, competence, candor, and courage.

A Department of the Army pamphlet entitled Values: The Bedrock of Our Profession spent some time talking about the importance of values , and included this definition: Values are what we, as a profession, judge to sage weil, be right. They are more than words-they are the moral, ethical, and professional attributes of character . . Self In Contradiction! . Sage Weil! there are certain core values that must be instilled in members of the U.S. Geography Coursework! Army-civilian and sage weil, uniformed soldier alike. These are not the only values that should determine our character, but they are ones that are central to our profession and should guide our lives as we serve our Nation. Values are the thesis embodiment of what an organization stands for, and should be the basis for the behavior of its members. However, what if members of the organization do not share and have not internalized the organization's values? Obviously, a disconnect between individual and sage thesis, organizational values will be dysfunctional. Wind! Additionally, an organization may publish one set of values, perhaps in an effort to push forward a positive image, while the values that really guide organizational behavior are very different. When there is a disconnect between stated and operating values , it may be difficult to determine what is acceptable. For example, two of the Army's organizational values include candor and courage.

One might infer that officers are encouraged to have the sage courage of their convictions and edexcel, speak their disagreements openly. Sage Weil Thesis! In some cases, this does work; in others it does not. The same thing works at the level of the coursework society. The principles by which the sage weil thesis society functions do not necessarily conform to the principles stated. Those in power may covertly allow the use of force to suppress debate in how has our lives better, order to sage weil thesis, remain in power. (death squads are an example.) In some organizations, dissent may be rewarded by termination-the organizational equivalent of death squad action. In others, a group member may be ostracized or expelled. Group members quickly learn the in contradiction essay operating values , or they don't survive for long. Sage! To the extent they differ from stated values , the organization will not only suffer from doing things less effectively, but also from the cynicism of its members, who have yet another reason for mistrusting the leadership, or doubting its wisdom. VALUES PROVIDE THE BASIS FOR JUDGMENTS ABOUT WHAT IS IMPORTANT FOR THE ORGANIZATION TO SUCCEED IN ITS CORE BUSINESS.

So, there are some disconnects, and these disconnects create problems. Essay Editing Harvard! However, the thesis central purpose of values remains. Christian Education! They state either an actual or an idealized set of weil thesis criteria for how has technology made our lives, evaluating options and deciding what is appropriate, based on long experience. The relevance of the Army's values , for example, is apparent. When soldiers may be called upon to expose themselves to mortal danger in the performance of their duty, they must be absolutely able to weil, trust their fellow soldiers (to do their fair share and to help in the event of need) and their leaders (to guard them from unnecessary risk). So the Army's values prescribe conditions that facilitate trust, a necessary element in willingness to face danger.

Without trust, risk tolerance will be low, as will combat effectiveness. TO BEHAVE ETHICALLY IS TO BEHAVE IN A MANNER THAT IS CONSISTENT WITH WHAT IS GENERALLY CONSIDERED TO BE RIGHT OR MORAL. Power Thesis! ETHICAL BEHAVIOR IS THE BEDROCK OF MUTUAL TRUST. So how do values relate to ethics , and what do we mean by sage weil thesis ethics? One of the keys is in the phrase we quoted above from the DA pamphlet: Values are what we, as a profession, judge to be right. Individually or organizationally, values determine what is right and what is wrong, and doing what is right or wrong is geography coursework, what we mean by ethics. To behave ethically is to behave in thesis, a manner consistent with what is right or moral . What does generally considered to be right mean? That is a critical question, and dissertation, part of the difficulty in deciding whether or not behavior is ethical is in determining what is right or wrong. Perhaps the first place to look in determining what is right or wrong is society. Weil! Virtually every society makes some determination of morally correct behavior.

In Islamic countries, a determination of what is right or moral is tied to religious strictures. In societies more secular, the influence of religious beliefs may be less obvious, but still a key factor. In the United States much of what is believed to be right or wrong is in india essay, based in Judeo-Christian heritage. Weil Thesis! The Ten Commandments, for essay editing, many people, define what is morally right or wrong. Societies not only regulate the behavior of weil their members, but also define their societal core values. Is Quality! Life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness represent core American values. Experience often has led societies to develop beliefs about what is of value for the common good. (Note that societies differ from one another in the specifics, but not in the general principles.) One example is the sage notion of reciprocity. (One good deed deserves another.) Another is the notion of good intent. (A gentleman's word is his bond.) Yet, a third is the notion of in india essay appreciation of merit in others regardless of personal feelings. (Give the Devil his due.) These all contain implied shoulds about how people interact and behave toward one another in groups, organizations, and weil, societies.

These shoulds define collective effort because they are fundamental to christian, trust and to team relationships that entail risk. The greater the potential risk, the more important ethical practices become. Organizations, to some extent, define what is right or wrong for sage weil, the members of the organization. Ethical codes, such as West Point's A cadet will not lie, cheat, or steal, or tolerate those who do, make clear what the organization considers to be right or wrong. Essay Editing Services Harvard! To quote again from the DA Pamphlet, Values: The Bedrock of Our Profession, statements such as : Loyalty to the Nation, to the Army, and to the unit is essential. Selfless service puts the welfare of the Nation and weil thesis, the accomplishment of the assigned mission before individual welfare. All who serve the Nation must resist the temptation to pursue self-gain, personal advantage, and self-interest ahead of the collective good.

[Integrity] is the basis for trust and confidence that must exist between the leaders and edexcel gcse coursework, the led. Furthermore, integrity is demonstrated by propriety in one's personal life. are unequivocal statements of what the Army considers to be ethical behavior. What does generally considered to be right mean? All one needs to do is to look at the positive values of society and the organizations one belongs to, and what is right or wrong should be evident. There is another aspect to be considered, however, and that is the influence of societal or organizational norms.

Norms are the unstated rules, usually informally reached by the members of a group, which govern the behavior of the group's members. Norms often have a greater effect on what is and isn't done by the members of a group than formal rules and regulations. The reason norms are important for a discussion of ethics and values is that norms may allow or even encourage certain behavior as OK that is not in keeping with society's or an sage weil thesis organization's stated values. When there is a disconnect between stated and operating values, it may be difficult to determine what is right. An example might be a company that has among its stated values to self, treat everyone with dignity and respect, but whose norms have permitted and sage weil, perhaps even encouraged a pattern of gcse geography coursework sexual harassment over a number of years. Do those in the organization know that the thesis behavior is wrong, but condone it nevertheless? Is it clear to the Bosnian Serbs that ethnic cleansing is unethical and wrong, or would it fall under the mantle of behavior that is considered to be acceptable in that society? Listen to the arguments in support of ethnic cleansing that have been made, and you will find that many of the perpetrators argued that they did nothing wrong, and is quality in india essay, were only righting previous wrongs done to them. If ethics and morality are important for groups and organizations, they should also be important for public officials, and for very much the same reasons. York Willbern, in an article entitled Types and Levels of Public Morality, argues for six types or levels of morality (or ethics) for public officials.

By public officials, he means those who are in policy making positions in public institutions; in other words, strategic decision makers in the government, including the national security arena. The six levels he differentiates are: basic honesty and conformity to law; conflicts of interest; service orientation and procedural fairness; the ethic of democratic responsibility; the ethic of public policy determination; and the ethic of compromise and social integration. WILLBERN'S LEVEL OF PUBLIC MORALITY. ETHIC OF COMPROMISE AND SOCIAL INTEGRATION ETHIC OF PUBLIC POLICY DETERMINATION ETHIC OF DEMOCRATIC RESPONSIBILITY SERVICE ORIENTATION AND PROCEDURAL FAIRNESS CONFLICT OF INTEREST BASIC HONESTY AND CONFORMITY TO LAW. BASIC HONESTY AND CONFORMITY TO LAW. The public servant is morally bound, just as are other persons, to tell the truth, to keep promises, to respect the person and sage, the property of others, and to wind power thesis, abide by the requirements of the law (Willbern). In many ways, this level only thesis describes the basic adherence to moral codes that is expected of all members of a group or society.

There are some basics of behavior that are expected of all if a society is to function for edexcel geography coursework, the collective good. Sage Thesis! For public officials, there is an additional reason why it is important to adhere to these basic moral codes and laws: they have more power than the average member of the essay society, and hence more opportunity for violation of those codes or laws. There also is the negative example that misconduct by public officials provides. CONFLICT OF INTEREST. This relates to public officials, because it deals with the conflict between advancing the public interest, which a public official is charged to do, and sage, advancing one's self-interest. The duty here is to ensure that the public interest comes first, and that one does not advance his own personal interest at the expense of the public.

Willbern uses embezzlement of public funds, bribery, and geography coursework, contract kickbacks as examples of pursuing personal interests at sage weil the expense of those of the essay public. The requirements for public officials to divest themselves of investments that might be influenced by the performance of their duties (or put them in trust) and to recuse themselves in situations where they have a personal interest are designed to help public officials avoid conflicts of interest. Sage Weil Thesis! Ultimately, it still comes down to the individual making an ethical decision. Avoidance of conflict of interest is often difficult because it is often hard to services harvard, separate personal and public interests, and because individuals as private citizens are encouraged to pursue private interests through any legal means. One of the areas where there is the sage weil thesis greatest potential for conflicts of interest is where public officials deal with private organizations which are pursuing their private interests, and where any decision by gcse geography coursework a public official on allocation of resources will favor some private interest.

The fields of government contracting and acquisition are two areas where the sage possibility of conflicts of interest is is quality essay, high. SERVICE ORIENTATION AND PROCEDURAL FAIRNESS. This level relates closely to the last, and deals with the responsibility of public officials to ensure their actions serve the public, and that the power they wield is used only for that purpose. It is sage thesis, easy to abuse the dissertation power that comes with public office. Sage! Procedural safeguards are designed to essay services, prevent that abuse. Weil Thesis! The moral obligation of public servants is to follow established procedures, and not to use their power to circumvent those procedures for their own convenience or benefit.

Power must be used fairly and for the benefit of the public. One can again think of wind power thesis examples of public officials who have violated this moral charge by thesis using their influence and power for their own benefit or for the benefit of special interest groups, or who have circumvented established procedures for their own benefit or convenience. One frequent example is the use of government vehicles or aircraft for nonofficial business. These first three levels of public morality share one important characteristic: they all relate to the behavior or conduct of public officials. These three levels are the services areas that get most of the attention in discussions of ethics, this is where public officials are most likely to get in trouble. However, there are three additional levels of public morality equally important. Weil Thesis! These deal with the edexcel gcse geography coursework content of sage what public officials do, the thesis moral choices involved in deciding what to weil thesis, do, in pursuing the purposes of the state and the society (Willbern). THE ETHIC OF DEMOCRATIC RESPONSIBILITY. Given that public officials are operating within a democratic system, they either are elected by power thesis the people or appointed by an elected official.

This confers upon them the obligation to carry out the will of the people. However, public officials also have the responsibility to sage thesis, make moral choices consistent with their own values, and that may be in conflict with what they perceive to be the will of the people. Willbern contends that the public official acts according to his or her own judgment, rationalizing that it would be the dissertation education will of the people if they were well enough informed on the issue. To give one example of this level of public morality, consider whether or not the representative in Congress is morally bound to support policies and legislation which his constituents overwhelmingly support but he personally opposes. THE ETHIC OF PUBLIC POLICY DETERMINATION. Thesis! This level involves the most difficult ethical choices, because it concerns making moral judgments about public policies. The responsibility is to make moral policies; the difficulty is in determining how moral a policy is. Public policies almost always deal with very complex issues, where ethical choices are rarely clear, and it is often difficult to determine if a policy is essay services harvard, right or wrong. For example, many public policies deal with the distribution of weil thesis limited resources. Is it right or wrong to slash funding for one program, or to increase funding for coursework, another?

In almost any decision, there will be winners and losers, and weil thesis, there will be some benefit for some and cost to others. Right and how has made our lives better, wrong may not apply. Equity and fairness are important considerations, but not always easy to discern. Sage Weil! The determination of how much funding to provide for national security, and which social programs to fund, involves ethical choices of the most difficult type. Christian Education Syllabus! What is the difference between equality and equity? Consider the controversy around affirmative action programs: are they examples of moral public policies? THE ETHIC OF COMPROMISE AND SOCIAL INTEGRATION. This final level deals with an area not as salient as some of the others.

It deals with the sage weil necessity for compromise in a society. A society with irreconcilable differences on fundamental issues will be torn apart. Hence, it becomes a moral obligation of is quality a myth in india essay public officials to engage in give and take, working toward compromise in the policies they develop. One often sees legislators in weil thesis, our political system establishing positions where they may not get all they want from particular legislation, but will settle for some of what they want. Willbern contends that compromise, rather than standing on principle, is moral, because without compromise there will be discord and conflict, and disintegration rather than integration of the society. Public officials are given the trust of the public to develop and carry out policies that are in self in contradiction, the public's best interest.

Living up to this trust has a significant impact on the national will; public confidence is essential to the exercise of national power. Public officials have a moral duty to act in a trustworthy manner. Why, then, do individuals behave unethically? One reason is the complexity of the issues leaders deal with, and sage weil thesis, the difficulty in many instances of determining which is the most ethical alternative. There are several systemic factors. One is the competition for scarce resources. It is christian syllabus, easy to slip into unethical acts to gain a competitive advantage in the race for position or power.

A second is weil, conflicting loyalties, which Johns labels the most troublesome ethical dilemma facing public officials. Christian Dissertation Syllabus! The Iran Contra affair is sage weil thesis, a case of unethical behavior on the part of North, Poindexter, Secord, and McFarlane because of misplaced loyalty to the executive chain of command. Johns also identifies systemic factors in groups and is quality a myth, teams which can lead to unethical behavior. One is groupthink , which can occur in a homogeneous group with a strong leader. Thesis! A second is the wind thesis presence of idealogues: individuals who view their own extreme positions as right and any opposing positions as wrong. A third is the sage weil thesis organization's response to dissent. There are few incentives for whistleblowers or those who try to expose unethical behavior in organizations. Organizational norms encourage going along and essay editing, discourage questioning the unethical actions of others.

This can quickly compromise ethical standards in any organization. CAUSES OF UNETHICAL BEHAVIOR. COMPLEXITY OF STRATEGIC ISSUES OBSCURES ETHICS COMPETITION FOR SCARCE RESOURCES/ POWER/POSITION CONFLICTING LOYALTIES. GROUPTHINK PRESENCE OF IDEALOGUES NEGATIVE ORGANIZATIONAL RESPONSE TO DISSENT. Kenneth R. Andrews, in thesis, Ethics in Practice, contends that there are three aspects to ethical behavior in organizations: the development of the individual as an ethical person, the effect of the organization as an ethical or unethical environment, and the actions or procedures developed by the organization to encourage ethical behavior and discourage unethical behavior. INFLUENCES ON ETHICAL BEHAVIOR. PRIOR DEVELOPMENT OF INDIVIDUAL AS ETHICAL PERSON. THE ORGANIZATION AS AN ETHICAL ENVIRONMENT. PROCEDURES THAT ENCOURAGE ETHICAL BEHAVIOR. Most of an individual's ethical development occurs before entering an organization.

The influence of family, church, community, and edexcel gcse, school will determine individual values. The organization, to a large extent, is dealing with individuals whose value base has been established. Weil Thesis! This might imply that ethical organizations are those fortunate enough to bring in ethical individuals, while unethical organizations brought in unethical people. But it is edexcel, not that simple. While the internalized values of thesis individuals are important, the organization has a major impact on the behavior of its members, and can have a positive or negative influence on their values. One example of the dissertation syllabus development of sage weil ethical individuals is the service academies. In their admissions processes, the academies attempt to get individuals of good character with the values integral to the military profession. However, the academies also recognize that their core values may be different than those prevalent in society, and they devote considerable effort to the development and internalization of their core values. As is self essay, evident from periodic breaches of integrity at the academies, e.g., cheating scandals, these attempts to instill core values do not always succeed. There are three qualities individuals must possess to make ethical decisions. The first is the ability to recognize ethical issues and to sage, reason through the ethical consequences of decisions.

The ability to see second and third order effects, one of the elements of strategic thinking, is very important. The second is the is quality in india ability to look at sage weil alternative points of view, deciding what is right in in contradiction, a particular set of circumstances. This is weil thesis, similar to the ability to reframe. And the third is the essay editing ability to thesis, deal with ambiguity and uncertainty; making a decision on the best information available. ATTRIBUTES FOR ETHICAL DECISIONS.

SEEING SECOND- AND THIRD-ORDER CONSEQUENCES-WARGAMING ETHICAL CONSEQUENCES OF DECISIONS SEEING ALTERNATIVE POINTS OF VIEW-REFRAMING DEALING WITH AMBIGUITY AND UNCERTAINTY-MAKING DECISIONS WITH BEST INFORMATION AVAILABLE. As important as these individual characteristics are, the influence of the power organization is equally important. The ethical standards that one observes in the organization will have a significant effect on individual behavior. People will do what they are rewarded for doing (Andrews). The organization has its greatest impact in the standards it establishes for weil, ethical and how has technology better, unethical conduct in its formal reward systems. Informal norms also have a strong influence on individuals' behavior as do the actions of the sage weil leaders of the organization. Strategic leaders must understand that their actions, more than words alone, will determine the operating values in the organization.

The influence of the organizational context is edexcel geography, underscored in Why Be Honest If Honesty Doesn't Pay? In this article, Bhide and Stevenson note that there often are no economic or other incentives to encourage ethical behavior and sage weil thesis, discourage unethical behavior. They contend that it most often is the dishonest individual who gets ahead, and that cases where unethical behavior was punished are far outweighed by those in which there either were no consequences or unethical behavior was rewarded. The Gordon Ghekkos of the world (the unethical corporate executive played by in contradiction essay Michael Douglas in the movie Wall Street) often get ahead, because they rarely are held to account for their actions. While these observations might lead one to a cynical view of ethics in organizations, Bhide and Stevenson come to a different conclusion. They see room for optimism despite the lack of financial gain for ethical behavior, or the absence of negative consequences for unethical behavior. Their reasoning is based in the fact that so many people do behave ethically, in spite of the apparent lack of weil thesis gain. Self In Contradiction Essay! Ethical behavior must be intrinsically rewarding; and most people behave ethically because it's the right thing to weil thesis, do.

People are guided by their personal value systems. They often choose the harder right instead of the easier wrong specifically because of their intrinsic values of how has essay what is right. Bhide and sage weil thesis, Stevenson make this caveat: We should remember, however, that this. works only as long as most of in india us live by an honorable moral compass. Since our trust isn't grounded in self-interest, it is fragile. And, indeed, we all know of organizations, industries, and even whole societies in which trust has given way either to a destructive free-for-all or to inflexible rules and bureaucracy. Only our individual wills, our determination to do what is right, whether or not it is profitable, save us from choosing between chaos and sage thesis, stagnation. Chaloupka, in Ethical Responses: How to Influence One's Organization, asserts that organization members have only three choices when confronted with unethical behavior: exit, voice, or loyalty. Exit is the services harvard most direct response: if you can't live with behavior that does not meet your own ethical standards, leave. Thesis! However, exit is not only a direct response, it is a final one, so the services harvard personal and organizational consequences must be considered.

The most important personal consequences are the costs. Where do you go from there? What other options are available? How marketable are you? Can you afford the financial loss? There are specific organizational consequences as well. Will the ethics of the organization's leaders change?

Will they do business with someone else who doesn't have the high standards you do? In leaving, one gives up the ability to influence the organization directly. When considering exit, one must ask, Could I have had more of an impact by remaining in the organization and trying to change it from within? Voice . This means expressing discomfort with and opposition to the observed unethical behavior. To whom do you voice your objections? The obvious choice is your supervisor. But what if your supervisor condones the unethical behavior, or worse, is its source? You may be jeopardizing your position, and maybe your membership in the organization.

A second choice is to go to senior management. This also has potential risk. The senior leadership may be condoning or even directing the unethical behavior. This action may bring your loyalty into question. If so, your objections may be covered up or ignored, and sage weil thesis, you may end up being forced out education of the organization. On the other hand, it may be that the senior leadership is sage, unaware of the is quality a myth unethical behavior, and you may have initiated an weil thesis organizational response eliminating unethical behavior and self in contradiction essay, restoring ethical standards. A third option is to go public, to engage in whistleblowing.

This is also risky, because it can lead to reprisals with negative consequences. The level of risk depends on the commitment of the organization to high ethical standards and on its willingness to encourage whistleblowing in weil, its own best interests. Many organizations have shown commitment to christian dissertation education, ferreting out sage unethical individuals and maintaining high ethical standards by establishing procedures for anonymous reporting of christian dissertation ethical breaches and safeguards to protect whistleblowers. Exit and voice may be combined. An individual resigns in protest and goes public with his or her reasons for leaving. This leaves the individual vulnerable to thesis, the label of an employee who quit before being fired, but it also can lead to increased credibility as someone acting on dissertation education syllabus conviction in spite of weil personal cost. Exit combined with voice is most effective if taken by someone at the upper levels of the organization. An organization can more easily ignore the exit + voice of a lower level employee than it can the resignation of wind a strategic leader, followed immediately by a press conference.

The widely publicized resignation of former President Bush from the National Rifle Association over sage what he viewed as extreme actions is an example of exit combined with voice. It undoubtedly had a much greater effect on the NRA than the resignation of essay someone less well known and respected. The resignation of James Webb as Secretary of the Navy is another example of effective exit combined with voice. Loyalty . The final response to unethical behavior in an organization is loyalty. This is the alternative to exit. Instead of leaving, the individual remains and tries to change the organization from thesis within. Gcse Geography! Loyalty thus discourages or delays exit. Loyalty also may discourage public voice, since being loyal to the organization means trying to solve problems from within without causing public embarrassment or damage. Loyalty can also encourage unethical behavior, particularly in organizations which promote loyalty above all.

These organizations discourage exit and voice, and basically want their members to go along with organizational practices. An interesting question is, Can an individual be loyal to an organization by engaging in exit or voice as a response to unethical behavior? Chaloupka maintains that both exit and voice must exist for continued organizational effectiveness. Additionally, an organization cannot maintain high ethical standards without mechanisms for eliminating unethical behavior. Also, loyalty is not always a virtue.

Loyalty should be predicated on the organization's ethical demonstration that it is worthy of weil thesis loyalty. If the a myth essay organization condones unethical behavior, it relieves the individual of any responsibility to be loyal. BUILDING AN ETHICAL CLIMATE. How can the sage weil thesis strategic leaders of an organization build an ethical climate? Andrews suggests a number of steps that foster corporate ethics. Self In Contradiction Essay! First are the sage weil thesis actions of the strategic leadership and the way they deal with ethical issues.

The pattern of top leaders' behavior determines organizational values. A second step is to make explicit ethics policies. Ethical codes are one common example. The next step is to increase awareness of how to apply those ethical codes. Training on how to deal with situations with an ethical dimension, and how to anticipate situations that involve ethical choices, can go a long way toward ethical institutional practices. Another step to increase the technology made our lives essay salience of ethics is to expand the information system to focus on areas where ethics may come into play. Knowing what actually is going on in the organization is essential to sage, understanding the ethical principles which govern behavior. The information system should also support ethical behavior, and allow the strategic leader to services, know when or where there are potential ethical breaches so that corrective action can be taken. The real danger is that when unethical behavior is unnoticed, or not punished, members will assume it is condoned by the organization's leadership. Establishing moral principles means determining the core values which should guide the organization.

O'Brien suggests four for consideration: localness, merit, openness, and sage thesis, leanness. By localness, he means adopting a philosophy of pushing power down to the lowest level possible, and encouraging initiative and autonomy. By merit, he means directing actions toward the overall goals of the organization, and what is essay, best for all. By openness, he means being forthright and honest in all dealings. And by leanness, he means efficient use of resources and economies when possible. ULTIMATELY, THE QUEST FOR ORGANIZATIONAL TRANSFORMATION MUST BEGIN WITH A PERSONAL COMMITMENT WITHIN EACH INDIVIDUAL TO PURSUE MORAL EXCELLENCE. Encouraging leaders to pursue their own moral development is critical at higher levels because strategic leaders set the moral climate for the organization. Weil! O'Brien believes that moral development is even more important than professional development. Creating a culture based on moral excellence requires a commitment among managers to a myth in india, embody and weil, develop two qualities in their leadership: virtue and wisdom. However, creating an organization characterized by moral excellence is a lengthy process.

It involves changing organizational culture, discussed in the next chapter.