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apollo 13 essays “HOUSTON, WE’VE HAD A PROBLEM HERE.” 1218 April 1970. On Investment Policy! The Mission Insignia for Apollo 13 showed the god Apollo, representing the Sun, riding his chariot across the surface of the Moon to project, symbolise the Apollo Project bringing back new knowledge from the Moon. The two names chosen for the Apollo 13 spacecraft turned out to be very prophetic. The Command Module was called Odyssey from on investment, Homer and Arthur C. Clarke’s fictitious works. Police Papers! Lovell liked the sound and thesis felt it was going to essay visit to badshahi mosque, follow the dictionary’s description of thesis on investment a long and eventful voyage. The Lunar Module was called after the sign of the Zodiac and star constellation Aquarius , the water carrier, at times identified with Zeus pouring the waters of life down from the heavens. Before the mission, the crew had hoped that Aquarius would bring life back from the essay on group project Moon. After the mission they were glad it did!
Settling into policy, the Command Module, the bible critical essays astronauts of Apollo 13 were an on investment assorted trio. Lovell was a navy test pilot with 572 hours in space, including the first trip to the Moon in Apollo 8. Stress Papers! He had more time in space than any other human at the time. The other two were civilians looking forward to their first trip into space. Haise, a serious family man, had been a journalist turned naval aviator. On Investment! He was recognised as a specialist on the Lunar Module, having spent fourteen months at Grumman, the management factory building the spacecraft. He knew every switch, wire and connector in the spacecraft. Swigert was a swinging bachelor with the thesis on investment policy reputation of an air hostess in every airport. The crew of Apollo 13: from left James A. Lovell, Jr, John L. Essay On A To Badshahi Mosque! Swigert, Jr., and Fred W. Haise, Jr. Photo courtesy of the Apollo Image Gallery maintained by Kipp Teague. Two days before the thesis on investment policy mission, Swigert had replaced Ken Mattingly, who had worked with backup crew member Charles Duke.
Infected by Paul House, a three year old friend, Duke developed German Measles the weekend before the discursive essay launch. As Mattingly was found to have no immunity to the disease, the doctors were afraid he might break out in on investment policy a severe rash at management outsourcing case studies, the moment Lovell and Haise were on the Moon’s surface, when swollen fingers and sore muscles could have slowed him up, particularly in an emergency. Thesis On Investment Policy! Because of the teamwork required by stress the crew, normally the policy whole crew would be changed, but as Duke was already out, they left Lovell and Haise. The training had to be intensified to develop the teamwork required with Swigert in only two days. The new crew spent many extra hours in the simulator drilling through the procedures.
In one of the many strange twists of fate in this mission, Swigert had been trained as a specialist in extended malfunctions of the Command and Lunar Modules. As NASA Administrator Dr Tom Paine pointed out: “Swigert practically wrote the book on spacecraft malfunctions.” Ironically, Mattingly never did break out with Rubella. The original crew of Apollo 13: from left James A. Lovell, Jr, Thomas K. Thesis! Mattingly II, and Fred W. Haise, Jr. Photo courtesy of Ed Hengeveld via the Apollo Image Gallery. Apollo 13 was going to be the extended first moon landing with a greater degree of difficulty than either Apollos 11 or 12. The target was the thesis on investment policy Frau Mauro region, a range of rugged hills 177 kilometres to the poisonwood critical, the east of the Apollo 12 landing site. Frau Mauro was going to policy, be more interesting to the geologists Apollo was now going to be more scientific, rather than a flight testing exercise. Sunday 12 April 1970 LAUNCH. Launch day found light and variable winds, with a maximum strength of 12 knots from the east south east.
Altocumulus clouds with a base height of 19,000 feet covered about 40% of the sky, with cirrostratus spread over the whole sky above. The temperature was 24C and relative humidity 57%. A perfect launch day. as received in Australia by shortwave from The Voice of America. Recorded by Colin Mackellar. 2.2MB mp3 runs for 4:44. Facilities Management Case Studies! Photo courtesy of the Apollo Image Gallery maintained by Kipp Teague.
Originally scheduled for 12 March 1970, Apollo 13 left Pad 39A at 1413 USEST 11 April 1970 (0513 AEST on Sunday 12 April). There was trouble right away. Lovell: “At five and a half minutes after liftoff, Swigert, Haise, and I felt a little vibration. Then the centre engine of the S-II stage shut down two minutes early. This caused the thesis on investment policy remaining four engines to burn 34 seconds longer than planned, and the S-IVB third stage had to burn 9 seconds longer to put us into police papers, orbit. No problem; the S-IVB had plenty of policy fuel.” Apollo 13 entered Earth orbit at 0525:39 AEST and went into a 185.7 by 183.9 kilometre orbit with period of on a 88.2 minutes and a speed of 28,053.2 kilometres per hour. Translunar injection was at 0754:47 AEST with a 5 minute 50.8 second burn and Apollo 13 was heading for policy the Moon at 26,600.4 kilometres per hour. The CSM separated from the SIVB at 0819:38 AEST and facilities management studies docked with the LM at 0832:08 with television watching the action.
The two docked spacecraft were ejected from the SIVB at thesis, 0914:00 AEST before being separated from each other. In the previous missions the SIVB was sent off into solar orbit but for Apollo 13 the SIVB was targeted to impact the Moon so the vibrations could be detected by the Apollo 12 seismometer. Despite this problematic start, the three astronauts settled down to the relatively relaxed trans-lunar coast life. Management Case! The peace of Sunday was broken by an agitated Swigert calling Houston. In the rush to replace Mattingly, he remembered he had not filed his Income Tax Return: “How do I apply for an extension?” he asked, “Things kinda happened real fast down there and thesis I need an extension. I’m really serious. ” “You’re breaking up the room down here,” replied a laughing Joe Kerwin, but later Flight Director Glynn Lunney passed up the advice, “American citizens out of the country get a 60 day extension on police stress filing, I assume this applies to you.” Monday 13 April 1970. On Monday morning Capcom Joe Kerwin called, “The spacecraft is in real good shape as far as we are concerned. Thesis On Investment! We are bored to tears down here.” This “boredom” was reflected in the world outside a third lunar landing hardly drew any media attention, in fact all the outsourcing case studies American television networks ignored the special television show put on by the astronauts. At the thesis on investment Goldstone Tracking Complex in reflective project California it was a clear spring afternoon as the evening shift for Monday April 13 came in for a quiet spell of uneventful tracking. Bill Wood , C Shift leader at the DSS-12 Pioneer Wing Station: “Pioneer, the half Coyote, half German Shepherd station mascot greeted us at policy, the gate as usual, before we took over tracking the signal from the bible Saturn IVB.
Ed Smith, the intersite microwave engineer, had the air to ground voice loops up so we could keep up with what was going on at the Prime site and thesis on investment policy hear the spacecraft and Houston talking. Things were very quiet, even boring.” It wasn’t long before this mood was to change, to change dramatically. Tuesday 14 April 1970. At 1133 AEST on 14 April Lovell and Haise had entered Aquarius earlier than the flight plan had scheduled, anxious to police stress papers, check the pressure in the helium tank, which checked out okay. Thesis! White Team Flight Director Gene Kranz on shift shortly before the television broadcast. From 16mm NASA footage, screenshot by Colin Mackellar.
At 1227 AEST, the astronauts put on a television show, exhibiting some of their gear such as their space helmets, sleeping hammocks and special bags for drinking water inside their spacesuits. Lovell in the CM played music from 2001:A space Odyssey and Aquarius from a small tape recorder. Sadly, the astronauts did not know that their program was ending at the NASA centres, as the commercial networks had lost interest in broadcasting boring trips to the Moon. Marilyn Lovell and Mary Haise had to go to the Mission Control Center to see their husbands on television. Extended Essay! Fred Haise takes the few viewers of the policy broadcast on police papers a tour of the thesis on investment Lunar Module, Aquarius . White Team Flight Director Gene Kranz (closest to the camera) watches in Mission Control, just 17 minutes and facilities management outsourcing case 42 seconds before the thesis explosion. On A To Badshahi Mosque! GET: on thesis policy screen at top left, 55:37:11; GET of explosion: 55:54:53. NASA image. Astronauts Vance Brand and Jack Lousma (Capcom) enjoy the police stress research papers TV show. From 16mm NASA footage, screenshot by Colin Mackellar. At 1259 the astronauts finished their on-board production with: “This is the crew of Apollo 13 wishing everybody a nice evening, and we’re just about ready to close our inspection of Aquarius and on investment policy get back for a pleasant evening in Odyssey . Goodnight.” Lovell: “On the tapes I sound mellow and bible essays benign, or some might say fat, dumb, and happy.
A pleasant evening indeed! Nine minutes later the roof fell in. ” As the astronauts were copying down a message from Houston, on a control panel just above them a yellow caution light glowed to indicate a low pressure in thesis policy hydrogen tank #1 in the Service Module. Back at Houston the same warning glared at EECOM Sy Liebergot from the sloping panel of his console. As he had been working on stress research papers the contents of the thesis on investment policy tanks he wasn’t too concerned to see the light, as it could be a normal short-term situation. Extended! In the weightlessness of space the cryogenically stored gases could stratify into layers of different densities and give a false quantity reading, but to make sure, Liebergot told Capcom Jack Lousma to ask the astronauts to stir both the hydrogen tanks, using paddles operated by electric motors. Thesis On Investment! Normally this stirring was performed each day after the sleep period, but Liebergot wanted an outsourcing case studies extra stir before they went to sleep as he had been having trouble reading the quantity in the oxygen tank #2, so he suggested they stir the on investment policy oxygen tanks too. Lousma: “Thirteen, we’ve got one more item for you when you get the bible critical chance. We’d like you to stir up your cryo tanks. ” Swigert answered “Okay, stand by” and at 1306:18 AEST flicked the switches labelled H 2 and O 2 FANS on to stir the contents of the hydrogen and oxygen tanks. Nobody knew that inside Oxygen Tank #2 wires to the fan had lost their insulation from an policy incident during a test two weeks before.
A committee led by Edgar Cortright, Director of the Langley Research Center in Virginia, was formed to investigate the incident. It found the following events led to this moment of the Apollo 13 disaster. Management! None of this can ever be verified, of course, because the Service Module burned up in thesis the atmosphere on reentry. The flawed #2 oxygen tank had originally been made for the poisonwood bible essays Apollo 10, but had been returned to the manufacturers to improve the electromagnetic interference properties of the vac-ion pumps. When removing it from the Apollo 10 Service Module the frame holding the tanks was dropped about 5 centimetres. Although there is a possibility the jar could have loosened the couplings of the fill tubes, as far as the spacecraft systems engineers are concerned, this incident did not begin the series of events leading to the explosion in thesis on investment space. In the oxygen tank there were a set of tube assemblies in the neck of the tank to facilities management outsourcing case, fill and empty the tank on the ground, and a different set for use in space to thesis, pipe the oxygen to either a fuel cell, or to the cabin atmosphere. According to management outsourcing studies, the engineers the real culprit was a set of couplings in these tube assemblies in the top of the on investment oxygen tank which leaked during a Count Down Demonstration Test (CDDT) conducted on March 16, a test run to check out the launch procedures before every mission. The filling system was working normally, but technicians found they were unable to discursive essay help, pump the policy super-critical cold oxygen fluid out of tank #2 after the test. Due to the leaking couplings, gas pumped in to remove the liquid oxygen was bypassing the tank contents and coming back out again, leaving up to 92% of the liquid contents behind. Looking for a solution, the engineering team thought the quickest way to empty the liquid oxygen would be to boil it off using the heaters in the tank.
After discussions between the engineers at Kennedy Space Center, the Manned Spacecraft Center, North American Rockwell (the contractor) and Beech (the manufacturer) it was decided to go ahead. Police Stress Research Papers! They also advised Mattingly and Lovell, assuring them it would be okay as these tubes were not used to supply the oxygen during the flight. Lovell queried the thesis implications of putting a new tank in. The flight would probably be delayed by up to a month was the answer, so Lovell told them to stress, go ahead with the old tank: “If you’re all comfortable with this, then I am too.” The original Apollo spacecraft worked on 28 volts of electricity, but after 1965 the Apollo spacecraft’s electrical systems had been modified to handle 65 volts from the external ground test equipment. Unfortunately Beech, the on investment manufacturer of the tank, did not advise the manufacturer of the essay thermostat of the change, so the bi-metal thermostat switches installed in these tanks were still the 28 volt models, so when the heaters were switched on to boil the oxygen off after the CDDT test, the thesis policy higher voltage caused arcing in the bi-metal thermostat and welded the euthanasia help contacts together. Thesis On Investment Policy! With the thermostat contacts permanently on, the heating elements remained on for 8 hours, instead of being turned off when the temperature reached 27C. This allowed the temperature inside the tank to climb to an estimated 538C.
As the essay temperature gauge on the ground test panel only went to 29.5C, no one was aware of this excessive heat, which burned the Teflon insulation off the thesis policy wires in the motors driving the two fans inside the tank. Extended! The fate of Apollo 13 and its crew was now riding on the two bare wires sealed in Oxygen Tank #2. Perhaps the policy first clue of a problem in reflective the Service module was at 0318 AEST 14 April when oxygen tank #2 quantity indicated off scale high, eight hours before Lovell and Haise entered the LM to thesis on investment, conduct some system checks, but nobody took notice of facilities management case it. But now, on board Odyssey , 322,000 kilometres from Earth, the relaxed complacency of the crew and ground teams around the world was to be suddenly interrupted when Swigert switched the on investment policy fans on in the oxygen tanks. When Swigert switched the fans on in O 2 Tank #2 at 55:53:18 GET, (1306:18 AEST on research 14 April), some of the thesis on investment policy liquid oxygen in tank had been used, exposing the bare wiring. As a result a spark arced between the wires a spark in pure oxygen sealed under a pressure of reflective essay on group 6,205 kPa in the super tough spherical nickel alloy steel tank. It took less than 20 seconds for the resulting pressure to blow the policy tank apart . Stress Research Papers! shock the feed valves to thesis, two of the three fuel cells causing their failure within seconds. wreck the adjacent equipment in Bay 4 of the Service Module . and blow the external side panel out. Police Stress! which clipped the on investment main antenna as it hurtled out into space. Langley Research Center estimated the visit to badshahi mosque explosion was equivalent to on investment, 3.2 kilograms of TNT, which would demolish an average sized suburban house. There was nothing to indicate what had happened; no sound in the vacuum of space; no sensors to the poisonwood bible critical, detect explosions.
As the Service Module was not directly visible from the Command Module windows, the astronauts could not see what had happened behind their backs. Just a shudder from the policy spacecraft. At Goldstone and Honeysuckle Creek Tracking Stations the essay help prime receiver’s usually steady white “Signal in Lock” light suddenly blinked out and the alarms began their two-tone singing. The servo operator immediately switched to Program Track (antenna under computer control) and policy the receiver operators began trying to reacquire the signal but were only able to essay on a visit to badshahi mosque, find a weak signal coming from the spacecraft. Alan Foster on the Honeysuckle Creek receivers remembers: “The signal level dropped right down to about minus 140 db, I can remember struggling with it it was pretty grim but we managed to keep in lock. They also went on to emergency voice and became hard to hear.” “Fred was still in the Lunar Module.
Jack was back in the Command Module in thesis on investment policy the left hand seat. Reflective Essay On Group Project! And I was half way in between in the lower equipment bay wrestling with TV wires and thesis on investment a camera, watching Fred coming down.” Haise was crawling through the tunnel from the Lunar Module when he saw the wall of the tunnel flex, and felt the jar from the explosion. He jumped when the master alarm suddenly howled in his headset, mixed with Swigert’s voice from the facilities studies Command Module yelling about a panel alarm. “Now, before that, Fred being in the Lunar Module, had actuated a valve which normally gives us the same sound. since he didn’t tell us about it, we all rather jumped. But it was his joke and we all thought it was sort of fun until something happened.” “It wasn’t me!” Haise threw back at thesis on investment, Lovell’s inquiring expression as he instinctively dived for his couch in the Command Module. Swigert tried to slam the hatch shut behind him, thinking the jolt might have come from the Lunar Module being hit by something. The astronauts knew a high speed object not much bigger than a grain of stress research sand could rip open the flimsy skin of the thesis on investment policy Lunar Module and let their life supporting atmosphere vent out in moments.
Though Swigert wrestled with the on group project hatch, it wouldn’t lock shut as it was misaligned. As they still had their atmosphere and on investment policy were still alive, they pushed the hatch aside. All three astronauts’ pulse rates shot up to over 130. Facilities Management Studies! “It is interesting to note that days later, just before we jettisoned the Lunar Module, when the thesis policy hatch had to be closed and locked, Jack did it – easy as pie. That’s the kind of flight it was.” “It shook the essay spacecraft and scared the hell out of thesis on investment policy me. I proceeded to look at Jim and about the same time – I guess about two seconds had elapsed – when I had a master alarm and a main bus B undervolt light. I told Houston we had a problem and proceeded to reflective essay on group project, go over to thesis policy, the right hand side of the essays spacecraft to look at the voltage…” He saw the B bus voltage supplying half the power to drive the spacecraft, drop right out. Haise checked fuel cell #3 supplying its electricity, and found it dead, so connected the thesis policy alternative A power Bus to line, but it seemed to mosque, be on its way out too. A quick check of fuel cell #1 showed it was as dead as #3.
With only fuel cell #2 left to thesis, drive the essay on a visit to badshahi mosque A Bus, the astronauts realised from the on investment mission rules that landing on extended essay the moon was now impossible. At 1308 AEST Swigert called Houston with the now famous remark, “Okay, Houston, we’ve had a problem here.” Capcom Jack Lousma, “This is policy, Houston – say again, please.” “Houston – we’ve had a problem. Reflective Project! We’ve had a Main B Bus undervolt,” Lovell explained. “Roger. Main B undervolt. … Okay, stand by, Thirteen, we’re looking at it.” Capcom Lousma answered for the Mission Control team. In the Apollo 13 spacecraft, launched at 1313 hours (spacecraft time), it was 9:08 pm on April 13 . At Honeysuckle Creek it was 1308 hours (1:08 pm) on April 14. At Houston it was just after 2100 local on a pleasant clear evening. With three friends, Andy Saulietis had rigged up a telescope connected to a black and white television set on a roof of the Manned Spacecraft Center.
They were studying a slowly fading pinpoint of light approaching the on investment Moon – the Saturn IVB rocket following Odyssey , blinking as it tumbled along. While they watched, a bright spot appeared in the middle of the screen and over the next ten minutes grew into police stress, quite a bright ball. Thesis On Investment Policy! No one connected the flare with Apollo 13 they vaguely thought it was a defect in critical their television monitor. They left the rooftop quite oblivious to what they had witnessed – the oxygen tank on Apollo 13 exploding, and in ten minutes spreading into a gaseous sphere over 48 kilometres wide, glowing in the sunlight. Policy! Inside the Mission Control Center none of the Flight Controllers sitting at their consoles were aware of facilities outsourcing studies what had happened either, until some of them began seeing abnormal indications coming down their telemetry channels – strange readings from temperatures, pressures, voltages, and the status of various pieces of equipment. They were overwhelmed by reports of loss of the High Gain Antenna, spacecraft computer restarts, random thruster firings, and multiple system failures. It took them over fifteen minutes to thesis on investment, figure out that there had been some sort of explosion, but they were still hopeful the mission was going to proceed to a normal lunar landing. EECOM Sy Liebergot, the Flight Controller in charge of the Command and Service Module’s electrical and environmental systems, was now squarely in the hot seat: “Our data suddenly went ratty, some of economic essay it went static. I heard the announcements from the spacecraft and was already scanning my readouts. Nothing made sense.
I called Kranz, ‘We may have an instrumentation problem, Flight. Let me go ahead and check,’ which was my way of putting Kranz off, and he knew that.” “Rog.” Kranz replied. Thesis Policy! Hear Sy Liebergot’s EECOM loop starting just six seconds before the explosion. He asks about the cryo stir, and then we hear a burst of static as lock is lost on the High Gain Antenna. Reflective! We hear the team beginning to troubleshoot the on investment problem.
This recording is part of longer audio on a disc included with Sy’s book, “Apollo EECOM: Journey of a Lifetime” available from CG Publishing/Apogee Books. Euthanasia Help! This audio clip is thesis policy, also available on Sy’s website. Used with kind permission of, and with thanks to, Sy Liebergot. 1.1MB mp3 / 2 minutes 12 seconds. Clip starts at 055:54:49GET. Charlie Dumas (left) speaks with Gerry Griffin at bible critical essays, the EECOM console. Sy Liebergot, smoking a pipe, is at right.
From 16mm NASA footage several minutes before the explosion. Screenshot by on investment policy Colin Mackellar. Liebergot never saw the essay pressure spike in the oxygen tank that caused the explosion: “You look away, you blink, and it’s gone. That’s exactly what happened. We were doing the cryo stir and thesis policy I was just looking to the right of the the poisonwood bible critical oxygen tanks at the hydrogen tanks where the changes usually showed up first.
Everybody was looking at the hydrogen, which was about policy two inches over. When I looked back the spike had already gone. My backroom guys, Dick Brown, electrical system expert, and George Bliss and Larry Sheaks, my environmental control systems experts, were trying to figure out what was going on bible essays as well. To begin with we figured we just had a fuel cell problem and concentrated on that. Pretty soon we knew the thesis tank was gone, so I asked for an estimate of how long we had on euthanasia discursive essay help the remaining tank.” Liebergot had little to work on, only on investment policy displays of nearly fifty parameters all showing out of limit readings on his console. This was so sudden, without any warning, that he felt overwhelmed.
No amount of training or mission experience could prepare him for critical this crisis. Initially he knew that the two dead fuel cells drew their oxygen from the same source, and policy as the third cell was still working, at first he didn’t suspect the oxygen tanks. He was working on a Fuel Cell #3 leak, and trying to bible essays, isolate it. Also, he was still trying to thesis policy, figure out why two fuel cells would fail. Bible Essays! Then he saw that oxygen tank #2 was showing empty.
Its contents had all gone! Half the oxygen for the cabin atmosphere and the spacecraft power for on investment policy the mission had gone in two minutes – just vanished. Management Case Studies! They hadn’t even reached the moon. All their training and simulations had always relied on backup systems to thesis on investment policy, keep the mission going, nobody had been game enough to introduce a complete failure of all the visit to badshahi power systems into the simulations. As one of the on investment Flight Controllers said later, “This was so far down the line, if anyone had asked us to simulate it ahead of police research time we would all have said he was being unrealistic.” “I had all the feelings that went with not having the answers to the problem and not seeing any way out of it. Thesis Policy! It happened too quickly – it was a cascading failure which means the original failure got masked by the subsequent failures it created. We were never trained for a cascading series of problems leading to a catastrophe. Essay On A Visit To Badshahi Mosque! That’s not training. It was like saying the structure of the spacecraft was going to fail.” A minute or so after the explosion Alan Glines, the thesis policy communications engineer (INCO), reported to Kranz that the signal from the spacecraft had switched to the smaller omni antennas, which was probably due to the side panel hitting the the poisonwood critical big antenna on its way past. The weaker signal combined with the erratic behaviour of the spacecraft caused the receiver operators at Goldstone and Honeysuckle Creek and thesis policy the other stations difficulty in police holding onto the weak, fluctuating signal for the rest of the mission.
Then Lovell announced the voltage on the A Bus was beginning to drop. On Investment! An uneasy silence fell on facilities outsourcing studies the voice loops… “Okay, Houston, are you still reading Apollo 13?” Lovell couldn’t contain his anxiety any longer. “That’s affirmative,” replied Lousma, “We are reading you. We’re trying to on investment policy, come up with some good ideas here for you.” He looked appealingly at Kranz: “What can I tell them?” Kranz did not have an answer. Nobody had an mosque answer. Thesis On Investment! Capcom Jack Lousma apeaks with the crew onboard Apollo 13 after the explosion. Essay! Astronaut John Young is seated next to him. Thesis On Investment Policy! From 16mm NASA footage, screenshot by Colin Mackellar.
Lovell couldn’t understand why his ship was reeling drunkenly about the heavens. The thrusters were firing away trying to economic, bring the spacecraft under control, but unknown to either the astronauts or the flight controllers at the time the explosion had knocked some of the thrusters out. Lovell took over manual control, but found no matter how he tried, he could do no better than the automatic pilot – the spacecraft seemed to policy, have a mind of its own, always trying to veer away from the course. Outsourcing Studies! He decided to look out of the window in case he could see something outside. Thesis! As he swung himself onto the left seat and peered out, the sight that met his inquiring eyes formed a knot in his stomach – the sun was shining on a powerful stream of gas spurting out of the side of the Service Module. Sixteen minutes after the explosion, at 1322 AEST, Lovell remembers, “I happened to look out of the left hand window, and stress research papers saw the final evidence pointing toward potential catastrophe. ‘We are venting something out into the . into space,’ I reported to Houston.” “Roger, we copy you are venting,” acknowledged Lousma. In Mission Control a report of gas venting into space spread among the consoles like wildfire, and put a whole new dimension on the situation. On Investment! Liebergot: “I ignored that, I couldn’t deal with that.
I needed to go and find what I could do about it. Extended Essay! ” Fuel cell #2 was still producing electricity but when Lovell looked back at the oxygen pressures again Tank #2 was still reading zilch, but now Tank #1 was only half full, and dropping! They were going to lose all their oxygen – they weren’t going to have enough to on investment policy, bring the ship back home to essay on group, Earth! This was it! Lovell knew they were in trouble. But how serious was it? Was it only oxygen gas squirting out into space? How long did they have?
He immediately sensed that their next moves would be crucial to their survival, and their lives would depend on maintaining communication with Houston, and for that they needed power. There were only on investment 15 minutes of battery power left in the Command Module, and that was needed for reentry into the Earth’s atmosphere. The Earth was over 90 hours away . Lovell: “The knot in my stomach tightened, and bible critical essays all regrets about on investment not landing on the moon vanished. Now it was strictly a case for survival. I had seen the film Marooned and I must admit that the parallel crossed my mind.” He looked across to on a visit to badshahi, Haise, the LM expert and pilot, “We’re going to have to use Aquarius to get home.” Back in mission control, Liebergot also saw oxygen tank #1 contents disappearing before his eyes – the pressure dropping from 6,068 kPa down to 2,760 kPa in less than three minutes. Two thirds of the electrical power generation system was dead, and on investment policy there was only three hours of life left. Looking into essay project, the immediate future, he felt momentarily sick in the stomach. He grabbed the security handles on his console to steady himself down. On Investment! Was he going to be the first flight controller to lose a spacecraft and its crew out in space? “In all my life I have never felt so alone, as I did then.
I didn’t have the answers. It seemed we were on economic essay the point of losing everybody and everything.” What had to be done before the Command Module completely died? Would this crippled combination of a dead Command Service Module and a Lunar Module only designed to go down to the lunar surface and back with two people cope with demands and manoeuvres they were never designed for? There was little time left to make any plans. Everybody was facing problems that seemed to on investment, be leading to more problems. except the Lunar Module systems people they were standing by with a fully operational spacecraft, powered down waiting to arrive at the moon. It wasn’t long before they realised the research Lunar Module was going to be involved. During the Trans Lunar Coast phase of the mission, the Lunar Module was powered down to policy, conserve power, except for stress some critical systems kept warm by thermostatically controlled heaters powered by the Service Module batteries fed through the Command Module. Now they had lost the on investment policy power to the poisonwood bible essays, the relays that controlled the transfer of the power source to the Lunar Module batteries – so they could not turn the power on in the Lunar Module from its batteries in the descent stage. Thesis! That was the first big problem to be overcome. Strangely enough a year earlier, on 25 April 1969, during an Apollo 10 simulation the simulation team had failed the fuel cells in almost the same spot, and the simulation ended with a dead crew. It was decided that this failure was a bit unrealistic and the incident was forgotten as the Apollo program forged ahead.
Fortunately some of the more conscientious Lunar Module flight controllers had worried about their simulation failure, and decided to look into the problem. Jim Hannigan, branch chief of the Lunar Module flight controllers, assigned Donald Puddy to pick a team to work on the problem. Bill Legler, one of the key members of the team (who had been present during the Apollo 10 simulation) worked out some procedures that could reverse the power flow to go from the Lunar Module back into discursive help, the Command Module and energise the power transfer relays. These emergency procedures had never been completed and incorporated into the official procedures, but with the Apollo 13 situation these preliminary procedures were recovered and dusted off. They gave the Lunar Module controllers a head start. The engineer in charge of the electrical and environmental systems of the Lunar Module was Bill Peters, “I had just unplugged from the console and only taken two steps away when Bob Heselmeyer called out ‘You’d better come back here, I think something’s going on.’ I figured out pretty quickly it looked like a major disaster, and one of the plans in thesis on investment policy cases like this was to on a visit to badshahi mosque, close all the telephone lines in and out thesis policy of the Control Center so just in case I called my wife real quick and reflective essay project told her not to expect me home that night – turn on the TV to find out why – and hung up.” At the Goldstone tracking station a team was quickly formed to analyse the telemetry information they had just recorded, particularly the last few moments before the explosion. Bill Wood , lead USB Engineer: “We were able to read all bits up to on investment, signal loss by economic recording the data at a high speed of 60 inches per thesis on investment, second and playing it back at 3½ inches per second. Then we rolled the chart paper onto reflective essay on group the control room floor and counted the frames of data by eye to find out what each parameter was reading up to thesis on investment policy, the signal loss, and research papers what things looked like right after the signal was reacquired. My recollection was that the engineers found a pressure spike in the oxygen tank that exploded.” The telemetry showed the pressure shot up to 6,950 kPa for two seconds before dropping to zero in the next two seconds. Then Larry Sheaks called Liebergot to tell him that the thesis on investment policy oxygen surge tank in the Command Module was losing pressure. The surge tank was usually used for critical reentry only, but was used as a buffer to thesis on investment, keep the euthanasia discursive essay oxygen levels steady.
The EECOM from thesis policy, Milt Windler’s Maroon shift, John Aaron, was quietly shaving at home when the phone shrilled. It was Arnold Aldrich, his office manager, at Mission Control. Extended Essay! “Arnie said ‘Hey, John, these guys are working some kind of problem and I know your specialty is thesis, instrumentation patterns and they think this is a telemetry problem, but I don’t know.’ So I said to Arnie, ‘Go and read me some parameters off displays such and such, then go to displays such and such and read those out to me. He did all that and visit to badshahi mosque I said ‘Arnie, that is on investment, not a telemetry failure there is no pattern there that fits. Tell those guys they’ve got a real problem and I’ll be right there. By the time I came in, I got in on essay the tail end of analysing what had happened there, and started convincing the thesis on investment guys that they ought to power down the Command Module and economic extended essay save the batteries, because we were using battery power to troubleshoot the problem, and thesis on investment policy I knew these were the same batteries that were going to bring us home.
That was pretty traumatic because the Command and Service Module was never designed to be powered down in case studies space and we didn’t have any procedures to power it up from scratch. Normally it was powered up over a period of days on the pad before you launched, using a lot of thesis power.” Forty six minutes after the facilities outsourcing case studies explosion George Bliss informed Liebergot that there was only 1 hour 54 minutes left in O 2 Tank #1, when the last fuel cell would die. Then there would only on investment policy be the Command Module’s reentry batteries left – and they were needed for reentry. The unthinkable had happened and facilities management outsourcing there was no back up or redundant system to pull them out of this one. They were facing a major disaster in space. Liebergot announced on the intercom loop: “Flight, the pressure in O 2 tank 1 has dropped all the way down to 297 (psi) (2048 kPa) and we’d better think about thesis on investment getting into the LM.” Flight dynamics chief Jerry Bostick was sitting in essay on a visit to badshahi mosque the Trench listening to the drama deepening on the console behind him, and began to think of getting the spacecraft back as soon as possible. On Investment! He and his team soon discarded the immediate turn-around (direct abort which would bring them home in 34 hours) using the main SPS engine because the LM ‘lifeboat’ would have to be cast off, and doubt about the integrity of the Service Module – that is, how much damage had been done to the internal systems of the help Service Module? Was the engine damaged? Even if it wasn’t, there was no electricity to operate the engine controls such opening or closing valves. The alternative was to thesis, carry on and sling around the Moon. This was going to take up to four days – could they keep the astronauts alive for such a long period?
That was up to essay, the LM systems controllers. The Trench waited for the Flight Directors to make up their minds. Ken Mattingly slid alongside Lousma and thesis on investment policy plugged his headset in. He wanted to help his mates if he could. Kranz said this was his toughest call on Apollo 13. “My team was pretty much split down the middle.
Many of my systems controllers wanted to the poisonwood critical essays, get home in the fastest fashion possible.” By now there were two teams gathered around the consoles discussing the emergency and the chatter was getting out of hand so Kranz stood up and thesis on investment yelled around the room, “Okay all flight controllers cut the discursive essay help chatter. I want every member of the White team to settle down and get back on the voice loops – the rest of you shut up.” Still damp from being called from policy, a shower at home, Chris Kraft had arrived by now and joined the intercom conversation at his Director’s console, just before thirty three year old Glynn Lunney was due to take over the next shift. The Poisonwood Essays! Leader of the Maroon team, Milt Windler, also joined the group. Lunney had been discussing the return options with Bostick and an intense discussion developed between the thesis Flight Directors on the best course of critical action, ending with Kranz addressing Kraft, “Our only real option is to go around the on investment Moon.” Chris Kraft, Astronaut Jim McDivitt, and Robert Gilruth in the back row of the MOCR. Behind them is the bible critical glass window of the on investment VIP viwewing room. Reflective On Group Project! From 16mm NASA footage, screenshot by thesis policy Colin Mackellar. Kraft agreed, “When do you want to do the burn?” The decision was made, and the Flight Dynamics controllers in the Trench breathed a sigh of relief and began to work out a burn procedure for discursive a trajectory to on investment policy, sling around the Moon and return home. So 53 minutes after the explosion, an emergency plan began to evolve. Economic! Astronauts Gene Cernan (left), Deke Slayton (coat) and Ed Mitchell look on thesis on investment as Jack Lousma sits as his Capcom console.
From 16mm NASA footage, screenshot by police stress research Colin Mackellar. “I was already in a back room of the thesis on investment Control Center when we got the report that there was a problem. We were due on shift at management outsourcing case, about 10:00 pm (USCST) that night. The spacecraft crew were supposed to go to sleep and we were supposed to sit there and watch a sleep shift. I went in and plugged in with Gene; I knew the spacecraft crew had reported a bang and on investment policy some venting, so there was a suspicion there was some kind of problem, but people still weren’t sure how serious the problem was. There were a set of confusing indicators we had lost the oxygen in one tank so we lost the reflective project fuel cell that was plugged to it, and that fuel cell was plugged to the B electrical Buss. The RCS thrusters were split between main Bus A and Main Bus B, so we had lost half the thrusters which gave us these attitude control problems.
We became involved in closing off the fuel cells, one at a time, to on investment policy, try to economic essay, isolate a leak within the fuel cells, but once you shut them down, you can’t get them back, and I remember doing that as a last resort. We had a number of situations to deal with. We were on a non free-return trajectory. Thesis Policy! Up until Apollo 13 we had used trajectories that would loop around the Moon to return approximately into the entry corridor. Here we were not going to come back to any safe kind of Earth entry at all. We were also at the poisonwood bible essays, a point where it would have been very expensive in thesis on investment terms of essay on a visit to badshahi propulsion to turn around and come back without looping around the thesis on investment Moon. Extended! That was considered for a while, but the only way we knew how to do that was to dump the descent stage of the thesis on investment Lunar Module and use all of the Service Propulsion fuel, but the two problems with that were we couldn’t power the Service Module up any more, we were only down to batteries, so we couldn’t sustain a power load to run the Service Propulsion engine, and we didn’t want to dump the mosque descent stage of the Lunar Module because it was our lifeboat where most of the batteries, water and so on were stored. Parallel with all this going on with the guidance people was what are we going to do to power the Lunar Module up. We knew we had to get it powered up enough to take care of the manoeuvre later, but we also began to realise that the thesis on investment way the police research telescope worked for aligning the platform in the Lunar Module that it probably wouldn’t work by itself while it was attached to thesis, the Command Module out in free space. We realised we had to get an critical alignment from the Command Module guidance reference system, the inertial platform, and thesis on investment policy transfer it over to the Lunar Module which was a lot of number plugging by the crew members, followed and checked by the people on the ground.
This of course happened some time after we got the Lunar Module powered up. We got the Lunar Module powered up but as we went through it we were trying to figure out help what we didn’t have to bring up because we knew we were going to be power limited and thesis on investment water coolant limited to get home. The Lunar Module was designed for two men for two days and we knew we were at least four or five days from home with three people. We knew we couldn’t stay powered up at these levels so we had to figure out a way to extended, cut the thesis on investment policy power down. We also knew we had limited amounts of consumables on board.
We got the Lunar Module configured so it could do a passive thermal control. Instead of a rolling manoeuvre, which we normally used, we rotated the vehicle ninety degrees every hour so we could get equal sun (heating) and cooling on facilities management case the vehicle. As we could watch this on the ground the crew didn’t have to worry about it. Once we got in that position we said we’re on this non-free return, why don’t we trim that out and thesis on investment get the vehicle on a free return so if anything happens later we are least heading for the reentry corridor. On Group Project! So we did this 40 foot per on investment policy, second manoeuvre that put us on a free return trajectory. After that we began to try to take power off everything that we didn’t need and we began to lay out in detail the options for how big or small a manoeuvre we would do at to badshahi, seventy nine and a half hours into the mission, after we got around the Moon. We settled on a manoeuvre that wasn’t quite maximum but would get us back by about 142 hours. We had also figured out how to husband the consumables. By the end of my shift about ten hours later we had put the vehicle back on an Earth return trajectory, the inertial guidance platform had been transferred to the Lunar Module, and we kept the Lunar Module reasonably powered up for on investment policy the burn planned for two hours after we had turned the corner at police stress, the Moon. We had a plan for thesis policy what that manoeuvre would be, and we had a consumable profile that really left us with reasonable margins at stress research papers, the end.”
Glynn Lunney (left) and Milt Windler, take stock of the situation. On Investment Policy! Behind them, in the background, is research papers, Robert Gilruth. Deke Slayton is in the foreground. From 16mm NASA footage, screenshot by Colin Mackellar. Here’s a view of the MOCR during Glynn Lunney’s shift, after the accident. Panorama assembled from thesis on investment, 16mm NASA footage by CM. Bible Essays! Gene Kranz and his White Team continued their shift for an extra hour before handing over to Glynn Lunney and the Black Team, and went to the back of the building to study data from the spacecraft. Kranz decided to step out of the Houston shift sequence and head a Tiger Team to thesis on investment policy, concentrate on the engineering and procedures to get the crippled spacecraft and its crew back home. “The key thing here was I didn’t form the Tiger Team the outsourcing case studies Tiger Team to a great extent always existed. During the Apollo Program we flew with four mission control teams, and one team was always designated as the Lead Team and in case of any mission difficulties it was that team’s responsibility to establish the game plan, the recovery plan, do the trouble shooting and that just happened to fall into my team. We had many problems here we had a variety of survival problems, we had electrical management, water management, and we had to figure out how to navigate because the stars were occluded by the debris cloud surrounding the spacecraft. Basically we had to turn a two day spacecraft into a four and a half day spacecraft with an extra crewmember to get the thesis on investment crew back home.
We were literally working outside the mosque design and test boundaries of the spacecraft so we had to invent everything as we went along. There were many lead people, but the three people I would name were Arnie Aldrich who handled the thesis checklist, John Aaron with the power management, and Bill Peters who looked at the Lunar Module and tried to figure out how it could be most effective as a lifeboat.” There were no official procedures to refer to even the emergency procedures didn’t cover losing all three Command Module fuel cell power sources and using the Lunar Module in lieu of the Command Module. At 1456 AEST on the poisonwood essays 14 April Lovell and Haise had already decided to climb into the Lunar Module, “Without much discussion from the ground, both Jim and I decided to head for the LM. At this point we only had one choice and took it,” Haise explained. Swigert was left to wind down the Command Module.
The last oxygen tank was nearly empty. Capcom Jack Lousma told the astronauts, “Thirteen, Houston. We’d like you to start making your way over to the LM now” Swigert replied: “Fred and Jim are in the LM.” Lovell had joined Haise in the LM, who was already throwing switches to bring the power up when Swigert yelled down the tunnel, “Houston wants the LM powered up.” Haise advised Houston, “. and Jack, I got LM power on.” GUIDO Will Fenner (green shirt) at the Guidance console as the navigation platform is transferred from Odyssey to Aquarius . On Investment Policy! From 16mm NASA footage, screenshot by Colin Mackellar. Essay On A! Swigert said he had never seen the LM activated so fast, but it still wasn’t fast enough. He had to turn the on investment reentry battery in economic extended the Command Module on to keep the navigation guidance system going until the crucial settings were transferred to the Lunar Module system. Just as Lovell set up a good alignment at 1513 AEST, the last Fuel Cell #2, died.
Lovell: “Getting that transfer was the first big turning point.” The concern is evident on the face of astronaut John Young as he stands beside Capcom Jack Lousma. Behind him is thesis on investment, astronaut Tom Stafford. From 16mm NASA footage, screenshot by Colin Mackellar. Houston told Swigert to research, close the Command Module down. The power had to thesis policy, be turned off in a carefully planned sequence so it could be brought back up ready for visit to badshahi reentry. At 1553 he turned off the last switch, looked around the lifeless cabin no cosy lights, no friendly voices from the thesis radio, no gurgling from pipes or whirring of fans their cheerful home of reflective essay on group project a moment ago was just dark and dead 333,125 empty kilometres from Earth, and racing away from it at 3,380 kilometres per hour! He floated into the Lunar Module, and said to Lovell and Haise, “It’s up to you now.” He suddenly felt lost. Thesis! He was trained for the Command and Service Module, a position normally busy right through the mission.
Now he could only watch the other two expertly bringing the Lunar Module to life. The last few hours had been fast and furious, crammed with momentous life threatening events; now it was just waiting. for what? Haise said that he lost all track of time during those hectic five hours, full of extended rapid-fire events. It was more like a dream than reality because of the policy jolt from the security of comfort and order to the onslaught of unexpected events and fleeting images and feeling very vulnerable to the hostile environment of empty space. Dead tired, he was the first to drag himself into the Command Module to sleep soundly for euthanasia essay help the next five hours. RIGHT ACROSS THE CONTINENT, FROM PERTH TO SYDNEY, AUSTRALIA PITCHES IN TO HELP APOLLO 13. “At the time of the explosion I was operating the ranging system, which measured the distance and speed of the spacecraft, when I heard Swigert send his problem call, and then listened as the flight controllers sent a barrage of instructions up to the spacecraft, punctuated by on investment policy terse responses from the astronauts. Once we had acquired on the smaller omni antenna, my equipment was managing to keep locked on facilities the spacecraft signal, but my finger was hovering beside the ‘acquire’ button in case of drop-outs. At that stage we did not know it was a life-threatening situation, we thought it was a communications problem with the spacecraft.
The first indication of the seriousness of the crisis to us at on investment, Honeysuckle Creek was when Mission Control in Houston called the Operations Supervisor at Honeysuckle Creek and asked, ‘How long would it take to get Parkes up?’ Parkes was the CSIRO’s radio telescope used during the the poisonwood critical essays Apollo 11 mission. It was not called up for the Apollo 13 mission because the astronauts now used a big portable umbrella antenna for communications from the on investment lunar surface. I knew the situation was really serious as you don’t just casually ask to use the 64 metre radio astronomy antenna at economic extended, Parkes without making high level arrangements with plenty of warning.” In Mission Control the low signal levels from the spacecraft were causing concern. Chris Kraft, Director of Flight Operations, “We wanted to make sure that we got a good telemetry signal, and Parkes was one of the places where we knew we could get it.” “Parkes isn’t committed to this mission,” Mike Dinn informed them. “Oh, then Mr Kraft will be calling your Director on the phone shortly, “ Houston replied.
Honeysuckle Creek Station Director Don Gray : Don Gray, Station Director, in his office at Honeysuckle Creek. Photo: Hamish Lindsay. “I was sitting in thesis on investment my office listening to this conversation on the net, and in moments the police stress phone rang. Chris Kraft said to me ‘We have a serious problem on the spacecraft; it looks like we are going to have to power down and will need all the antennas we can get. Do what you can to get Parkes up as soon as possible.’ First of thesis on investment all I called Tom Reid, the Director at Tidbinbilla, to organise a crew to go to Parkes, then I rang John Bolton at Parkes to find he was already aware of the problem and was prepared to change the antenna over to support the NASA signals.” At the essays Deep Space Station at Tidbinbilla the request took Station Director Tom Reid by surprise: “What are you talking about? It takes weeks of negotiations between the CSIRO and NASA Headquarters, agreements and money and budgets.’ Then I got a black phone call , ‘Hey look, we’ve got a problem on board the spacecraft this is a serious thing, think again about how soon you can do it – never mind about thesis on investment policy budgets and money.’ The contractor’s people responded magnificently, got themselves down to Parkes luckily the the poisonwood critical essays equipment was still there, it just wasn’t configured. NASA hastily flew out Bob Taylor, one of the Goddard engineers, to on investment, be there, as he knew the police stress papers system.”
Dr John Bolton, Director of Parkes. Photo from thesis policy, a 1967 ABC publication, via John Sarkissian. “I was listening to the conversation between Houston and James Lovell, and as had been my habit, had thoroughly digested the flight plan. Bible Essays! I realised that the only solution was to occupy the LM and use its facilities. The very low power (signal from the spacecraft) and thesis on investment the fact that the journey would be in Parkes coverage time meant we would certainly be called in. I rang Tom Reid, the euthanasia discursive essay Director of Tidbinbilla, with whom I had an thesis excellent relationship, to ask for the NASA crew to be sent in; I rang Taffy (Dr. E.G.
Bowen) to let him know what assistance I would need from Sydney; and then Charlie Chenhall (RP Workshop Supervisor) to organise supplies and aircraft. Fortunately Radhakrishnan (Venkataraman Radhakrishnan, Director of the Raman Research Institute, Bangladore, India) was conducting a special experiment on the telescope and essay a number of engineers were on hand. They dismantled and carried Rad’s equipment down the ladder of policy one of the feed legs, while Parkes staff used the reflective on group lift to thesis policy, get the extended essay NASA gear to the focus. We accomplished in 10 hours what normally took close to a week.” Bruce Window , Tidbinbilla USB Supervisor: “It was about 6 pm. I was working on shift at Tidbinbilla when we were cranked up straight away to get to policy, Parkes in a hurry in the poisonwood critical essays a light aircraft, a Cessna 337. It was a hairy trip. At the same time the CSIRO had been given the message and on investment policy they had taken their feedcone off and had started to assemble our feedcone.
We arrived in the dark, drove out to the site, by which time the CSIRO had flashed up all their part of the equipment. On that first day we had got the voice but we hadn’t got all the on a visit to badshahi mosque links through to Honeysuckle. On Investment Policy! I can remember holding the cable and shouting in outsourcing case studies frustration, I had the stuff in my hand but I couldn’t do anything with it! Predictions were the problem (the information where to on investment policy, point the antenna), they were a big problem early on. We just had to rely on predictions from NASA. Stress Research! John Bolton and on investment his boys had to work around them as much as they could. We didn’t get any really good data from Parkes that first night. They were relying heavily on us because of the improved quality of signal they were able to up the reflective on group bit rate by one step with our signal from what they were getting from the 26 metre dishes (such as Honeysuckle) that was why they needed us at Parkes. We worked 16 hour days.” “I was relaxing at home when I had a phone call from the shift supervisor at the time to say there was a problem, so I immediately went in to find that Apollo 13 really was in trouble.
Next there was a call from the Network Manager in the United States to say they wanted two things immediately they wanted to activate the lines to Parkes, and the second one, which was a bit more difficult, was to get some kind of broadband communication between the Carnarvon OTC Earth station and the Carnarvon Tracking Station. They wanted everything they could get. I worked out I still had a few friends left in thesis on investment policy the PMG (Post Master General’s Department) in Western Australia who could help us out. So, by 4 o’clock in the morning I dragged one of my friends out of bed, and he said, ‘Oh, I think I have got an essay on a OB (Outside Broadcast) link we could use, I’ll see what I can do give me a call back in an hour.’ When I called him back he said, ‘Yes, I’ve organised it, two OB vans will be leaving the depot in Perth for Carnarvon at thesis on investment, 8 o’clock this morning, as soon as the guys get to work.’ There was no mention of money, or anything like that, it was a matter of let’s do it and sort things out stress afterwards. At the same time I got cracking with the thesis on investment PMG. Because we already had circuits into Parkes, there was a probability most of it was still working. I called people out of bed and they found most of the link was there, and pretty soon after the Tidbinbilla guys arrived we had the links up.” Trevor Gray , PMG technician: “We worked non-stop through the night to get the links going.
After Apollo 11 we had trouble with the connections exploding when we switched the equipment on because of the discursive essay high voltage and moisture getting in, so we had left the thesis on investment equipment switched on, but then all the visit mosque electronic valves had deteriorated, and we were frantically trying to on investment policy, find the sick valves and change them before we could get the links going.” Wilfred Laing , Senior Technical Officer at the Redfern Microwave Terminal in help Sydney was interrupted by the phone ringing: “It was the policy City South Control to say they needed Parkes up in the poisonwood a hurry. I rang through to thesis policy, Parkes to police stress research papers, find they were already setting their end up. Somebody must have had a premonition because only a few days before we had put up a temporary link from on investment policy, Parkes to Sydney via Orange just in case it may be required. We dropped everything we were doing with the state networks and economic extended concentrated on the Apollo circuits.” Meanwhile out in space the astronauts found that as soon as they brought the Lunar Module communications system on thesis on investment line it clashed with the Saturn IVB rocket following them, as they were both transmitting on euthanasia essay the same frequency. Because the Apollo 12 mission had left a seismometer on the moon, the Saturn IVB was organised to crash on the moon for seismic readings, and extra batteries had been added for communications to last until impact. Normally, this should occur well before the thesis on investment Lunar Module was fired up. So with both the Saturn IVB and Lunar Module transmitters on the same frequency it was the same as having two radio stations on the same spot on the dial of your radio.
Which one does it try to lock onto? Bill Wood at the Goldstone Tracking Station, “The Flight Controllers at Houston wanted us to move the signal from the Lunar Module across to the other side of the Saturn IVB signal to allow for expected doppler changes. Tom Jonas, our receiver-exciter engineer, yelled at me, ‘that’s not going to work! We will end up locking both spacecraft to one up-link and wipe out the telemetry and euthanasia discursive voice contact with the crew.’ I jumped on the station intercom and strongly requested Bill Sheridan, the thesis on investment Station Operations Supervisor, to tell Houston what would happen, but they just told us to follow instructions.
So at that time Houston lost telemetry with the Saturn IVB and voice contact with the spacecraft crew. Luckily our big 64 metre Mars antenna was already switching over to the Apollo emergency and their narrower beam width managed to discriminate between the essay visit to badshahi two signals and the telemetry and on investment policy voice links were restored. Essays! So the situation stabilised from our point of view until it was time for us to hand this ‘mess’ over to Honeysuckle Creek in Australia.” Honeysuckle Creek was tracking with its smaller 26 metre antenna. On Investment! Deputy Director Mike Dinn : “This was where the receiver operators earned their money. When they fired up the LM, we had both signals in the same bandwidth and we had ten receivers that could lock to one or the the poisonwood bible critical essays other and did!
Before the mission I had foreseen the possibility of our having to thesis on investment, cope with the Saturn IVB and the LM together. The Poisonwood Bible Critical! There was nothing written down in the procedures and I remember calling Goddard Space Flight Center in Maryland, our technical advisors, to discuss what we might do, and on investment we agreed there would be no difficulty in “pulling” the frequencies apart by tuning the station transmitters appropriately. Stress Papers! I was used to this procedure in the Deep Space Network in the early years of on investment lunar and papers planetary exploration. Anyway, I remember that we acquired the two spacecraft and on investment policy successfully pulled the two links apart. Then Houston asked us to tune the frequency of one transmitter and police stress I immediately recognised this would bring all the frequencies back together again. I tried to talk Houston out of this, even asking Goddard to tell them, but was unsuccessful, and we had to carry out the request.
The problems we knew would happen, occurred.” John Mitchell , Honeysuckle USB Shift Supervisor: “Back when Apollo 1 had the fire, during the long suspension period that followed we used to on investment, hire a Cessna 210 and practice handovers and that sort of thing. When Mike Dinn was looking for emergency procedures I put up the on a visit theory that what happens if the Saturn IVB signal does keep going for some reason? So I proposed the theory of thesis getting the the poisonwood bible critical essays LM to switch off and we practiced that time and time again with the aircraft. On Investment Policy! I told Mike Dinn that this was the way to go.” From his previous discussions with Goddard, Dinn agreed: “I advised Houston that the only way out of this mess was to on a mosque, ask the astronauts in on investment policy the LM to turn off its signal so we could lock on to the Saturn IVB, then turn the LM back on and pull it away from the Saturn signal.” “They came back in management outsourcing case an hour and told us to go ahead, and thesis Houston transmitted the instructions up to economic, the astronauts ‘in the blind’ hoping the astronauts could hear, as we couldn’t hear them at that moment. On Investment Policy! The downlink from the spacecraft suddenly disappeared, so we knew they got the message. When we could see the Saturn IV downlink go way out to the prescribed frequency, we put the essay to badshahi second uplink on, acquired the LM, put the sidebands on, locked up and tuned away from the Saturn IVB.
Then everything worked fine.” In the left foreground at the servo console is Brian Bell, behind him is policy, Bernard Smith bending over the System Monitor chart recorder. Along the receiver console behind are the receiver operators, Graham Fraser, Ross Barnes, and Jerry Bissicks. Photo: Hamish Lindsay, exact date unknown. In Houston, the stress papers Director of Flight Operations, Chris Kraft, came out and grimly told the media, “This is as serious a situation as we have ever had in a manned spaceflight.” People around the thesis world, already blas about moon missions, suddenly became engrossed in this gripping drama from space as the world’s media wound themselves up for reflective essay this journalists’ manna from the Apollo program. Everybody was wondering would they come back alive?
Director of Flight Operations, Chris Kraft, speaks to on investment policy, the media at a midnight press conference in the MSC Auditorium. Courtesy Spacecraft Films. With no power, the Command Module lapsed into a dark tomb, steadily getting colder and colder. Beads of moisture formed over all the surfaces, crusting the windows. Occasional flashes of sunlight through the windows pierced the facilities management outsourcing case studies darkness lit only by their torches. Outside, a cloud of vented gases and debris gathered around the spacecraft. Sparkling in the brilliant sunlight, they stopped any chance of the on investment policy astronauts taking sights on stars for essay mosque their navigation. “The spacecraft was doing things I had never seen before. The LM was never designed to have a 27,000 kilogram dead Command and Service Module attached to it, so I literally had to learn to fly the vehicle all over again.” Apollo 13 was the second mission that had deviated from the ‘free-return’ trajectory, where the spacecraft would automatically sling around the Moon and return to Earth if anything had gone wrong. When the missions began to policy, aim at the western landing sites the spacecraft took a different path and would not automatically return to Earth. Now they had to get back on to a free return trajectory, or they would miss the reflective essay on group project Earth by something like 70,000 kilometres.
The only reliable engine available was the LM’s descent motor, but that was never designed to push the combined CSM and LM, and on investment there were no procedures to use it in this way or simulations. Although pilots are reluctant to admit it, the computer can control burns much more accurately and reliably than manual control, so the astronauts waited anxiously while Houston figured out the rocket’s burn times. Fred Haise calls Capcom Jack Lousa, to ask about plans for the return flight. Starting at 059:17:53GET. This recording illustrates another problem caused by locking the IU and LM transponders to essay, the same frequency. Thesis On Investment! Bill Wood: “The GDS Wing was uplinking to the IU and GDS prime was uplinking to essay visit to badshahi mosque, the LM. That would have caused problems receiving both voice and command from the ground.
While there was only one 30 kHz voice subcarrier from the thesis on investment policy GDS Prime, the presence of two uplink carriers would have caused the euthanasia essay interference that the on investment crew was hearing.” Clip starts at 059:59:05GET. The headline on Sydney’s The Sun newspaper, printed just hours after the explosion, tells the story. Meanwhile Lovell and Haise were wrestling with an uncontrollable spacecraft, trying to stabilise it and get away from the glittering debris enveloping them. They needed to see the outsourcing stars to check they were pointing in the right direction for the burn. Every ruse failed.
They could only hope the data transferred from the Command Module was still accurate enough. “Roger, Aquarius, You are go for policy the burn,” Capcom Lousma finally announced. Haise commented, “This was yet untried. I knew, of course, that if we failed to blast into reflective on group project, the free return trajectory we were doomed to swing around the Moon, miss the Earth, and go into eternal orbit around it.” First of all Lovell had to on investment policy, remember to unfold the Lunar Module’s legs so they wouldn’t get blasted by the descent rocket’s exhaust. Then he carefully followed the extended essay burn procedures radioed up from Houston, hunched over the computer display with his hand on the throttle control. At 1842:43 AEST Tuesday 14 April the engine burned for 34.23 seconds, just over the scheduled 30 seconds. “Auto shutdown.” Lovell advised Houston and everyone hung anxiously onto the trajectory displays. Policy! Was the Lunar Module’s motor able to do the job? Was Apollo 13 coming home?
Soon the tracking data showed that the burn was perfect. Apollo 13 was going to round the moon at about 209 kilometres instead of 97 kilometres above the on group surface and would return to Earth . into the Indian Ocean. “Any old ocean would do as long as it was on the Earth,” announced a relieved Lovell. A long way away from the main recovery forces waiting for on investment policy them in the Pacific, but at least it was back on police stress papers Earth. The nearest American ship was the destroyer Bordelon , cruising off the coast of Mauritius, but the American Department of Defense sent assurances they could get aircraft to the area. Due to the growing confidence in the Apollo program, this was the first time mission secondary recovery forces had not been sent to the South Atlantic, let alone the Indian Ocean. Lovell checked around the policy instrument panels, and announced the extended next major item on his mind: “Okay, Houston, burn’s complete. Now we have to talk about powering down.” The next big problem were the consumables it wasn’t much good the spacecraft arriving back on Earth with the astronauts dead from on investment policy, asphyxiation. The Lunar Module was only designed for two people for 45 hours, now it was going to management case, have to support three bodies jammed in it for 90 hours.
There just wasn’t enough water or power to thesis on investment, last the voyage back to facilities studies, Earth. Lovell figured that the on investment earliest they could get back would be around midnight on the poisonwood Friday; and he couldn’t see how it could possibly keep them going that long. In the Lunar Module Haise was looking at the situation. There was plenty of oxygen but the electrical power and cooling water worried him. The LM had no fuel cells, only batteries for policy two days of normal operation, and the water used for cooling the electronic systems would run out about 5 hours before reentry by his calculations. Earlier tests had shown that the essay on group Lunar Module could survive for about 7 hours without cooling before the on investment guidance system would be the first to succumb to essay on a to badshahi mosque, the heat. Thesis Policy! Haise waited for Mission Control’s assessment.
The Tiger Team at Mission Control knuckled down to working out how to economic extended essay, cut all consumables down to a basic existence level. Thesis On Investment! “We gathered up in the back room with Kranz because there was nothing for the Command and Service Module guys to do in real time on the consoles because the spacecraft was dead. Kranz started talking about the strategy, what we were going to to badshahi, do going around the on investment policy Moon and when we get back close to Earth we will power the spacecraft up and visit mosque do the reentry. and I said, ‘Kranz you can’t do that because you don’t have the power’ and he said, ‘Okay John Aaron, you’re in charge of power if anybody wants any power you go and on investment see John Aaron.’ So I said, ‘Tell you what guys, I’ve got some ideas, but let me put them down a piece of paper and come back in an hour and I’ll show you a way we might be able to do this.’ So they came back in about an hour, and I had sketched out a rough profile and I told them, ‘Okay guys, this is the poisonwood bible, all the power we’ve got so we’ll have to do the guidance system and all this stuff this way. ’ and everybody started saying ‘Oh my God, you can’t do that - we’ve got to have this, we’ve got to have that’ and on investment that started a whole sequence of the brokerage process between me allocating subsystems and switch turn-ons and circuit breakers and keeping track of the power profile. That went on until we got very close to reentry, and it started taking on euthanasia essay help more and more refinement, until it finally got to the point that a crew started trying it in thesis on investment policy the simulators just to make sure these guys could actually do that. It was an endless iteration of brokerages across those days, and you have to essay on a to badshahi mosque, remember all the power analysis was done on arithmetic and slide rules we never had any calculators.” Bill Peters, Lunar Module TELMU, or electrical and environmental systems engineer, “We had developed some off-line computer programs that gave a time line power profile output. Thesis On Investment Policy! We were running a load of anything up to 30 amps with the visit mosque computers up, and thesis there was no way we could get back with that sort of stress research load. Thesis On Investment! I figured if we could get down to about 12 amps we would be okay. We only knew this from our ground computations. Actually we had an error in facilities management outsourcing case our ground computation that under calculated so those batteries were consuming more than we had calculated. The first time I felt we could make it home was when we went around the thesis on investment policy Moon and did the real LM power down and the numbers came up on the screen. Before that there was a possibility they would not make it.
Once we hit the 12 amps I was convinced we had it made. We had very little powered up, only some communication equipment and the cabin fan to circulate the air. John Aaron came to me and wanted me to charge up the reentry batteries in the Command Module. We had concocted a scheme where we ran two CSM to LM umbilical cables backwards they were designed for the CSM to send power to the LM to facilities outsourcing studies, heaters to keep some components warm while travelling to on investment policy, the Moon. This powered the Command Module’s inverters to charge its batteries.
I gave them all the fat that I could come up with, as much power as I felt we could afford.” On Earth emergency teams swung into reflective project, action around the country, from California to New York, where there were 10 phone lines kept open between Mission Control and a room staffed with 70 Lunar Module experts at the manufacturer’s plant in Bethpage, Long Island. Thesis On Investment! On 14 April the US Senate adopted a resolution urging all communications media and businesses to pause at essay, 2100, their local time, to “permit persons to join in prayer for the safety of the astronauts.” On the same day President Nixon cancelled his appointments and drove out to thesis on investment, the Goddard Space Flight Centre in Maryland, accompanied by Apollo 11 astronaut Michael Collins, at the time Assistant Secretary of State for Public Affairs, to find out the essay on a visit to badshahi details of how the thesis on investment mission was progressing. Despite the Cold War, the Russians ordered four ships to the splashdown area, and Premier Aleksei Kosygin sent a message, “I want to inform you the Soviet Government has given orders to all citizens and members of the armed forces to use all necessary means to render assistance in the rescue of the American astronauts.” 6 min 47s / 1.4MB mp3. This is 12 hours after the explosion and the comms is now much better. Starting at economic extended essay, 066:35GET.
Wednesday 15 April 1970. By 1520 on on investment policy 15 April the crew in the crippled spacecraft had followed the ground instructions. Lovell, “We shut off all those exotic electronic devices that we would not normally be caught without out there the guidance systems, the computer, the auto pilot. We only had the visit radio for communications and a little fan to circulate the policy atmosphere.” “For most of the first two days after the mosque explosion we split shifts . I was awake in policy the LM alone while Jim and Jack slept in euthanasia discursive help the CSM and vice versa. So there was no crowding during that period. It finally became so cold that we all just stayed in the LM. In zero G, though crowded, it was just a soft nudge if you happened to bump into someone. Most of the time Jack floated in the back area of the LM crew cabin out of the way, so the thesis on investment area was really not that confining. And it was good to have the the poisonwood bible critical essays three of us together in the same vehicle. The added ‘heat of the third body’ helped to thesis, raise the temperature in the LM.” The moonlight was flooding into discursive essay, the spacecraft’s interior and the astronauts were able to put their torches away.
They had cut their consumption of water down to 170 grams per day. Thesis On Investment Policy! As Houston told them to save the essay project Lunar Module’s water for cooling, Lovell told Swigert to transfer all the drinking water from the Command Module to the Lunar Module, which he did using plastic juice bags, but he sloshed some of the water into his boots, and suffered the misery of cold wet feet for the rest of the thesis trip. They ate cold hot dogs and wet pack foods, when they ate at all, the Command Module having the only water heating system. All the food and drinks were cold refrigerator cold! They didn’t get very thirsty and became quite dehydrated. This crew set a record by losing 50% more weight than any other crew, Lovell losing 6 kilograms. As Apollo 13 approached the backside of the economic extended Moon the Sun set behind the thesis on investment rim. An eerie darkness enveloped the economic spacecraft. The glinting, blinding debris surrounding them vanished and the surrounding velvet blackness was studded with an illimitable sea of thesis on investment policy bright stars stars in reflective every direction. The thick band of thesis policy stars making up the Milky Way stretched across the void. Facilities Case Studies! The crew then became aware some of the stars were blotted out by two sinister black clouds accompanying the spacecraft.
Lovell, “I can’t for the life of me figure out what that dark stuff is.” Haise, “Yes – did you look at it, Jack?” Swigert, “Yes, okay. see it there like two black clouds.” They decided it was the debris from the explosion. They became subdued as they remembered the crisis-laden moments of the explosion until a voice from Earth broke the thesis on investment policy spell, “Go ahead Houston.” “Okay, Jim, we have a little over two minutes until loss of signal and everything’s looking good here.” Vance Brand’s matter-of-fact voice from the the poisonwood bible critical essays security of the Mission Control Center showed he was unaware of the mood in the spacecraft’s cabin. “Roger, I take it you don’t want us to activate any other systems or make any other preparations until we reacquire signal?” Lovell checked. “Okay, we’ll just sit tight, then. See you on the other side.” Apollo 13 rounds the thesis on investment Moon. View from Aquarius, with the police research papers Command Module at right.
NASA JSC scan via the ALSJ. AS13-62-8909. APOLLO 13 SETS A RECORD, TAKING HUMANS TO THE GREATEST DISTANCE FROM EARTH. At 1021:35 AEST on on investment policy Wednesday 15 April (GET 77:08:35) Apollo 13 coasted behind the Moon and lost contact with the tracking stations on Earth for about 24 minutes 35 seconds. As they looped around the back of the Moon, at a maximum height of visit to badshahi 253.7 kilometres above the lunar surface, the Moon was 400,171 kilometres away from the Earth, further than any other Apollo mission. According to the Guinness Book of Records at this point Lovell, Swigert, and Haise set a record as the on investment policy humans to travel the farthest away from Earth. The crew lost the crescent sunlit edge of the essay project Moon behind them and flew over a totally black lunar surface until about five minutes before Earthrise a glow appeared on the lunar horizon.
Haise saw it first, then Lovell moved back to let Swigert see the view through the window. While Lovell hovered at the back of the cabin the two first timers were glued to the Command Module’s windows, gazing in awe at the grim and desolate landscape of chaotic craters and torturous rilles, taking photographs and exclaiming, “Wow, look at that!” “Hey, you guys come on we’ve got a burn to thesis on investment policy, do. If we don’t get this right you won’t get your pictures developed!” Lovell had seen it all before on Apollo 8. “It’s all right for you you’ve been here before – we haven’t.” They still couldn’t take their eyes from the passing spectacle. Mare Moscoviense. View from Aquarius . AS13-62-8922. From the Apollo Image Atlas of the Lunar and visit Planetary Institute.
After reacquiring the tracking stations on Earth at 1046:10 AEST the crew began to prepare for the Lunar Module’s descent rocket firing to bring them home faster. AOS. Starting at 077:35:39GET. While they were waiting for the burn, Houston called up, “By the thesis policy way, Aquarius, we see the results of Apollo 12’s seismometer. Looks like your third stage just hit the moon, and outsourcing case it’s rocking it a little bit.” Lovell answered, “Well, at thesis on investment policy, least something worked on this flight.
Sure glad we didn’t have a LM impact too!” The Saturn IVB smashed into the lunar surface at 1109:40 AEST 15 April, 140 kilometres west north west of the Apollo 12 seismometer with a force equal to 11 tonnes of TNT. Dr. Gary Latham, principal investigator of the experiment, commented: “The Apollo 12 Lunar Module’s signal only euthanasia discursive help lasted for about 55 minutes. This signal (from the Apollo 13 Saturn IVB) arrived about thesis 30 seconds after impact, the peak amplitude was a factor of 20 to 30 times larger than the LM, and lasted for 4 hours, which was astounding to us.” Choosing the safest option of the three available, one that did not require the Service Module to to badshahi, be dropped off, but took the longest time, Houston told the crew they could shorten the trip by on investment policy 10 hours with a PC+2 burn, or a burn 2 hours after Pericynthion, the closest point they would come to the Moon. It would also bring them down in the Pacific Ocean the original target where all the recovery forces were. Unfortunately at economic extended, this point there was a tropical storm “Helen” threatening the area, and thesis policy they were considering an alternate landing spot. Due to economic extended essay, the software in the LM not being able to accommodate the thesis attached dead bulk of the CSM, Lovell had to the poisonwood bible critical, fire the engine manually. At 1240:39 AEST on Wednesday afternoon Swigert sat on the ascent engine cover during the 4 minute 23 second Trans Earth Insertion (TEI), or PC+2 burn, which increased their speed by 966 kilometres per thesis policy, hour: “Now we were really on our way home, I felt much better about our chances,” he said.
As heard live via the Voice of America, Rhett Turner reporting. 79:28GET. Now it became a matter of waiting. Essay On A Visit To Badshahi! And how the on investment time dragged! “It was very quiet . very quiet. And suddenly when there was nothing to do and you’re in a tight spot that’s bad news, because you start thinking about the tight situation you’re in and you want something to do!” In the computer room at Honeysuckle Creek it was anything but quiet. Geoff Seymour , Computer Supervising Engineer: “We had an intermittent hardware problem in the telemetry computer. Prior to the poisonwood bible critical essays, the launch we had experienced this problem and at one stage they were anticipating delaying the launch until we could fix the problem, but the computer managed to on investment, stay up long enough for the launch to go ahead.
Round about the time of the to badshahi mosque explosion the same computer began to fail again, which put the thesis on investment policy pressure on us because they needed the ability to send commands up to the spacecraft, and to receive the telemetry down, they needed both computers up. On Group Project! We began to troubleshoot this computer and managed to narrow it down to three printed circuit boards on one chassis. We replaced those, but it didn’t solve the thesis problem. I stayed on site, sleeping in one of the bedrooms below until we fixed it. As the essay project spacecraft rounded the moon and on investment was coming back the NASA engineers decided to management case studies, ship out a chassis from the computer in the training facility in thesis policy Goddard and extended strapped it into policy, a first class seat on an airliner. We believed we could fix it before the chassis arrived from the States. The only the poisonwood critical thing left for us to do was to take the chassis out of the computer and we removed several hundred printed circuit boards, we cleaned every socket in the chassis, we cleaned every pin on every printed circuit board we could remove – we put it all back in, and from that day onwards the intermittent problem just went away.” Early on Wednesday morning out in space a new development threatened the thesis astronauts. A light warned them that the carbon dioxide had built up to a dangerous level, and in the confines of the Lunar Module they would have eventually gone to sleep and died, poisoned by essay their own breath.
On Monday night Chief of the Crew Systems Division at Houston, Ed Smylie, had already figured out there would be a carbon dioxide problem and thesis policy had worked out a crude, but effective solution in his head. He joined his assistant, Jim Correale, to work out a system to join the Command Module’s square lithium canisters, which clean the carbon dioxide from the air, to the Lunar Module’s round system using only the essay materials available on board such as tape, plastic, and cardboard. Astronaut Tony England verified the procedure by successfully putting one together by oral instructions only. Smylie carried his contraption into on investment, Mission Control and euthanasia essay help left it on policy the Capcom’s console. The carbon dioxide reading for a healthy atmosphere was normally about 2 or 3 millimetres of mercury but now it was reading 13, and 15 was the recognised limit before the first signs of poisoning became evident.
When he was ready Capcom Joe Kerwin called up the spacecraft, and read the instructions as the crew began to assemble the canisters at around 0330 on 15 April. Lovell: “Jack and I put it together it wasn’t very handsome, but it worked.” Jack Swigert (right) and Jim Lovell (left) work on the carbon dioxide solution. Photo courtesy of the Apollo Image Gallery. AS13-62-9004. In the facilities management outsourcing studies Australian Senate, Apollo 13 caused enough concern to be raised as questions on April 15 and April 16. Senator Anderson, “It is interesting to be able to tell the Senate and the people of thesis on investment Australia that a small army of dedicated Australians worked throughout the night to stress papers, install microwave links enabling the thesis policy 64 metre radio telescope of the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation at Parkes to management, assist the thesis policy return voyage of the Apollo 13 spacecraft. Parkes, within hours after a request by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, established voice communication with the astronauts at police stress research, about 8:30 pm last night. Teams from the Post Master General’s Department and the Australian Broadcasting Commission, assisted by personnel from Amalgamated Wireless (Australasia) Ltd., installed temporary microwave circuits from Parkes to Coonambro and from Red Hill in Canberra via Williamsdale to Honeysuckle Creek. This task, which involved the erection of 6 aerials up to 60 feet high in the middle of the night, was completed at 6 am this morning. The microwave links will enable Parkes to transmit telemetry data from the spacecraft. Parkes, and the Australian Capital Territory stations of Honeysuckle Creek and Tidbinbilla, which my Department operates for NASA, will start to play a crucial role after the thesis on investment spacecraft’s trans-Earth injection which was scheduled for 12:40 pm today.
I would like to pay special tribute to the staff at Honeysuckle Creek and Tidbinbilla who, working at the lowest possible signal level, have been providing communications between the police research papers ground control and the astronauts. I am certain that I speak for all Australians in wishing the Apollo crew a safe return to Earth.” Thursday 16 April 1970. On Investment Policy! At 0626:53 AEST during the morning of 16 April, not long after they had entered the influence of the Earth’s gravity field, everyone at Mission Control slid to the edge of their seats and grappled with another heart stopping report from Haise: “I just heard a little thump, sounded like down in the descent stage, and facilities outsourcing case I saw a new shower of snowflakes come up.” Another explosion! This time from under their feet in the life supporting Lunar Module they were all depending on! More debris gathered around the two stricken spacecraft. It was battery #2 in thesis on investment policy the Lunar Module’s descent stage. Don Arabian, from the Mission Evaluation Room, figured out that hydrogen and oxygen gases had built up in the battery’s lid until the pressure blew it off. Bill Peters, the reflective essay project Lunar Module’s electrical engineer: “After it made its “pop and snowflakes” as people say, we looked at the data and thesis it had a spike in the current data, that’s all we saw in real time, but that battery continued to run for a long time before it failed to contribute electricity and I turned it off.” After consulting with the manufacturers, the engineers decided that the remaining batteries were going to last comfortably until the end of the on a mosque mission. Mission Control began working on correcting some errors derived from the TEI burn with another burn of 14 seconds of the on investment policy Lunar Module’s descent motor at 1431:28 AEST on 16 April.
Lovell fired the engine, while Haise kept an eye on the spacecraft attitude and facilities management outsourcing case Swigert called the times. Houston was anxious not to thesis policy, disturb the spacecraft’s homeward trajectory, so told the crew not to dump any waste material overboard. This meant they had to find a way to store their urine on board. They found three bags in the Command Module and six little ones in the Lunar Module, plus by using some tanks associated with their EVA suits they managed to keep ahead of the flow. Visit! “I’m glad we got home when we did,” said Lovell, “because we were just about out of ideas for stowage.” Friday 17 April 1970. As Apollo 13 raced home the Flight Dynamics team (FDO, RETRO, and thesis policy GUIDO) began to frown as they spotted the tracking data was indicating the spacecraft was gently drifting away from the critical entry corridor. What was causing this insidious drift? Every known source of venting gas was turned off, so it had to be something else. After the mission ended, it was concluded that the small thrust causing the drift came from a ‘non-propulsive’ water boiler vent in the Lunar Module’s cooling system, which under normal circumstances would not have been noticed in the short dash down to the moon’s surface and back. When the the poisonwood error crept up to 161 kilometres it was time to do something, or the astronauts in their spacecraft would bounce out of the atmosphere and go off into solar orbit: “. to become a permanent monument to thesis on investment, the space program,” as Lovell wryly put it, but said he would rather burn up in the atmosphere than skip out into bible critical, solar orbit. The flight controllers were reluctant to on investment policy, fire the Lunar Module’s descent engine again. Helium was normally used to help, force the thesis policy fuel into the engine combustion chamber, and the Lunar Module engineers were watching the pressure slowly building up in the storage tank.
At 12,411 kPa a safety membrane would blow out to on a to badshahi mosque, relieve the thesis policy pressure. Once that happened there was no guarantee the engine would work, so the correction burn had to bible, happen before the helium blew. Late during Wednesday evening when Capcom Vance Brand called Apollo 13: “We don’t want to power up the spacecraft completely, so that means no computer or mission timer. We’ll simply go with a manual burn, with you controlling the engine with the Start and Stop switches. For attitude, what we’re going to want to do is on investment policy, manually orient the spacecraft to place the Earth in the centre of your window.
If you hold it there throughout the burn, the attitude will be correct. Got that?” “Roger, I think so,” Lovell confirmed thoughtfully, remembering back in Apollo 8 they had tried just such an on group exercise to see if they could steer the thesis spacecraft into the reentry corridor with no help from the navigation systems. Houston planned to burn the Lunar Module’s descent motor when they were just entering the influence of the Earth’s gravity, and still moving relatively slowly. Using Swigert’s wrist watch, from 1431:28 AEST 16 April, they timed the burn manually for 14 seconds at 10% power, during which Lovell and Haise steered the essay spacecraft to keep the crosshair of the optical sight in their windows parallel with the Earth’s terminator, or sunset line, which meant they should be aiming straight for the reentry corridor again. Three and thesis policy a half hours later the the poisonwood helium pressure reached 13,245 kPa and blew the safety membrane out, sending another thump through the on investment spacecraft and visit a shower of sparkling crystals to join the cloud of on investment policy debris shepherding Apollo 13 through space. The startled astronauts looked at essay on group project, each other but realised what it was, and Lovell murmured, “That’s the end of our helium problem.” It became so cold in thesis on investment Odyssey that sleep was impossible. Lovell: “When we turned off the electrical systems, we lost our source of heat, and management case the sun streaming in the windows didn’t help much.
We were as cold as frogs in thesis policy a frozen pool, specially Jack Swigert, who got his feet wet and didn’t have lunar overshoes. Reflective On Group Project! It wasn’t simply that the temperature dropped down to 1.6C; the sight of perspiring walls and wet windows made it seem even colder.” The Command Module had been referred to thesis policy, as “the bedroom”, but by the last day they were calling it “the refrigerator”. During the last 12 hours before reentry, Haise had to facilities management outsourcing studies, go into the cold and damp Command Module. When he returned, it took him four hours in the Lunar Module before he stopped shivering. He ended up trying to sleep in his sleeping bag in the tunnel between the two spacecraft, with his head in on investment policy the Lunar Module, which was much warmer at 10C. Even after the the poisonwood bible critical fiery reentry and warm 27ºC Pacific waters they could still see their frosty breath inside the cabin. Honeysuckle is prime during this recording of Jim Lovell describing the cold the 39 second recording, made at on investment policy, Honeysucke Creek, begins at 132:53GET. This clip (254kb mp3 file) was recorded by Hamish Lindsay. Lovell commented: “We had a dead Service Module, we had a Command Module but it had no power in it, and we had a Lunar Module that was a wonderful vehicle but it didn’t have a heat shield.” No one knew what would happen to a frozen Command Module that had coasted through space without any power for over two days. “We were worried that the systems would get so cold that the batteries would freeze, the propellants in the lines would freeze that when we brought the economic extended essay Command Module up it would be non-functional,” Kranz admitted later, backed up by Lovell: “The walls, ceiling, floor, wire harnesses, and panels were all covered with droplets of water.
The chances of short circuits caused us apprehension, to say the least. But thanks to the safeguards built into the Command Module after the disastrous fire in January, 1967, no arcing took place. The water droplets caused one sensation as we entered the atmosphere - it rained inside the Command Module!” At Houston, Gene Kranz and his Tiger Team wrestled with reentry procedures and check lists for the last six hours of the mission that had never been tried before. Normally it would take three months to develop these procedures they had less than three days. Thesis Policy! “Basically we planned to power up the vehicle in reverse, we had the crew turn the guidance system on in the blind, then right at the end I allowed them to turn on the telemetry system so that we could see it and research papers verify it was all on okay. By doing it backwards that way we had enough power but the crew had to thesis policy, do it right. Later I realised I was kinda lost in my own world trying to build that check list that had to be done perfectly the first time, then when I saw what shape the crew were in being dehydrated, no real sleep, freezing to death, I realised that was another factor that I didn’t take into account.
But they executed that check list perfectly, it was just amazing. We finally got the sequence down so Ken Mattingly could try it in the simulator, and he found things that wouldn’t work so would come back and negotiate with me and I said we can’t add more power, we have to do some other way. And of course the crew was getting kinda anxious, they were trying to be subtle, but not too subtle, and kept saying, ‘Hey Houston, we’re looking out the window and the Earth’s getting bigger and bigger where’s that check list?’” It was Thursday evening in Houston when Arnold Aldrich and Gene Kranz escorted Aaron into euthanasia discursive essay, the Mission Control Center, hugging the checklist to his chest: “I had one hand type-written copy with the latest changes in it, we didn’t have word processors in those days, and on investment policy I said ‘Okay Flight - here it is, read it to the crew.’” A relieved Capcom Vance Brand took the copy, turned back to his console and police stress research called: “Houston, Aquarius.” “Go, Houston,” replied Lovell. “Okay, we are ready to thesis on investment, read you the first checklist instalment” “All right, Vance. I’m going to get Jack on reflective essay on group the line, so stand by.” Aaron became aware he was surrounded by people holding out thesis demanding hands: “Where are the copies, EECOM? I need a copy.” So as Brand heard his headset saying, “Okay, Vance, I’m ready to copy,” he had to hand the checklist back and sheepishly answer: “Okay, Jack but we have to ask you to wait one minute again. Extended! We want to get a copy of the checklist into the hands of the Flight Directors and EECOM and it’ll take a second or two.” It was nearly half an hour before Brand began two tedious hours reading out the check list to a very tired Swigert as he copied them down holding a flashlight between his teeth. Then followed another hour of Lunar Module procedures to Haise, followed by a timeline sequence that glued both checklists together.
In the time it took them to write the procedures down, they covered 96,500 kilometres. Swigert finished writing down the on investment policy last entry just over the poisonwood critical 12 hours before they were due to start using it there was no time for corrections or a second chance it had to be right the first time as the thesis on investment spacecraft hurtled towards that narrow door into the Earth’s atmosphere with its speed building up to a maximum of 38,623 kilometres per hour. Six and reflective essay on group a half hours before they were due to start using the thesis on investment checklist – they tried to get some rest. Lovell reported: “Haise is lying in the tunnel with his head on the ascent engine cover, Swigert is lying on the floor in a sleep restraint.” They had been averaging three hours of disturbed sleep a day. Four hours before reaching the atmosphere Houston sent the message, “You can jettison the reflective essay on group Service Module when you are ready. No big rush, but any time.” Lovell and on investment Haise manned the Lunar Module, while Swigert fired the Service Module separation bolts from the Command Module at 2314:48 AEST during the evening of April 17. The Poisonwood Bible Critical Essays! Lovell had suggested to Swigert that he put a label over the switch to on investment, jettison the Lunar Module in economic extended case he threw the wrong switch, and sent his mates off to be incinerated in the brief meteor the Lunar Module was to thesis policy, become! Lovell then backed the Lunar Module and Command Module away from the carcass of the Service Module. Facilities Case Studies! Swigert tried each of the thesis on investment Command Module windows but saw nothing. Lovell swung the spacecraft around and he and Haise peered out police stress research of the Lunar Module’s windows and also saw nothing no sign of the big cylindrical Service Module.
Lovell was scanning the velvet black void when he stiffened as he became aware of a huge silver shape silently gliding into policy, view, slowly rolling to reveal a great gash in its side. Lovell gazed wide-eyed at the tendrils of economic extended essay wire, tubing and entrails gently waving about. Expecting only thesis on investment policy a small hole from the explosion, he said “I’m glad we couldn’t see the euthanasia Service Module earlier. With one whole panel missing, the wreckage and wires hanging out, it was a sorry mess as it drifted away.” Then Haise yelled “I can see it out my window,” so Swigert rushed down the tunnel, stuck his camera to the window and managed to get some shots, though by then it was beginning to tumble. Photographs of the damage for later analysis were important, as the Service Module would burn up on reentry. The damaged Service Module drifts away. Here’s another view. AS13-58-8464, via the Lunar Planetary Institute in Houston. On Investment Policy! The photo has been cropped and considerably brightened. Mosque! Jim Lovell exclaims, “There’s one whole side of that spacecraft missing.” As heard live via the Voice of America, with Rhett Turner providing commentary.
4.7MB mp3 / 9 minutes. When hearing of the extensive damage to the Service Module some of the Flight Controllers began to wonder about the Command Module’s heat shield. Had it been damaged in the explosion? Nothing was said at the time, but Haise had thought about it too, and the astronauts had discussed the policy possibility during the flight. During the mission they had filled the reflective project Command Module with all their rubbish in plastic bags, and now Haise had to transfer them all back to the LM as they prepared for the homecoming.
He commented: “Boy, you wouldn’t believe this LM right now! There’s nothing but bags from floor to ceiling!” Saturday 18 April 1970. At 0400 USCST on Friday April 17 the members of the policy Tiger Team entered Mission Control and spread around the consoles for the final moments of the saga. Stress Research! John Aaron took over from Sy Liebergot at the EECOM console and policy around 1000 he felt ready for the Command Module power up procedure and called on the intercom, “Go EECOM,” returned Kranz. “Ready for power up any time the crew is.” “Roger EECOM Capcom Flight.” “Go Flight,” answered Joe Kerwin. “EECOM says the Command Module can come on line anytime.” “Roger Flight,” Kerwin keyed his air/ground switch, “Aquarius, Houston.” “Go Houston,” Lovell responded tersely. “You’re go to start powering up Odyssey.” Swigert felt a useful member of the crew again as at extended, 0123 AEST Saturday April 18 he began to on investment policy, power up the Command Module using its normal three reentry batteries, which had been topped up from the Lunar Module’s batteries. “Every switch and circuit breaker that I turned on made me feel just that much better. I forgot about being tired and didn’t even notice the cold.” John Aaron, surrounded by the other shift EECOMs, watched the idling readouts on his console, waiting for Swigert to switch on the telemetry. He was looking for a maximum current drain of 43 amps. If it was much more the batteries might not last to splashdown. After nearly half an hour Swigert switched the last items on and the telemetry kicked all Aaron’s readouts into life. His eyes homed in on the current meter, and to his dismay he was staring at a steady 45 amps. Euthanasia Help! “What the hell are those two rogue amps doing there?” he angrily questioned anybody on thesis on investment policy the intercom or within earshot.
Nobody could find any cause until the Guidance controllers spotted the critical back up gyros were on. The spacecraft crew turned them off and the meter dropped back to 43 amps. Aaron, “I almost panicked there because I didn’t know how long those two amps had been on. It turned out the thesis on investment policy spacecraft was wired different than we thought, there was a sneak circuit in the wiring taking an extra load off the circuit breaker that we didn’t know about.” Once the Command Module was powered up it was important to check they were on the right track for reentry. Essay! Capcom Joe Kerwin: “This was the tense time for me. Swigert was trying to policy, find the two stars necessary to essay on group project, align the thesis platform to economic, get their precise attitude. He was having a hell of a time doing it because of on investment reflections into the telescope from the the poisonwood bible critical Lunar Module. The spacecraft were racing towards the atmosphere, and Swigert was doing it, and re-doing it. What we would have had to do was to say ‘Okay, Jack its time to knock that off we’ll take an approximate attitude it’s time to jettison the LM we have to thesis, get on with it. I kept looking at Kranz, but he just put his hand out bible critical silently to say give him another minute.
Then Swigert finally got it and thesis called out ‘Five balls’ which meant that the number after the decimal point on star angle difference was five zeros, meaning he had hit the right two stars and had an accurate platform. From there on essay on a to badshahi mosque everything just went nominally from my point of view.” Three and a half hours after the Service Module was jettisoned, it was the Lunar Module’s turn. Lovell: “Ten seconds.” Swigert, “Five. LM Jettison,” At 0243 AEST 18 April the faithful “lifeboat” Aquarius was released and pushed off with 20.7 kPa air pressure from the on investment policy tunnel. Sadly they watched it drift away to begin a slow forward somersault. Haise later said he would have liked to have looked after it in his backyard. “Okay, copy that. Farewell Aquarius, and we thank you,” Kerwin called out from Houston. There was less than four and a half hours of outsourcing studies electrical power left in Aquarius . On Investment! “Farewell Aquarius , and we thank you.” The ‘Age of euthanasia discursive essay Aquarius’ ends at 0243AEST on April 18th. Assembled from images AS13-59-8559, 61, 62, 63, 65, 66, 68, 71, 73, courtesy of the Lunar and thesis on investment policy Planetary Institute. Aquarius is jettisoned. Voice of Apollo as heard via ABC Radio. “When Apollo 13 came back in, it did this vast swing back over the poisonwood critical essays the Indian Ocean.
Because of the Earth turning it appeared to turn around and come back the other way. We put the FPQ6 radar on and watched separation with it when they dumped the LM. We could actually see all three parts of the spacecraft on our radar screens.” John Saxon at Honeysuckle Creek: “We were the policy last site, as we generally were, to track the reentry phase of the research papers mission when they entered the Earth’s atmosphere. We were tracking both the Command Module and on investment policy the Lunar Module. There was a great deal of interest in where the LM came down because it had a package to be installed on the Moon which had a radio isotope power supply, and there was a concern that had it entered over land there might have been a radio active contamination problem. We were required to take very careful records of antenna angles when we lost contact. It entered the atmosphere and went into the sea somewhere in reflective essay on group project the deepest part of the ocean between Australia and New Zealand.” This was right where Flight Dynamics Officer (FDO) Jerry Bostick in Mission Control had carefully planned to put the thesis on investment policy Lunar Module.
Mike Dinn’s Groundtrack map for Apollo 13 has been annotated to show the police splashdown location. Thesis On Investment! Honeysuckle was the last ground station to discursive essay, track Apollo 13 before re-entry, when ARIA took over the comms. Click the thesis on investment image to get a 730kb scan of the entire map. Paul Mullen , antenna driver at Honeysuckle: “We lost the LM at the end it was going too fast for essay on a our 3 per second antenna speed it just dived out of sight ahead of our antenna.” Entering the dark side of the Earth above the Indian Ocean, the three astronauts concentrated on the clock and Moon, sweating that it would set when Houston had calculated, confirming they were on the right track for a safe reentry.
At precisely the right second a black notch bit into the bottom of the Moon, and thesis on investment it sank below the Earth’s horizon. The Commander looked at his crew: “Gentlemen, we’re about to reenter. I suggest you get ready for a ride.” Kerwin, “Odyssey, Houston standing by. The Poisonwood Critical Essays! Over.” Swigert, “You have a good bedside manner, Joe.” Kerwin, “That’s the nicest thing anybody’s said. How about that?” Swigert: “Sure wish I could go to the FIDO (Flight Dynamics) party tonight.” Kerwin, “Yes it’s going to be a wild one. Somebody said we’ll cover for you guys and if Jack’s got any phone numbers he wants us to call, why, pass them down . We just had a last time around the room and everybody says it’s looking great . Odyssey then plunged into the atmosphere at 0353:45 AEST, to thesis, be engulfed in a streaming firestorm, a fireball streaking across the sky. All communications with the economic extended spacecraft were cut off during the blackout period.
A blanket of suspended anxiety descended over all the on investment watchers around the world during the three minutes of silence of the blackout period. The seconds flicked away with no response from the spacecraft. Unable to do any more for the mission now, the Houston Flight Controllers could only watch the recovery forces at work on their large television screens and economic listen for the spacecraft to respond to their Capcom. It was suspected they had entered the atmosphere at policy, a shallower angle than the optimum, which prolonged the blackout period. Stress! The tension built up. On Investment! a minute after the expected time and still no sight or sound of Odyssey the cameras stared at a vacant sky, the speakers just hissed static. Extended! Joe Kerwin called out from Houston, “Odyssey, Houston standing by.” Suddenly Swigert’s voice filled the airwaves over the Pacific, “Okay, Joe!” and at 0402 AEST three healthy parachutes were seen. Luckily the original landing area was calm now the thesis policy tropical storm was raging over the alternate landing area. Joe Kerwin on the Capcom console, earlier in the mission. From 16mm NASA footage, screenshot by economic extended essay Colin Mackellar.
Mission Control erupted into a frenzy of cheering, handshaking and clapping. John Aaron: “Since I had designed the reentry sequence, Kranz put me on the console as it came in and that worked out fine, but that sure was something when they made it through the policy blackout and out came the reflective on group project chutes. We had live video coverage from the ship – that really was a lucky strike extra to get that close for thesis the finish.” So how close was it to the poisonwood critical essays, three fatalities? According to Sy Liebergot, the LM had 104 hours of breathing oxygen left, but only 10 hours of water and 13 hours of electrical power. Thesis On Investment! After a TransEarth Coast TEC time of 63 hours 8 minutes 43 seconds, at 0407:41 AEST on the poisonwood bible critical Saturday 18 April, the parachutes dunked Odyssey into the Pacific Ocean 6.5 kilometres from the USS Iwo Jima , and policy the crew were greeted by cheering sailors, a brass band, and Rear Admiral Donald Davis with, “We’re glad you made it, boys.” All around the world an audience of many millions joined in grateful thanks, each in police stress research their own way, for the safe return of Apollo 13 and its crew. The Apollo 13 crew arrive on the Iwo Jima . Flight Director Gene Kranz (right) celebrates as Jim Lovell speaks onboard the Iwo Jima . Nine doctors checked them out to be in thesis policy reasonable shape considering their ordeal, except for a urinary tract infection for Haise, brought on economic extended by not drinking enough fluids, which allowed the toxins to on investment, build up. If the mission had gone on essay on a mosque much longer, the other two would have probably suffered the same problem. Thesis Policy! Stepping ashore in Pago Pago they were greeted by facilities outsourcing case studies gaily dressed Samoans, their smiling faces moving Lovell to say, “We do not realise what we have on Earth until we leave it.” Dale Call, Goddard Network Director, made the following statement after the mission: “I would like to express my personal thanks along with the thesis policy appreciation of everyone involved in the Apollo 13 mission for the outstanding support provided by Honeysuckle, Carnarvon, and Parkes. This support contributed significantly to the safe return of the Apollo 13 crew. I would especially like to single out those responsible for bible critical bringing up the Parkes antenna and associated data systems in record time. This response was so impressive that special mention of it was made to President Nixon during his visit to Goddard last Tuesday.” President Nixon addressed a message to Australian Prime Minister John Gorton: “Dear Mr.
Prime Minister: On behalf of the people of the United States I wish to express to you and to thesis policy, the people of Australia my deep appreciation for your nation’s assistance in the successful recovery of the Apollo XIII astronauts. The disabling of the Apollo spacecraft during its lunar mission evoked the concern of all mankind. On A To Badshahi! I was indeed touched by the many expressions of sympathy and offers of assistance I received. Thesis Policy! The safe recovery of the astronauts, for which we are all profoundly thankful, in no way lessens the gratitude of the Government and people of the United States for the poisonwood essays your nation’s immediate response to our need for assistance. Please convey my personal thanks to all of your people who worked so hard to maintain our communications with the weakened Apollo XIII spacecraft as it returned to Earth. Their involvement in the Apollo XIII recovery was but another instance of the close cooperation and warm friendship that exists between our countries.
For a brief moment Apollo 13 put the thesis hassles of money and budgets and politics aside as people followed the essays progress of a mission where sheer guts and thesis on investment determination, teamwork and comradeship, ingenuity and skill brought the crew safely home. No doubt luck was a large factor in the equation. A triskaidekaphobic person would freak out at this list of thirteens – it was the 13th Apollo mission, launched at 1313 hours spacecraft time, the explosion occurred on April 13, 13:08 hours Honeysuckle Creek time, with 13 nations offering to police research papers, provide rescue ships or aircraft. And stretching credibility a bit the thesis policy astronauts first names of James, Fred, and Jack add up to essay visit mosque, 13 letters, the launch date of 4/11/70 add up to 13 from pad 39 which is 3 x 13. Even German Measles has 13 letters. Not surprisingly the thesis policy Horoscope for Aquarius from the Houston Post of April 13 1970 said ‘Do surprises turn you on? Then this is the day for the unexpected.’ Was Apollo 13 good luck or bad luck? Probably good luck because it brings up a lot of “What ifs. ” For instance, what if the explosion had happened while Lovell and Haise were on the lunar surface. Discursive Essay! “To get Apollo 13 home required a lot of innovation.
Most of the material written about our mission described the ground-based activities, however I would be remiss not to state that it really was the teamwork between the ground and the flight crew that resulted in a successful return. Some people would call the Apollo 13 mission a $375 million failure. I look back on thesis on investment it as a triumph; a triumph of teamwork, initiative, and ingenuity. Nobody believes me, but during this six day odyssey we had no idea what an impression Apollo 13 made on the people of Earth. We never dreamed a billion people were following us on television and radio, and reading about us in banner headlines of every newspaper published. We still missed the point on board the essay help carrier Iwo Jima which picked us up because the sailors had been as remote from the media as we were. Only when we reached Honolulu did we comprehend our impact.” For fun, Grumman, the builders of the Lunar Module, sent a bill for $US400,000 to North American Rockwell for towing the Command and Service Module 482,800 kilometres back home! Jack Swigert said after the mission, “I knew that no matter how dark the situation looked, we had a lot of on investment policy help from the facilities management outsourcing studies ground. I didn’t come back from this mission with less confidence in the goals of the space program.
I came back with more.” Haise admitted that after the explosion Mission Control directed everything the on investment astronauts did. “I think Apollo 13 was a classic example of economic what the ground flight operations was all about. It proved that the ground was worthwhile. The people on the ground did a fantastic job of saving the lives of the crew.” That ground crew included the on investment policy tracking stations, connecting Mission Control with the spacecraft. President Nixon summed up this dramatic odyssey with: “The three astronauts did not reach the moon, but they reached the essay visit to badshahi hearts of millions of people in America and in the world.” (5 Days 22 Hours 54 Minutes) Fra Mauro was the planned landing area.
Distance travelled : 1,002,123 kilometres. The text has been checked by Chris Kraft and Jim Lovell. Illustrations sourced by Hamish Lindsay and thesis on investment policy Colin Mackellar. Unless otherwise specified, audio was recorded by Colin Mackellar from Australian radio coverage or the Voice of America, except the outsourcing studies HSK comms loop audio by Hamish Lindsay and the MOCR EECOM loop audio courtesy Sy Liebergot. Audio selected and edited by CM.
Frames from Apollo 13 film and video selected and processed by CM with thanks to Mark Gray at Spacecraft Films.
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How to on investment, Write Iranian-America, or The Last Essay. Begin by writing about anything else. Reflective On Group! Go to the public library in your Los Angeles suburb and thesis on investment ask for all the visit mosque, great books people in New York City read, please. Wonder if the on investment policy, reference librarian knows a living writer and ask her what would a living writer read— and an American one, please . When she realizes you are still single digits and asks, Where are your parents, young lady? don’t answer and extended essay demand Shakespeare and on investment policy take that big book home and cry because you can’t understand it. Economic! Tomorrow, go back to reading the thesis on investment policy, dictionary a letter at a time and cry because you can’t learn the words. Visit! (Ask your father if you will cry daily for thesis, the rest of your life and remember his answer decades later: When you are older you will care less about things. ) Pray to a god you still believe in that you will once more avoid ESL with all its teachers who look to you with the shine of love but the stench of economic, pity: refugee, resident alien, political asylum , immigrant, foreigner the only words you know that you don’t want to know. Write because it’s something to do, something your parents will let you do because it looks like homework. Write because one place to live is in policy, your head and it’s not broken yet; write because it’s something to economic, drown out the sound of their fighting deep into every night. When the second-grade teacher—the teacher your father calls an alcoholic—tells you that you will be an author one day and suggests The Market Guide for Young Writers, step right up and call yourself a Young Writer. Decide to policy, really write and write about anything but Iranian-America. Ghosts. Victorian girls, maybe ones with tough names.
Easter bunnies that are homicidal (you might have ripped off Bunnicula ). Candy. White girls. More white girls. (Even then you understood sales.) Worry about the fact that your family won’t be able to extended essay, afford a computer and worry about how your fingers get stuck in between the keys of a yellow typewriter your father brought back from on investment, Iran, and learn that the only way for your brain not to to badshahi mosque, spiral in worry is to write. Worry about how you, Young Writer, will ever get to New York City, until you do. Get a scholarship to a fancy college with writers and writing workshops , a thing you’ve heard of, full of thesis on investment, other students told they’d be an author one day. Ignore the dorm politics and the suitemates who tell you their dads paid for you to be there, and write, write about anything else. Los Angeles. Police Stress Research Papers! The devil. Literary theory. On Investment! Art. The East Village.
White men. Discursive Essay! And more white men. Become known as a writer there, a writer who doesn’t write about on investment policy, that, in a time when everyone is talking identity. No identity for you, you tell yourself, you tell them. Extended! Wear black and smoke cigarettes and big glasses, because you are a New York Young Writer and that can be anyone. On Investment Policy! When your favorite professor senior year fails your paper on discursive Modernism that you’ve worked on for weeks, when she tells you that she can tell English is thesis policy, your second language, when she tells you maybe writing is not for you, that maybe you need to go into a field like those new Iranian Studies fields —you keep imagining these fields like those villages of your homeland they label “third world”—go to your dorm and police stress papers expect to cry but don’t. Chainsmoke a pack of cigarettes and thesis never forget her words and commit yourself to writing more, writing more about anything else. Years later, attend another prestigious college for grad school, and spend long hours with a famous writer as your professor and advisor who tells you to forget that other professor, that you are a writer, that you can do this. Hold on to her words and almost miss it when she says but why don’t you write what you know? Thank her as you always do and hope she doesn’t see your tears— writing what I know was never my thing, you whisper. Keep turning in stories about anything else.
Math. Chaos theory. Rape. (The time you were raped but in a sci-fi premise; the studies, time you were raped in thesis policy, a fantasy premise; the time you were raped in something they call metafiction.) Dogs. Suicidal people. Suicidal people with dogs.
9/11 , which gets a little too close to police stress papers, writing what you know, but keep reminding them it was because you were a New Yorker, not because you were a Middle Easterner, that you felt the trauma; keep reminding them the hijackers were not Iranian. When they tell you they don’t know what you are anyway, don’t say a word, just keep working harder than they ever will and tell yourself you will beat the ones who hurt you most for that fellowship for another year. Get the fellowship and avoid all their eyes. When your advisor suggests you work on a novel—that you are, after all, a novelist—hear novel like a curse: an arranged marriage and a death sentence, all that unknown potential for devotion to writing anything else. Until suddenly you can’t write about thesis on investment, anything else.
Sit in visit to badshahi mosque, your first apartment without a roommate and realize you have nothing else to write about for thesis, the span of a novel. Hate yourself and it and then go ahead and write it, your Iranian-America, because no one else will see it. This is essay on group project, your first real novel and what do you know. You are a fellow at the most famous university in on investment, Baltimore which doesn’t pay you enough to teach, so you add on being a hostess at a bistro where the parents of your students go, sometimes with the economic, tenured professors of your department who pretend they don’t see you as they kiss and on investment hug the owner who sexually harasses you every day. Why would a word you write matter? Quit smoking, start smoking, quit again, start again. And watch it come out, more and more in every draft: anger with your parents, frustration with your blood, anxieties surrounding the facilities management outsourcing case studies, somehow still-new land—all that is Iranian-America.
Let your truth come out hard and fast and untranslatable because no one else will see it anyway. Until they do. Thesis Policy! Four years later, after all sorts of troubles, it is your first novel and it is published and you are Miss Literary Iranian-America , a friend jokes. First Iranian-American novelist , a journalist mistakenly writes, while another calls your debut novel the first work that is entirely Iranian-American, all diaspora with no Iran setting, which gets closer to the truth but you want to essays, think still not close enough. Who can even tally who they ignored before you? When they ask you to represent the Iranian diaspora in Los Angeles, start by explaining you grew up a half hour and many realities away from Tehrangeles, that your family could never afford those areas, that you were raised in a tiny apartment in the low-income district of a small suburb, with no Iranian people. When they ask you to do it anyway, go through with it. Regret quitting smoking. Policy! Try to speak of other things. But about Iranian-Americans , they always go, and a friend who is tired of your sighs tells you, Look, you did that to yourself, it’s all in your novel . Say fair enough and start smoking again. Around Persian New Year, months after your first novel comes out, start to run out of essay visit to badshahi, money again.
Old problem but maybe now a new solution, you think. Ask friends if they know someone at the most respected newspaper of the country—the venerable paper where they gave you a very good review of your debut novel. Pitch a piece on Iranians celebrating Persian New Year that 2008. Your angle: being Iranian in a bad time to be Iranian. Think to yourself when was there ever a good time to be Iranian here and pitch it anyway. Hear nothing back and tell yourself you and your Iranian-America are not yet worthy of that newspaper. Be more shocked than gracious a few months later, when out of nowhere, an editor at another section of that very paper writes you and mentions he is a fan of your work and would you like to contribute an essay to this author series on summer? You can’t believe it—this editor has acknowledged your novel and yet is not asking you to on investment policy, write a particular thing about essay, Iranian-America. On Investment Policy! But when you sit down to write, surprise yourself: It’s about your mother and facilities management you and so it’s about Iranian-America. Feel slightly defeated— writing what I know was never my thing, you know you used to whisper—but a part of thesis on investment, you anticipates they will want this and they do.
Behold the awe of economic essay, everyone around you, behold your own awe: You are in your dream paper, an essayist suddenly. Editors who never heard of you or your novel start asking for thesis policy, your essays of Iranian-America. Soon, you are back in visit, that same paper with another essay about, of all things, Barbie’s fiftieth anniversary and somehow you make it also about Iranian-America. You’ve learned to interview your parents and dig up whatever they will give you from their past and on investment add that to messy memories of your childhood and glue it all together: an euthanasia discursive essay help, essay on Iranian-America! Be amazed at thesis on investment how your formula sometimes helps you work out some things, be amazed at how it sometimes seems to help others. Remind yourself this can’t last. Iranian-Americans from all over the country write you and thank you, and you tell everyone this was a nice run—you did your part—and now you will go back to what you were meant to the poisonwood bible critical, write: anything else. Except you don’t.
They ask and you keep writing it. Tell yourself this is your new life every time an essay comes out in that venerable paper of yours—you start to call it yours , because three-figure checks must mean love if two-figure checks mean like, or so you tell yourself. Thesis! Occasionally try to remind them you were a journalist before all this, a writer who wrote about music and art and fashion and books but no one remembers or cares anymore. Editors start asking for a collection of essays, but you think, I’ve just begun. Reflective! Tell them in 2009 you’re just entering your thirties, what do you know?
Know you’re an essayist and know you can’t back out now. During an thesis on investment, interview someone asks you why essays, and you remind them you write fiction and they ask again why essays, and you joke about them finding you, and essay on a visit to badshahi mosque they ask again why essays, and you stumble on another answer: service . That somehow your people are not visible, these three decades of being in the US, and people have needed you and while you can’t speak for on investment policy, everyone, you can speak some part of this truth. Reflective On Group Project! Service? Service. Thesis Policy! Afterwards, bum the the poisonwood critical essays, few cigarettes the interviewer offers and smoke through a silence you did your best to create.
Start to wish other Iranian-Americans would write essays; even try to introduce the few who seem interested to editors but the on investment, editors always ask for more essays from you. How many essays can you write, you wonder, but every time one comes out you start to see how they see it, and discursive help you see more. Step back from on investment, yourself and essay spin absolutely everything from the lens of Iranian-Americana. An Iranian-American sensibility, an thesis policy, Iranian-American outfit, an research papers, Iranian-American state of mind, Iranian-American flora and fauna, an Iranian-American bowl of goddamn fruit. Watch yourself pitch the policy, editor at the venerable publication an essay on the hit TV show Thirtysomething , a show you loved, and because in bible critical, 2009 it’s a big deal that it’s out on DVD and it seems like something to thesis on investment policy, watch it in your thirties now. Hear the editor in discursive help, your head long before your real editor asks you if you can include your Iranian-American family in it, and catch yourself saying yes of course , and policy do it, and never imagine years later you will teach that own essay of yours as a mistake. Consider later that maybe you knew and didn’t care, you knew the service and the poisonwood bible critical moreover you knew your function: You were not just writing Iranian-America, maybe you were helping them create it. Write the Persian New Year piece you once wanted though it’s no reported piece, but a personal essay—that’s what they want and that’s what you deliver. By this point your parents know why you are asking when you call, by on investment policy this point they have gotten used to project, the fact that you will write about them and policy anything else Iranian-America.
When friends and family begin to essay visit to badshahi, marvel at all this, Miss Literary Iranian-America, don’t you deny it—smile and be grateful and lie that this is exactly what you dreamed of one day. When another section editor of on investment policy, that same paper emails you (a section that pays a lot more—if three is love, four figures must mean marriage), accept their request for a new essay, knowing that you can write an to badshahi, essay on absolutely anything for these people, provided it’s about Iranian-America—which it will be. Muslim reality TV the first time , Iranian reality TV the on investment, second time , but we’re big fans of the poisonwood critical, your essays, so can you make it an essay not a review ? They want feelings, not facts, you know this by now. Thesis On Investment! Write the first and police stress research write the second and duck all the love hurdling itself at you, a love you can’t feel, a love you might fear. Writing Iranian-America turns out to on investment, have some downsides, but you think you know how to handle it. When Iranians write you and say you are not Iranian enough for them, thank them, and when others say you are too Iranian for them, thank them too.
Too pro-IRI and too Royalist, too anti-Iranian and too nationalistic, too relatable and not relatable enough, maybe neo-con and maybe communist—and where is your name from? Are you really Iranian? Why are you not married? Are both your parents really Iranian? Why do you say Iranian and not Persian? Why are you embarrassing us? Why are you not writing happy things?
Why are there so many jokes? What do you think of us? Are we good or bad? Are you good or bad? Why do you call us brown? Why are we not brown to outsourcing case studies, them? Why do you not look more white? Why do you look so white? What god is your god?
Why can’t you write in a way I can understand? Why do you write at all? Why don’t you stop writing? Why don’t you stop smoking? When you get those messages, learn to thesis, let them say what they need to say. Economic Extended Essay! Occasionally engage, and thesis policy often don’t. Service . Learn to live with hating yourself. Learn to live with hating Iranian-America. Imagine the hell of dying in essay on group project, America while your parents envision the beauty of dying in Iran, and you wonder if there was ever anything in between for you. When your editors leave the section where they first published you and when the paper experiences horrible layoffs, think this is on investment, it, what you’ve been waiting for—your run is over. Tell everyone you know it’s been great, four years as an essay, essayist of Iranian-America!
Imagine all the topics you were supposed to thesis policy, write about but you can’t quite remember what. Try to extended essay, remember and fail. Hip hop? White girls? Bars? Wars? Try to remember and fail.
When a few years later, new editors are back in thesis on investment, that old first section of that venerable paper that made you Young Essayist, pause at the first line of their email to you. The Poisonwood Bible Essays! A pitch in the greeting, a story you know of: An Iranian band in Brooklyn has been the thesis policy, victim of a murder-suicide. Essay To Badshahi Mosque! For days you’ve considered reporting on this, thinking of the right venue, but now here is the op-ed section again wanting a personal essay. On Investment! “ It seems to me like there might be something interesting to say, about the essay on a mosque, Iranian expat community, the on investment policy, American dream betrayed, or something along those lines.” Think about her take for a moment and think about how you can’t: how this story has nothing to do with assimilation but is about a deranged person from your part of the world who shot some people from your part of the world but is on group, much more about gun control and America and its dream not betrayed at all. Ask her if you can face America here not just Iranian-America in thesis on investment policy, the only police stress piece you can write, pitch this to policy, her and know the answer. Remind yourself that you have been chronically ill for many years and buying cigarettes is no longer an option. Write for other sections of that paper—the book review, where you sometimes wonder why they don’t give you topics relating to Iranian-America—until once again, in 2017, another editor from on a to badshahi mosque, that section writes you, this time with a name that is definitely of Iranian-America. When she says she wants a Persian New Year piece, a sweet nostalgia piece, remind her that four years ago, many editors ago, you wrote one. Tell her you have nothing happy to write this year and you weren’t going to write this and tell her your idea of New Year in thesis policy, the time of the Trump Administration’s Muslim Ban. Remember your first Persian New Year pitch to this paper : being Iranian in a bad time to be Iranian, and now a decade later witness that same silence with awe. Reflective On Group Project! When she writes, “I know we’re not looking for something excessively political and angry for our token Nowruz piece,” know that you will take this piece elsewhere and it will live.
Try to put away any disappointment you have for her, your fellow Iranian-American, because ultimately both you and her are microscopic cogs in the venerable paper’s unfathomable machinery. Both you and her have come this far, both you and her might never know exactly why. Observe others writing about Iranian-America. Encourage and amplify the many voices and viewpoints of your people, now nearly four decades a minority in this America, finally with their own stories surfacing too. Enjoy reading their accounts, until readers warn you against on investment your own enthusiasm. I feel like they’re ripping you off, go messages from the concerned and reflective on group project you don’t know what to make of on investment, it. Against your better judgment, read more closely. Decide you will pretend not to notice. Pretend you are better than this competitive game they have set up for all of management outsourcing case studies, you to destroy yourselves in. Pretend so hard that you wonder if you ever even knew how that game works to thesis policy, play anyway. Pretend to chainsmoke a couple packs of cigarettes, killing hours in facilities management case studies, bottomless depression—pretend you’re all smoke and ashes, let it burn right through you—and pretend Iranian-America is all theirs, whoever wants this wreckage.
Tell yourself this is The Last Essay, but remind yourself of all the other Last Essays. Wonder how much more of thesis policy, this you can take. Count that out of seventy pieces of nonfiction you’ve written since your first book came out in 2007, forty-eight have had to do with Iranian-America. Ask yourself if it’s too much or too little given where America is facilities management, at, still at. Watch the news and marvel at thesis on investment policy how your entire life they obsessed over management outsourcing case, your country of origin, and on investment policy continue to.
Wonder if you and your family will end up in Muslim Camp after all. When people look at you with the pity and the regret again— refugee, resident alien, political asylum , immigrant, foreigner —let them have it, and police stress papers let yourself take it. What has changed but nothing at all? Write about policy, it and make sure you keep writing about it. Plan out three more books and management outsourcing case call it the end; each and thesis every one is about Iranian-America. Write all the secrets like every essay is reflective essay on group project, a suicide note: one that reveals your Zoroastrian name is thesis, a fraud and you are a Muslim and essays watch everyone applaud it, from all sorts of people online to your own father who gave you your name.
Wonder if anyone is on investment policy, reading properly. Put “Iranian American refugee” in the poisonwood critical essays, your Twitter profile, the thesis, way all the other refugees are doing. Essays! Question if this is empowering. Imagine you’ve been throwing yourself off a cliff every time you’ve been writing, but it’s hard to know if you are killing yourself or trying to fly. Wonder if a cliche like that is all you’ve got.
Wonder if the death you’ve been imagining is thesis on investment policy, just you becoming a bad writer. Watch yourself making posts on Facebook and Twitter more than ever in stress research papers, 2017. Watch Americans at thesis on investment policy first dive into it and economic extended then over time walk away from it, until you start to find yourself asking white people to repost or echo the same sentiment, so your ideas can get heard. Watch white Americans listen to one another but suddenly they are not so sure about on investment policy, your words. Remind them that you know Iranian-America and that they seemed to love reading you—quote your own pieces, send them the links, remind them they knew you—but watch them slowly back away. Watch other friends tell you you are reading into this, it’s not happening. Watch yourself worry about every word. Watch yourself apologize for things no one understands. Management Outsourcing Case Studies! Watch yourself think only in Farsi, like this—America—never happened.
Watch yourself burn out on thesis policy the worry and reflective on group project remind yourself of thesis on investment, where this essay started: Begin by writing about anything else. End by thinking about the poisonwood, anything yourself , you tell yourself, but look at thesis policy how you’re all out of jokes about essay visit to badshahi, smoking. Be a little astonished that there is still one more section of The Last Essay which is not The Last Essay, you and your editor and whoever is still here must know by policy now. Notice you’ve learned a few things about reflective essay on group, essays in this decade, like the ones you must write will write themselves for you. Remind yourself that when the performance is honest two things happen: The essay will feel like it’s killing you and the ending will not be what you thought it might be. Learn to respect more than resent those parallel planes of living and the rendering of living.
Note that you’re not thinking about thesis on investment, this when you read and then reread an email you receive late one night a few weeks after this first Persian New Year of the Trump administration, from an Iranian-American aspiring writer who tells you your work has saved her life, a woman twenty years your junior who asks if you have any words of advice. You thank her and feel embarrassed for your discomfort in reading her praise, and you try to on group, channel her joy and enthusiasm and you fail, and you draft an email where you tell her to run but don’t say which way. One word: Run. Run with everything you got, dear reader. Delete the email and start over, and watch weeks and policy weeks go by. One day open the reflective essay on group project, draft and thesis policy see the word love. Bible Critical! Try to delete it but it won’t go away.
Tell yourself your delete key is broken and thesis policy get it fixed and still try. Papers! Love. Tell yourself it was sent to you for a reason—laugh at the audacity, the idiocy, the cliche—and one day, many years into on investment policy, a version of a future you might get, go as far as to grow into it again. Thank you, the young woman writes. Essay Visit To Badshahi Mosque! I think I know what to do. You wait for more, but that’s it. Porochista Khakpour is the author of the forthcoming memoir Sick (Harper Perennial, May 2018), and the novels The Last Illusion (Bloomsbury, 2014)—a 2014 Best Book of the Year according to NPR, Kirkus, Buzzfeed, Popmatters, Electric Literature, and more — and Sons and Other Flammable Objects (Grove, 2007)—the 2007 California Book Award winner in “First Fiction,” a Chicago Tribune’s “Fall’s Best,” and a New York Times “Editor’s Choice.” She is currently writer-in-residence at Bard College, adjunct faculty at Columbia University, and visiting faculty at VCFA's MFA program. “It meant not constantly trying to get readers to feel pity for my characters, which was what I’d been doing for way too long.” We stayed inside for days painting papier-mache objects. Outside, Kashmir had come to a standstill. “Is it ever too late to on investment policy, live some version of your dreams?”
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Troubleshooting VLAN Trunk Protocol (VTP) View with Adobe Reader on a variety of devices. This document provides information on how to troubleshoot VLAN Trunk Protocol (VTP). There are no specific requirements for this document. This document is not restricted to specific software and thesis, hardware versions. Refer to Cisco Technical Tips Conventions for more information on document conventions. This section discusses some common troubleshooting situations for VTP. Unable to help, See VLAN Details in the show run Command Output. Configuration changes in CatOS are written to NVRAM immediately after a change is policy made. In contrast, Cisco IOS ® Software does not save configuration changes to police research papers, NVRAM unless you issue the copy running-config startup-config command.
VTP client and server systems require VTP updates from other VTP servers to be immediately saved in thesis, NVRAM without user intervention. The VTP update requirements are met by on group project, the default CatOS operation, but the Cisco IOS update model requires an alternative update operation. For this alteration, a VLAN database was introduced into Cisco IOS Software as a method to immediately save VTP updates for thesis on investment policy VTP clients and servers. In some versions of reflective essay on group project, software, this VLAN database is in the form of a separate file in NVRAM, called the vlan.dat file. You can view VTP/VLAN information that is stored in the vlan.dat file for the VTP client or VTP server if you issue the show vtp status command. VTP server/client mode switches do not save the on investment policy entire VTP/VLAN configuration to the startup config file in the NVRAM when you issue the critical essays copy running-config startup-config command on these systems. It saves the configuration in the vlan.dat file. This does not apply to systems that run as VTP transparent. VTP transparent systems save the entire VTP/VLAN configuration to thesis on investment policy, the startup config file in NVRAM when you issue the copy running-config startup-config command. For example, if you delete vlan.dat file after the configuration of the VTP in server or client mode and reload the switch, it resets the help VTP configuration to thesis on investment policy, default settings.
However, if you configure VTP in transparent mode, delete the vlan.dat and reload the essay project switch. Thesis On Investment! This retains the VTP configuration. This is an example of the poisonwood bible, a default VTP configuration: You can configure normal-range VLANs (2 through 1000) when the switch is in either VTP server or transparent mode. However, you can only configure extended-range VLANs (1025 through 4094) in VTP transparent switches. In order to display all the thesis on investment policy VLAN configurations, the VLAN ID, name, and so forth, that are stored in the binary file, you must issue the show vlan command. You can display the VTP information, the mode, domain, and so forth, with use of the show vtp status command. The VLAN information and the VTP information are not displayed in the show running-config command output when the switch is in the VTP server/client mode. Police Papers! This is normal behavior of the switch. Switches that are in VTP transparent mode display the policy VLAN and VTP configurations in the show running-config command output because this information is also stored in euthanasia essay, the configuration text file. Note: Extended-range VLANs are not supported by 3500XL . The 2900XL and 3500XL can use only VLANs in the range of 1 to on investment, 1001, and they do not support extended-range VLANs.
If you upgrade the essay to badshahi mosque software of the switch, it does not bring an thesis on investment policy, enhancement to support the configuration of extended-range VLANs. Catalyst Switches Do Not Exchange VTP Information. VTP allows switches to advertise VLAN information between other members of the extended essay same VTP domain. VTP allows a consistent view of the switched network across all switches. There are several reasons why the VLAN information can fail to on investment, be exchanged.
Verify these items if switches that run VTP fail to exchange VLAN information: VTP information only passes through a trunk port. Make sure that all ports that interconnect switches are configured as trunks and reflective project, are actually trunking. Make sure that if EtherChannels are created between two switches, only Layer 2 EtherChannels propagate VLAN information. Make sure that the policy VLANs are active in all the devices. One of the switches must be the VTP server in a VTP domain. All VLAN changes must be done on this switch in order to have them propagated to the VTP clients. The VTP domain name must match and it is case sensitive. CISCO and cisco are two different domain names. Make sure that no password is set between the server and client. Reflective Essay! If any password is set, make sure that the thesis policy password is the essay project same on both sides.
Every switch in the VTP domain must use the same VTP version. VTP V1 and VTP V2 are not compatible on thesis policy switches in the same VTP domain. Do not enable VTP V2 unless every switch in the VTP domain supports V2. Note: VTP V2 is disabled by default on VTP V2-capable switches. When you enable VTP V2 on a switch, every VTP V2-capable switch in the VTP domain enables V2. You can only configure the essay project version on switches in on investment policy, VTP server or transparent mode. Switches that operate in transparent mode drop VTP advertisements if they are not in economic, the same VTP domain.
The extended-range VLANs are not propagated. Therefore, you must configure extended-range VLANs manually on each network device. Note: In the future, the Catalyst 6500 Cisco IOS Software switches support VTP Version 3. This version is able to transmit extended-range VLANs. So far, VTP Version 3 is only supported on CatOS. Refer to the Understanding How VTP Version 3 Works section of policy, Configuring VTP for more information on VTP Version 3. The Security Association Identifier (SAID) values must be unique. SAID is economic extended essay a user-configurable, 4-byte VLAN identifier. The SAID identifies traffic that belongs to thesis, a particular VLAN. The SAID also determines to which VLAN each packet is switched. The SAID value is 100,000 plus the VLAN number.
These are two examples: The SAID for VLAN 8 is the poisonwood bible essays 100008. The SAID for VLAN 4050 is on investment 104050. The updates from a VTP server do not get updated on a client if the client already has a higher VTP revision number. Also, the client does not allow these updates to flow to essay, its downstream VTP clients if the client has a higher revision number than that which the policy VTP server sends.
Catalyst Switch Automatically Changes VTP Mode from Client to Transparent. Some Catalyst Layer 2 and Layer 3 fixed configuration switches change the VTP mode automatically from client to transparent with this error message: Either of these two reasons can cause the automatic VTP mode change in these switches: More VLANs run on the Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) than the essay visit switch can support. Catalyst Layer 2 and Layer 3 fixed configuration switches support a different maximum number of instances of STP with the thesis on investment policy use of per-VLAN spanning tree+ (PVST+). For example, the outsourcing Catalyst 2940 supports four instances of STP in PVST+ mode, while the Catalyst 3750 supports 128 instances of STP in on investment policy, PVST+ mode. Reflective! If more than the maximum number of thesis on investment policy, VLANs is defined in the VTP, the VLANs that remain operate with STP disabled. If the number of economic, instances of STP that is thesis policy already in use is greater than the maximum number, you can disable STP on one of the extended VLANs and enable it on the VLAN where you want STP to run. Issue the no spanning-tree vlan vlan-id global configuration command in order to disable STP on a specific VLAN.
Then, issue the spanning-tree vlan vlan-id global configuration command in order to enable STP on the desired VLAN. Note: Switches that do not run STP still forward the bridge protocol data units (BPDUs) that they receive. In this way, the other switches on the VLAN that have a running STP instance can break loops. Therefore, STP must run on enough switches in order to break all the loops in the network. For example, at least one switch on each loop in the VLAN must run STP. You do not need to run STP on all switches in the VLAN. However, if you run STP only on a minimal set of switches, a change to thesis, the network can introduce a loop into the network and can result in a broadcast storm. Reduce the number of VLANs that are configured to a number that the switch supports.
Configure the IEEE 802.1s Multiple STP (MSTP) on the switch in order to economic essay, map multiple VLANs to a single STP instance. Use switches and/or images (Enhanced Image [EI]) which support a greater number of VLANs. The switch receives more VLANs from a connected switch than the on investment policy switch can support. An automatic VTP mode change also can occur if the switch receives a VLAN configuration database message that contains more than a set number of essay help, VLANs. This normally happens in Catalyst Layer 2 and Layer 3 fixed configuration switches when they are connected to a VTP domain that has more VLANs than are supported locally. Configure the allowed VLAN list on the trunk port of the thesis connected switch in the poisonwood bible essays, order to restrict the number of VLANs that are passed to the client switch. Enable pruning on the VTP server switch. Use switches and/or images (EI) which support a greater number of VLANs. Data Traffic Blocked between VTP Domains.
Sometimes it is required to connect to switches that belong to on investment, two different VTP domains. For example, there are two switches called Switch1 and Switch2. Switch1 belongs to VTP domain cisco1 and Switch2 belongs to VTP domain cisco2. When you configure trunk between these two switches with the Dynamic Trunk Negotiation (DTP), the trunk negotiation fails and the trunk between the economic extended essay switches does not form, because the DTP sends the VTP domain name in a DTP packet. Because of this, the on investment data traffic does not pass between the switches.
It is economic extended essay possible that you can also see this error message. Note: Some of the switches do not show this error message. The solution for this issue is to policy, manually force the trunking instead in economic extended essay, order to on investment, rely on the DTP. Configure the trunk ports between the switches with the switchport mode trunk command. CatOS Switch Changes to VTP Transparent Mode, VTP-4-UNSUPPORTEDCFGRCVD: A recent change in CatOS incorporated a protective feature that causes a CatOS switch to go into VTP transparent mode in order to prevent the possibility of a switch reset because of a watchdog timeout. This change is documented in these Cisco bug IDs: How Do I Determine If My Switch Might Be Affected? The watchdog timeout can occur if these two conditions are met:
The Token Ring VLAN (1003) is translated to VLAN 1. You make a change in VLAN 1. Issue the show vlan command on the Catalyst in critical essays, order to observe the Token Ring VLAN translation. Thesis Policy! This is an example of show vlan command output: How Does CatOS Version 6.3(3) Protect My Switch from a Watchdog Timeout? There is a protective feature in order to prevent a watchdog timeout in this CatOS version.
The Catalyst switch switches from VTP server or client to euthanasia help, VTP transparent mode. How Do I Determine If My Switch Has Gone to VTP Transparent Mode in Order to Protect Against a Watchdog Timeout? Your switch has gone to VTP transparent mode if the thesis on investment policy logging level for the VTP is raised to 4. You see this message when the switchover occurs: What Are the Negative Effects When the Switch Goes to VTP Transparent Mode? If pruning is enabled, the facilities trunks go down. If the trunks go down and no other ports are in that VLAN, the VLAN interface in the installed Multilayer Switch Feature Card (MSFC) goes down. If these effects occur, and this switch is in the core of your network, your network can be negatively affected. Where Does the Unsupported VTP Configuration Come From? Any Cisco IOS Software-based switch, such as the switches in this list, can supply the unsupported VTP configuration:
A Catalyst 2900/3500XL. A Cisco IOS Software Catalyst 6500. A Cisco IOS Software-based Catalyst 4000. These products translate the 1003 VLAN to VLAN 1 by default. The solution in thesis, CatOS-based switches enables the switches to handle this translated information properly. The solution for on a visit to badshahi mosque the Cisco IOS Software-based switches is to remove this default translation and match the behavior of the CatOS-based switches. These are the integrated fixed versions that are currently available: If you cannot upgrade to images that have these fixes integrated, you can modify the configuration in the Cisco IOS Software-based switches. Use this procedure if the switch is a VTP server: The 1002 VLAN can be translated, but you can also remove it if you include this in your configuration: When Exactly Does My Switch Change to VTP Transparent Mode?
Some confusion exists about when this switchover to VTP transparent mode occurs. On Investment Policy! The scenarios in this section provide examples of when the switchover can happen. These are the initial conditions: Both the Catalyst 6500 and the Catalyst 3500XL are VTP servers with the visit mosque same VTP configuration revision number. Both servers have the same VTP domain name and the same VTP password, if the password is configured. The Catalyst 3500XL has the translated Token Ring VLAN. You start the on investment servers while they are disconnected. If you connect these two switches, the Catalyst 6500 goes to VTP transparent mode.
Of course, this also happens if the Cisco 3500XL has a higher VTP configuration revision number than the Catalyst 6500 configuration revision number. Moreover, if the switch to discursive essay help, VTP transparent mode occurs when you physically connect the two switches, you can reasonably assume that the change would also occur if you booted the Catalyst 6500 for the first time while the switch was already connected. These are the initial conditions: The Catalyst 6500 is a VTP server. The Catalyst 3500XL is a VTP client. The Catalyst 3500XL has a higher VTP configuration revision number than the Catalyst 6500 configuration revision number. Both switches have the same VTP domain and thesis policy, the same VTP password, if the password is configured. The Catalyst 3500XL has the translated Token Ring VLAN.
You start the servers while they are disconnected. If you connect these two switches, the Catalyst 6500 goes to VTP transparent mode. In this scenario, if the Catalyst 3500XL has a lower configuration revision number than the Catalyst 6500 configuration revision number, the Catalyst 6500 does not switch to VTP transparent mode. Project! If the Catalyst 3500XL has the same configuration revision number, the Catalyst 6500 does not go to VTP transparent mode. However, the translation is still present in the Catalyst 3500XL. What Is the Quickest Way to Recover After I Notice the Translation in on investment, My Network? Even if you correct the Token Ring VLAN information in one switch, such as the switch that malfunctioned, the papers information can propagate throughout your network. You can use the show vlan command in order to determine if this occurred. Therefore, the quickest way to recover is to perform these steps: Take a Cisco IOS Software-based switch, such as a Catalyst XL that is thesis policy connected to the network, and change the help switch to thesis policy, a VTP server.
Remove the translated VLANs. After you apply the change in the switch, reconnect the switch to the network. The change should be propagated to all the other VTP servers and clients. You can use the discursive help show vlan command in order to verify that the translation is gone in the network. At this point, you should be able to change the affected CatOS 6.3(3) switch back to a VTP server. Note: The Catalyst XL switches do not support as many VLANs as the Catalyst 6500s support. Ensure that all the thesis policy VLANs in the Catalyst 6500 exist in reflective essay project, the Catalyst XL switch before you reconnect them. For example, you do not want to thesis on investment, connect a Catalyst 3548XL with 254 VLANs and a higher VTP configuration revision number to reflective, a Catalyst 6500 that has 500 VLANs configured. How a Recently Inserted Switch Can Cause Network Problems. This problem occurs when you have a large switched domain that is all in the same VTP domain, and you want to add one switch in the network.
This switch was previously used in the lab, and a good VTP domain name was entered. The switch was configured as a VTP client and was connected to thesis on investment policy, the rest of the to badshahi network. Then, you brought the ISL link up to the rest of the on investment policy network. In just a few seconds, the whole network was down. How did this happen?
The configuration revision number of the reflective on group project switch that you inserted was higher than the thesis configuration revision number of the VTP domain. Therefore, your recently introduced switch, with almost no configured VLANs, erased all VLANs through the VTP domain. This occurs whether the switch is euthanasia essay a VTP client or a VTP server. A VTP client can erase VLAN information on a VTP server. You can tell that this has occurred when many of the ports in thesis on investment, your network go into inactive state but continue to be assigned to a nonexistent VLAN. Quickly reconfigure all of the VLANs on euthanasia discursive essay one of the VTP servers. Always make sure that the configuration revision number of all switches that you insert into the VTP domain is thesis on investment lower than the configuration revision number of the switches that are already in the VTP domain. If you have the output of a show tech-support command from your Cisco device, you can use the Output Interpreter (registered customers only) in order to display potential issues and fixes. Complete these steps in order to see an example of this problem:
Issue these commands in order to see that clic has 7 VLANs (1, 2, 3, and the defaults), clic is the VTP server in the domain named test, and port 2/3 is in VLAN 3: Connect bing, which is economic extended essay a lab switch on which VLANs 4, 5, and 6 were created. Note: The configuration revision number is 3 in this switch. Place bing in the same VTP domain (test). Configure the trunk between the two switches in thesis policy, order to integrate bing in the network. Bing erased the clic VLAN, and now clic has VLANs 4, 5, and 6. However, clic no longer has VLANs 2 and 3, and port 2/3 is inactive. Recently Added Switch Does Not Get the essay VLANs From the VTP Server. Make sure that the newly added switch has a configuration revision number that is less than the current revision number of the domain. See the How a Recently Inserted Switch Can Cause Network Problems and Reset the Configuration Revision Number sections for more information. The new switch might not immediately receive the list of on investment, configured VLANs from the VTP server.
In order to overcome this, make any of on group, these modifications to the VLAN database: Create any VLAN. Delete any VLAN. Modify the properties of any current VLAN. Make modifications to the VLAN database at any VTP server of the same domain. Once the modification is completed, the newly added switch receives the VLAN information from the VTP server. Reset the Configuration Revision Number.
You can easily reset the configuration revision number by either of the policy two procedures provided in this section. Reset the Configuration Revision using Domain Name. Complete these steps in case studies, order to reset the configuration revision number with the change of the on investment policy domain name: Issue this command in stress papers, order to see that the configuration is empty: Configure the thesis on investment domain name, which is test in management studies, this example, and on investment, create two VLANs. The configuration revision number goes up to 2:
Change the on a visit to badshahi domain name from test to cisco. The configuration revision number is back to 0, and all the VLANs are still present: Change the thesis on investment policy VTP domain name from cisco back to test. The configuration revision is 0. There is no risk that anything can be erased, and all the previously configured VLANs remain: Reset the Configuration Revision using VTP Mode. Complete these steps in critical, order to reset the configuration revision number with the change of the VTP mode: Issue this command in on investment policy, order to see that the configuration is empty: Configure the domain name, which is project test in this example, and create two VLANs. The configuration revision number goes up to thesis policy, 2: Change the VTP mode from server to visit to badshahi mosque, transparent. The configuration revision number is back to 0, and all the thesis VLANs are still present:
Change the reflective on group VTP mode from transparent to server or client. The configuration revision is thesis 0. There is no risk that anything can be erased, and all the previously configured VLANs remain: All Ports Inactive After Power Cycle. Switch ports move to the inactive state when they are members of VLANs that do not exist in the VLAN database. A common issue is that all the ports move to police, this inactive state after a power cycle. Generally, you see this when the switch is configured as a VTP client with the uplink trunk port on a VLAN other than VLAN 1. Because the switch is in VTP client mode, when the switch resets, it loses its VLAN database and causes the uplink port and any other ports that were not members of VLAN 1 to go into inactive mode.
Complete these steps in order to solve this problem: Temporarily change the VTP mode to transparent. Add the VLAN to which the uplink port is assigned to thesis on investment, the VLAN database. Note: This example assumes that VLAN 3 is the VLAN that is assigned to the uplink port. Change the VTP mode back to client after the uplink port begins forwarding. After you complete these steps, VTP should re-populate the VLAN database from the VTP server. The Poisonwood Critical! The re-population moves all ports that were members of VLANs that the VTP server advertised back into policy the active state. Trunk Down, which Causes VTP Problems. Remember that VTP packets are carried on VLAN 1, but only on trunks (ISL, dot1q, or LAN emulation [LANE]). If you make VLAN changes during a time when you have a trunk down or when LANE connectivity is the poisonwood bible critical down between two parts of your network, you can lose your VLAN configuration.
When the trunk connectivity is restored, the thesis on investment policy two sides of the network resynchronize. Therefore, the switch with the highest configuration revision number erases the VLAN configuration of the lowest configuration revision switch. VTP and STP (Logical Spanning Tree Port) When you have a large VTP domain, you also have a large STP domain. VLAN 1 must span through the whole VTP domain. Therefore, one unique STP is run for that VLAN in the whole domain. When VTP is used and a new VLAN is created, the VLAN is propagated through the entire VTP domain. The VLAN is the poisonwood bible critical essays then created in all switches in the VTP domain. All Cisco switches use PVST, which means that the switches run a separate STP for on investment each VLAN.
This adds to the CPU load of the switch. You must refer to the maximum number of logical ports (for the STP) that are supported on the switch in reflective on group project, order to thesis policy, have an idea of the number of STPs that you can have on each switch. The number of logical ports is roughly the number of ports that run STP. Note: A trunk port runs one instance of STP for each active VLAN on the trunk. You can perform a rapid evaluation of this value for your switch with this formula:
This number, which is the maximum number of logical ports for STP, varies from switch to switch and is documented in the release notes for the poisonwood critical essays each product. Thesis Policy! For example, on a Catalyst 5000 with Supervisor Engine 2, you can have a maximum of 1500 STP instances. Each time you create a new VLAN with VTP, the VLAN is propagated by default to all switches and is subsequently active on all ports. You might need to euthanasia essay help, prune unnecessary VLANs from the thesis on investment policy trunk in order to avoid inflation of the essay on a to badshahi mosque number of logical ports. Note: Pruning unnecessary VLANs from the trunk can be performed with one of thesis policy, two methods: Manual pruning of the unnecessary VLAN on the trunk —This is the best method, and it avoids the use of the spanning tree. Instead, the method runs the pruned VLAN on police research trunks. Thesis Policy! The VTP Pruning section of economic essay, this document describes manual pruning further. VTP pruning —Avoid this method if the goal is to thesis on investment policy, reduce the number of STP instances. VTP-pruned VLANs on a trunk are still part of the spanning tree.
Therefore, VTP-pruned VLANs do not reduce the number of spanning tree port instances. VTP pruning increases the available bandwidth. VTP pruning restricts flooded traffic to those trunk links that the essay on a visit traffic must use in order to access the policy appropriate network devices. By default, VTP pruning is disabled. The enablement of VTP pruning on a VTP server enables pruning for the poisonwood bible the entire management domain. The set vtp pruning enable command prunes VLANs automatically and stops the on investment policy inefficient flooding of frames where the frames are not needed.
By default, VLANs 2 through 1000 are pruning eligible. VTP pruning does not prune traffic from pruning-ineligible VLANs. VLAN 1 is always pruning ineligible; traffic from VLAN 1 cannot be pruned. Note: Unlike manual VLAN pruning, automatic pruning does not limit the spanning tree diameter. All devices in the management domain must support VTP pruning in facilities case, order for VTP pruning to be effective. On Investment! On devices that do not support VTP pruning, you must manually configure the VLANs that are allowed on trunks. Mosque! You can perform manual pruning of the on investment VLAN from the trunk with the economic essay clear trunk mod / port command and the clear trunk vlan_list command.
For example, you can choose to only allow, on each trunk, a core switch to thesis, the VLANs that are actually needed. Extended Essay! This helps to reduce the load on the CPUs of all switches (core switches and access switches) and avoids the use of STP for those VLANs that extend through the thesis entire network. This pruning limits STP problems in the VLAN. This is an example: Topology —The topology is two core switches that are connected to on a, each other, each with 80 trunk connections to 80 different access switches. With this design, each core switch has 81 trunks, and each access switch has two uplink trunks. This assumes that access switches have, in thesis on investment, addition to the two uplinks, two or three trunks that go to a Catalyst 1900. This is discursive a total of four to five trunks per access switch. Platform —Core switches are Catalyst 6500s with Supervisor Engine 1A and Policy Feature Card 1 (PFC1) that run software release 5.5(7). According to the Release Notes for Catalyst 6000/6500 Software Release 5.x, this platform cannot have more than 4000 STP logical ports.
Access switches —Access switches are either: Catalyst 5000 switches with Supervisor Engine 2, which do not support more than 1500 STP logical ports. Catalyst 5000 switches with Supervisor Engine 1 and thesis on investment policy, 20 MB of DRAM, which do not support more than 400 STP logical ports. Number of VLANs —Remember to use VTP. A VLAN on the VTP server is created on economic extended all switches in the network. If you have 100 VLANs, the core must handle roughly 100 VLANs x 81 trunks = 8100 logical ports, which is above the limit. The access switch must handle 100 VLANs x 5 trunks = 500 logical ports.
In this case, Catalysts in the core exceed the supported number of on investment policy, logical ports, and access switches with Supervisor Engine 1 are also above the limit. Solution —If you assume that only four or five VLANs are actually needed in each access switch, you can prune all the other VLANs from the trunk on the core layer. For example, if only VLANs 1, 10, 11, and 13 are needed on trunk 3/1 that goes to that access switch, the extended essay configuration on the core is: Note: Even if you do not exceed the number of allowed logical ports, prune VLANs from policy, a trunk. The reason is that an STP loop in one VLAN only extends where the VLAN is allowed and does not go through the outsourcing entire campus. Thesis! The broadcast in essay on a visit to badshahi mosque, one VLAN does not reach the switch that does not need the broadcast. In releases that are earlier than software release 5.4, you cannot clear VLAN 1 from trunks. In later releases, you can clear VLAN 1 with this command: The Case of VLAN 1 section of this document discusses techniques on how to keep VLAN 1 from policy, spanning the whole campus. If two switches, A and police stress research, B, are connected with one port of thesis on investment, Switch A, which is mosque configured as trunk, and on investment policy, is connected to an IP phone, then the VTP joins the messages that pass from extended, Switch A to Switch B. Therefore, Switch B is thesis not able to prune the unused VLANS. This issue can be resolved if you configure the port connected to IP Phone as an access port voice VLAN . You cannot apply VTP pruning to VLANs that need to exist everywhere and that need to be allowed on research all switches in the campus, in order to be able to carry VTP, Cisco Discovery Protocol [CDP] traffic, and other control traffic.
However, there is on investment policy a way to limit the extent of facilities management outsourcing studies, VLAN 1. The feature is called VLAN 1 disable on trunk. The feature is available on Catalyst 4500/4000, 5500/5000, and 6500/6000 series switches in CatOS software release 5.4(x) and later. The feature allows you to prune VLAN 1 from a trunk, as you do for any other VLAN. This pruning does not include all the policy control protocol traffic that is still allowed on the trunk (DTP, PAgP, CDP, VTP, and others). However, the management case pruning does block all user traffic on that trunk. With this feature, you can keep the VLAN from spanning the entire campus.
STP loops are limited in extent, even in thesis on investment policy, VLAN 1. Configure VLAN 1 to be disabled, as you would configure other VLANs to be cleared from the the poisonwood essays trunk: UDLD uses native VLAN in order to on investment policy, talk to the neighbor. So, in a trunk port, the native VLAN must not be pruned in order for UDLD to work properly. Troubleshoot VTP Configuration Revision Number Errors That Are Seen in the show vtp statistics Command Output. VTP is designed for economic extended an administrative environment in which the VLAN database for thesis policy the domain is economic extended changed at only one switch at any one time. Thesis On Investment Policy! It assumes that the new revision propagates throughout the domain before another revision is to badshahi mosque made. If you change the database simultaneously on two different devices in the administrative domain, you can cause two different databases to be generated with the same revision number.
These databases propagate and overwrite the existing information until they meet at an intermediate Catalyst switch on the network. This switch cannot accept either advertisement because the packets have the same revision number but a different MD5 value. When the switch detects this condition, the on investment policy switch increments the police research papers No of config revision errors counter. Note: The show vtp statistics command output in this section provides an example. If you find that the VLAN information is on investment policy not updated on a certain switch, or if you encounter other, similar problems, issue the the poisonwood bible show vtp statistics command. Determine if the count of VTP packets with configuration revision number errors is increasing: If you observe a configuration revision error, you can resolve this problem if you change the VLAN database in some way so that a VTP database with a higher revision number than the thesis on investment policy revision number of the extended competing databases is created.
For example, on the switch that acts as the primary VTP server, add or delete a false VLAN in the administrative domain. This updated revision is propagated throughout the domain and overwrites the policy database at all devices. Essay On Group! When all the devices in the domain advertise an identical database, the error no longer appears. Troubleshoot VTP Configuration Digest Errors That Are Seen in the show vtp statistics Command Output. This section addresses how to troubleshoot VTP configuration digest errors that you see when you issue the show vtp statistics command. This is an example: The general purpose of an MD5 value is to verify the integrity of a received packet and to detect any changes to the packet or corruption of the packet during transit. When a switch detects a new revision number that is different from the currently stored value, the switch sends a request message to the VTP server and requests the on investment VTP subsets. Reflective Essay! A subset advertisement contains a list of VLAN information.
The switch calculates the MD5 value for the subset advertisements and compares the thesis on investment policy value to the MD5 value of the VTP summary advertisement. If the police stress research two values are different, the switch increases the No of config digest errors counter. A common reason for on investment policy these digest errors is that the VTP password is not configured consistently on all VTP servers in the VTP domain. Troubleshoot these errors as a misconfiguration or data corruption issue. When you troubleshoot this problem, ensure that the project error counter is not historical. The statistics menu counts errors since the most recent device reset or the VTP statistics reset. Unable to Change the VTP Mode of a Switch from Server / Transparent. If the switch is policy a standalone (that is, not connected to the network), and you want to police research, configure the VTP mode as the client, after reboot, the switch comes up either as a VTP server or VTP transparent, dependent upon the VTP mode of the thesis on investment switch before it was configured as the on group VTP client. The switch does not allow itself to be configured as a VTP client when there is thesis no VTP server nearby.
OSPF Hellos Blocked in a VTP Domain. Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) Hellos can get blocked and the adjacency can be dropped if a switch in the VTP domain is changed from the server or client mode to transparent mode. This issue can occur if VTP pruning is reflective essay on group enabled in thesis on investment policy, the domain. Use any of these options in order to stress research, resolve the issue: Hard code the OSPF neighbors. Disable VTP pruning in the domain. Revert the thesis policy VTP mode of the switch to server or client. This section talks about the commonly occuring variants of this error message: %SW_VLAN-4-VTP_USER_NOTIFICATION: VTP protocol user notification: Version 1 device detected on [int] after grace period has ended. By default, the VLAN Trunking Protocol (VTP) Version on Cisco switches is essay to badshahi Version 2 and is compatible with Version 1. This message is just a notification that indicates that there is a switch connected on port Gig0/10 that runs VTP Version 1. Everything continues to work fine, unless you run IPX, and there is nothing harmful for the switch. In order to resolve this issue, change the VTP version with these commands.
For Cisco IOS switches, use these commands: For CatOS switches, use this command: %SW_VLAN-SP-4-VTP_USER_NOTIFICATION: VTP protocol user notification: MD5 digest checksum mismatch on receipt of equal revision summary on trunk: [int] %SW_VLAN-4-VTP_USER_NOTIFICATION: VTP protocol user notification: Error detected in VTP Revision Number for VTP Domain Index [dec] Single Switchport Trunk That Allowed the policy vlan command Appears as Multiple Commands in the show running-config command Output.
When the number of allowed VLANs extends past a certain number of characters, which is the default terminal width, the show running-config command wraps the line and adds the switchport trunk allowed vlan add command to police papers, the line. This is the way Cisco IOS handles long lists in the switchport trunk allowed vlan command. The output of show running-config looks similar to this: You can also notice that the VLAN list has been order in ascending order and displayed in the output. Remove VLAN 1 from the allowed list so you can disable VLAN 1 on any individual VLAN trunk port in thesis on investment policy, order to reduce the risk of spanning-tree loops or storms. When you remove VLAN 1 from a trunk port, the interface continues to send and receive management traffic, for example, Cisco Discovery Protocol (CDP), Port Aggregation Protocol (PAgP), Link Aggregation Control Protocol (LACP), Dynamic Trunking Protocol (DTP), and VLAN Trunking Protocol (VTP) in VLAN 1. The no form of the allowed vlan command resets the list to the default list, which allows all VLANs. All packets sent to the EARL must be prefixed by a VLAN ID, because that is the packet format the EARL expects. Routed ports do not have a visible VLAN ID since one is not explicitly configured, so the switch borrows a VLAN from the pool of discursive essay help, 4096 that it has.
You can instruct the Catalyst 6500 series switch to start to borrow VLANs from the thesis on investment top, and descend from 4096, or from bottom, and ascend from 1006, with the use the stress papers global config mode vlan allocation policy command. Thus it is normal behavior for internal VLAN to be utilized with routed or WAN interface.
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African Development Portrayed in thesis, Film. Posted by reflective essay, beersa1 on Monday, November 4, 2013 in News. Growth is biased, leaning more favorably to those institutions and countries with the most money, knowledge, and development. For the purposes of this paper, a developed country shall be one with the following characteristics: gender equality, accessible healthcare, and a responsive government with a concern for policy, its people. These qualities are those that compromise a country’s ability to provide a safe environment, especially in reflective project, terms of curbing diseases like HIV/AIDS.
Quantifying these standards is difficult, yet the following measurements will suffice: HIV prevalence, doctor to patient ratios, and income from medicines. These statistics provide insight into the effect that HIV/AIDS has on the country’s state of development, and vice versa. Using South Africa and the United States as examples, one can examine how governmental and thesis on investment policy societal response to emergencies changes as the country’s state of development changes. Because HIV/AIDS created a sense of emergency within South Africa, it initiated a series of developmental reforms, simultaneously depleting the resources of the country and making it exponentially more difficult to implement these reforms. Yet it was the hostile social stigma associated with HIV/AIDS that prevented the United States government and to badshahi mosque people from responding appropriately to the disease and on investment instead actively choosing ignorance.
The United States was just as ineffective in containing HIV/AIDS at the start of the epidemic as South Africa was in terms of sympathizing with victims and forming and implementing policy; its only saving characteristic is its high amount of resources compared to that of South Africa. It can be said that HIV/AIDS has done more harm than good in terms of the facilities management lives it has taken, yet it catalyzed long-term policies that are on track to on investment policy improve the quality of life compared to before HIV/AIDS. If only it did not take a crisis to necessitate progress in equality (in terms of gender, healthcare, etc.), governments worldwide would be far more responsible. Even though they are drastically different, the United States and South Africa handled the outsourcing studies same crisis in a nearly identical way, until the resources and policy development of the United States overwhelmed the prevailing sense of prejudice and negligence towards HIV/AIDS. Extrapolating on this idea, it is most likely that if South Africa had the resources that the United States did, treating HIV/AIDS would be a much smaller problem, as the politics of the disease would fade into the background. Dr. James Mason, the Director of the CDC during the HIV/AIDS crisis, stated, “there are certain areas which, when the facilities management outsourcing goals of science collide with moral and on investment ethical judgment, science has to take a time out” (Francis 2012). The Poisonwood Bible Essays. Although this is a discouraging claim, especially from the head of one of the most important science departments in the world, it proved to be true.
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Kitsch and the Modern Predicament. I n a celebrated 1939 article, Avant-Garde and Kitsch, published in on investment policy, Partisan Review , the New York art critic Clement Greenberg argued that figurative painting was dead. The alternative to abstraction, he wrote, is the poisonwood bible critical, not Michelangelo but kitsch. Every attempt to thesis on investment make the painted image vie with the essay visit to badshahi, photograph, he believed, would lead to disaster, as cliches took charge of the canvas. Henceforth painting must provide its own subject matter: it must be self-sufficient, pure, uncontaminated by the figurative image. The future of painting lay with the abstract expressionists, as Greenberg described them: the artists who treated painting like music, as a medium for expressing emotion through the policy, use of abstract forms. Greenberg was perhaps the most influential art critic of police his day. His essay set the agenda for policy, an emerging school of New York painters and also set the price tag on euthanasia essay, their works. Policy. Vast sums of public and private money have since changed hands to stock American houses and American museums with works that, to the ordinary eye, have nothing to recommend them apart from their attempt to be abreast of the times.
The avant-garde ceased to be a realm of caution and experiment and became, under Greenberg's tutelage, a mass industry. So long as you avoided the literal image, so long as you defied all figurative conventions, you, too, could be a modern painter. You, too, could establish your credentials as a pathbreaking artistic genius, by doing something—no matter what, so long as it left a permanent mark on a purchasable object—that no one had done before. And if you got lucky, you could be rich and famous, like Cy Twombly, on account of images that look like accidents—and might even be accidents, like the numbers that win on the lottery. Of course, some painters refused to take this path—painters like Edward Hopper, who worked to purify the figurative image and to economic extended essay see again with the innocent eye. But critics and curators remained skeptical; they had invested too heavily in the avant-garde to believe that it was, after all, only on investment policy, a fashion. Hopper's success was therefore viewed as a freakish thing—a last-ditch survival of an art that elsewhere had been killed off by the march of history. For all truly modern people, the critics went on saying, Greenberg's maxim still held good: don't touch the figurative image, or you'll land yourself in kitsch. The problem is, however, that you land yourself in kitsch in any case. Research. Take a stroll around MoMA, and you will encounter it in almost every room: avant-garde, certainly—novel in its presumption, if not in its effect—but also kitsch, abstract kitsch, of the kind that makes modernist wallpaper or is thesis, botched together for the tourist trade on the Boulevard Montparnasse. The effusions of Georgia O'Keeffe, with their gushing suggestions of feminine and the poisonwood floral things, are telling instances.
Study them, if you can bear it, and you will see that the disease that rotted the heart of figurative painting has struck at its successor. What makes for kitsch is not the attempt to thesis compete with the extended essay, photograph but the attempt to policy have your emotions on stress research papers, the cheap—the attempt to appear sublime without the effort of on investment policy being so. And this cut-price version of the facilities, sublime artistic gesture is there for all to thesis on investment see in Barnett Newman or Frank Stella. When the avant-garde becomes a cliche, then it is impossible to defend yourself from kitsch by being avant-garde. I f we look back over essay European art before the on investment, mid-eighteenth century, we find occasional lapses into sentimentality—in Murillo, for example, or Guido Reni or Greuze. Economic. We also discover mechanical and cliche-ridden art, like the music of Vivaldi. But we find nothing that really could be described as kitsch—not even Vivaldi's Four Seasons , which has survived its demotion to Muzak without losing its unaffected simplicity. The artless art of primitive people, the art of the thesis, medieval stonemasons and stained-glass makers—all these are naive and devoid of high pretensions. Yet none is kitsch, nor could it be.
This art never prompts that half-physical revulsion—the yuk! feeling—that is our spontaneous tribute to kitsch in all its forms. Of course, stained-glass kitsch exists, but it is the work of Pre-Raphaelites and their progeny—the work of sophisticated people, conscious of their loss of innocence. Stress. We all admire the craftmanship of Burne-Jones, but we are also conscious that his figures are not angels, but children dressing up. Critics noticed and lamented the capture of the visual arts by fake emotion long before the word kitsch was invented. The art of thesis policy Bouguereau was a triumphant version of what was soon to be a mass-marketed product—and a major import to America. L'art pompier , as it was later known—pumped-up art—prompted Baudelaire's famous essay in defense of Manet, The Painter of Modern Life; it led to help the revolt of the Impressionists against the salons and to the first conscious split between highbrow and middlebrow taste. Modernism was in part a defense against the sentimentality of mass culture. And the first desire of the modernists was to re-connect themselves to the innocent, prelapsarian art of people uncorrupted by the modern media. Pound and Eliot in literature, Bartok, Copland, and Stravinsky in music, Picasso and Gauguin in painting—all were keen anthropologists, looking for on investment, those genuine and unforced expressions of stress research papers sentiment against which to thesis weigh the empty cliches of the post-romantic art industry. They were surely right that kitsch is a modern invention. But pre-modern people are not proof against it.
On the contrary, their immune systems seem helpless in the face of this new contagion; today the to badshahi, mere contact of a traditional culture with Western civilization is sufficient to transmit the disease, rather as tribes were once rescued from their darkness by colonial adventurers and missionaries, only to die at once from smallpox or TB. A century ago, no African art was kitsch. Now kitsch is on sale in thesis policy, every African airport—antelopes, elephants, witch doctors, and hobgoblin deities, skillfully carved in case, ivory or tropical hardwood, imitating the enchanted figures that inspired Picasso but, in this or that barely perceptible detail, betraying their nature as fakes. Much of our present cultural situation can be seen as a response to thesis policy this remarkable phenomenon—not, I think, encountered before the Enlightenment but now ubiquitous and inescapable. In all spheres where human beings have attempted to euthanasia ennoble themselves, to make examples and icons of the heroic and the sublime, we encounter the mass-produced caricature, the sugary pretense, the thesis, easy avenue to reflective essay a dignity destroyed by the very ease of reaching it. Kitsch, wrote Greenberg, is the epitome of all that is spurious in the life of our times. And he had in mind not figurative painting only, but Hollywood, popular music, the picture postcard, and indeed, all the flotsam of mass culture. One's main thought, nevertheless, on reading Greenberg's essay is: How lucky he was to thesis policy live then and not now.
T he word kitsch comes to critical us from German, though its origins are obscure: many suspect a Yiddish input, a knowing wink from the shtetl. Thesis On Investment. German art and literature of the last century certainly provide some of the choicest instances—many of them gathered together by Gert Richter in his invaluable Kitsch-Lexikon von A bis Z . Nevertheless, the Germans should not take all the blame. It is in America that kitsch reached its apogee, not as a form of life but as a way of facilities studies death. In Forest Lawn Memorial Park, death becomes a rite of passage into Disneyland. The American funerary culture, so cruelly satirized by Evelyn Waugh in The Loved One , attempts to prove that this event, too—the end of man's life and his entry into judgment—is in the last analysis unreal. This thing that cannot be faked becomes a fake. The world of kitsch is thesis, a world of make-believe, of economic extended essay permanent childhood, in which every day is Christmas. In such a world, death does not really happen. The loved one is therefore reprocessed, endowed with a sham immortality; he only pretends to die, and we only pretend to mourn him. Those things that challenge us to transcend ourselves, to be something more than dependent children, are the places where the kitsch-fly lays its eggs.
Death demands grief and dignity and thesis policy suffering. It is economic extended essay, therefore kitsched into a sweeter and slushier condition, a childlike slumber that brings sentimental tears, like the death of on investment Little Nell at the end of Dickens's Old Curiosity Shop (proof, if proof were needed, that great artists are not all immune from kitsch). And such tears are easily wiped away. (A man needs a heart of stone, as Oscar Wilde famously said, not to laugh at the death of Little Nell.) When tragedy enters the world of kitsch, it is denatured, purged of that absolute sense of discursive help loss that is the proper response to the death of a moral being. That's why kitsch tragedy tends so often to be played out thesis policy with animals—like the mother deer's death in Walt Disney's Bambi , which elicits grief harmlessly because the character is—literally—a cartoon. I n my grandmother's piano stool was a stack of sheet music from the help, twenties and thirties—Billy Mayerl, Horatio Nicholls, Albert Ketelbey—and this was my apprenticeship in popular culture. Such music was part of the family, played and sung with intense nostalgia on wedding anniversaries, birthdays, Christmases, and family visits. Every piece had an extra-musical meaning, a nimbus of memory and idle tears.
I got to know the once famous, now notorious, piece of light music by Ketelbey called In a Monastery Garden in a piano reduction. On Investment Policy. Recently, I listened to the full orchestral version, in which birds tweet above the police stress research, corny melody, while a choir of policy monks sings Kyrie Eleison from afar. This experience provided another kind of insight into kitsch. Ketelbey's music is trying to do what music cannot do and should not attempt to do—it is telling me what it means, while meaning nothing. Here is heavenly peace, it says; just fit your mood to these easy contours, and peace will be yours. But the disparity between the emotion claimed by the music and the technique used to police stress suggest it shows the self-advertisement to be a lie. Religious peace is a rare gift, which comes about only thesis, through spiritual discipline. The easy harmonic progressions and the poisonwood bible essays platitudinous tune take us there too easily, so that we know we have not arrived. On Investment Policy. The music is faking an emotion, by means that could never express it. Kitsch is pretense. But not all pretense is the poisonwood bible critical, kitsch.
Something else is thesis, needed to create the sense of intrusion—the un-wanted hand on the knee. Kitsch is not just pretending; it is asking you to join in euthanasia discursive essay help, the game. In real kitsch, what is being faked cannot be faked. Hence the pretense must be mutual, complicitous, knowing. The opposite of kitsch is not sophistication but innocence. On Investment. Kitsch art is pretending to express something, and you, in accepting it, are pretending to feel. Kitsch therefore relies on codes and cliches that convert the higher emotions into reflective essay on group project, a pre-digested and trouble-free form—the form that can be most easily pretended. Like processed food, kitsch avoids everything in the organism that asks for moral energy and so passes from junk to crap without an intervening spell of nourishment. W hat brought this peculiar form of on investment pretense into being? Here is a suggestion. We are moral beings, who judge one another and ourselves.
We live under the burden of facilities management outsourcing reproach and the hope of praise. All our higher feelings are informed by this—and especially by the desire to win favorable regard from those we admire. Thesis On Investment Policy. This ethical vision of human life is a work of criticism and emulation. It is a vision that all religions deliver and all societies need. Unless we judge and are judged, the higher emotions are impossible: pride, loyalty, self-sacrifice, tragic grief, and essay joyful surrender—all these are artificial things, which exist only so long as, and to thesis the extent that, we fix one another with the eye of judgment. As soon as we let go, as soon as we see one another as animals, parts of the machinery of nature, released from essay on a to badshahi mosque, moral imperatives and bound only by natural laws, then the higher emotions desert us.
At the same time, these emotions are necessary: they endow life with meaning and form the bond of society. Hence we find ourselves in a dangerous predicament. The emotions that we need cannot be faked; but the vision on which they depend—the vision of human freedom and of mankind as the subject and object of judgment—is constantly fading. And in these circumstances, there arises the temptation to replace the higher life with a charade, a moral conspiracy that obscures the higher life with the thesis on investment, steam of the herd. This explains why the facilities, Enlightenment is so important. For it changed our vision of the moral life. Previously, the judgment that was in-voked in our higher feelings was experienced as the judgment of on investment God. After the facilities management outsourcing case, Enlightenment, it was experienced as the judgment of men and women.
The greatest art of the Enlight-enment is devoted to rescuing mankind from this predicament by showing that human judgment is sufficient to raise us above the beasts and to endow our works with the dignity that may come from on investment, human freedom. Essay. Such is the message of The Magic Flute and of Faust . Unsupported by faith, however, the ethical vision falters. Policy. Whether it ought to falter may be doubted; but it does so, and the proof of this is romanticism. The romantic artist is attempting to invest human life with a religious aura—to rewrite those purely human experiences of conflict and passion as though they originated in management outsourcing studies, the divine. In this way, nineteenth-century art served to on investment sustain the vision of a higher life in the midst of bourgeois mediocrity. But behind the efforts of the romantic avant-garde, another force was gathering momentum, and this force was kitsch.
Romantic art involves a heroic attempt to re-enchant the world: to look on economic extended essay, human beings as though they had the thesis, significance and the dignity of euthanasia discursive essay help angels. To sustain this attempt requires moral and aesthetic discipline, of the kind we witness in thesis, Brahms or Keats or Wagner. It also requires a work of the imagination, a searching of ordinary human life for those sacramental moments when the light of freedom shines through. T his work of the imagination is not possible for on a mosque, everyone; and in an age of on investment mass communication, people learn to dispense with it. And that is how kitsch arises—when people who are avoiding the cost of the higher life are nevertheless pressured by the surrounding culture into pretending that they possess it. Kitsch is an attempt to have the economic extended, life of the spirit on the cheap.
Hence the thesis on investment policy, earliest manifestations of extended kitsch are in religion: the plaster saints and doe-eyed madonnas that sprang up during the nineteenth century in every Italian church, the cult of Christmas and thesis on investment the baby Jesus that replaced the reflective essay on group project, noble tragedy of Easter and the narrative of thesis on investment our hard-won redemption. Kitsch now has its pantheon of deities—deities of make-believe like Santa Claus—and its book of saints and martyrs, saints of sentiment like Linda McCartney and martyrs to self-advertisement like Princess Diana. The First World War saw the on a visit, rapid rise of patriotic kitsch, and the great crimes and revolutions of our century have taken place behind a veil of kitsch: look at the art and propaganda of thesis policy Nazi Germany and revolutionary Russia, and you will see the on group project, unmistakable sign of it—the gross sentimentality, the mechanical cliches, and the constant pretense at a higher life and a noble vision that can be obtained just like that, merely by putting on a uniform. Socialist realism, Nazi nationalism, the Nuremberg rallies and May Day parades—the best description of such things was once given to me by a Czech writer, at on investment policy, the time working underground: kitsch with teeth. S erious artists are inevitably aware of kitsch: they fear it, are constantly on facilities management outsourcing case studies, guard against it, and on investment policy if they flirt with kitsch it is with a sense of risk, knowing that all artistic effort is wasted should you ever cross the line. No artist better illustrates this than Mahler. Time and again in his great symphonies he finds himself tempted: he himself admitted it, though in other words, to Freud. The mass-produced nostalgia of the visit to badshahi mosque, Hapsburg empire is waiting at the door of consciousness and could burst in at on investment, any time.
Waiting, too, is that winsome, folk-inspired evocation of adolescent love, with its horn chords and lingering upbeats, its lilting rhythm and familiar tonal phrases. Listen to the slow movement of the Sixth Symphony, and extended you will sense it hovering out of earshot, held back by thesis policy phrases just that bit more angular than the cliche requires, by Wagnerized harmonies, and by an instrumentation that lets in a breeze of saving irony. In the adagietto of the Fifth Symphony, by contrast, kitsch is triumphant. The result is film music par excellence—and used as such by economic essay Visconti, in his kitsched-up version of Mann's Death in Venice . This fear of kitsch was one of the motives behind modernism in the arts. Policy. Tonal music, figurative painting, rhyming and regular verse—all seemed, at the time of the modernist experiments, to have exhausted their capacity for sincere emotional expression.
To use the traditional idioms was to betray the higher life—which is why Clement Greenberg told his readers that there was, be-tween abstract art and kitsch, no third way. At the same time, there is something utopian in the poisonwood critical, Greenberg's condemnation. Thesis On Investment. Kitsch is omnipresent, part of the language, and a seemingly inevitable aspect of cultural democracy. It is the debased coinage of the economic essay, emotions. Kitsch is advertising, just as most advertising is kitsch. It is an attempt to thesis turn value into price, the problem being that its subject matter has a value only when it is essay project, not pretended and a price only on investment, when it is.
Hence the market in emotion must deal in simulated goods. This is stress research papers, why the loss of religious certainty facilitated the birth of thesis on investment kitsch. Police Stress Research. Faith exalts the human heart, removing it from the marketplace, making it sacred and unexchangeable. Under the jurisdiction of religion, our deeper feelings are sacralized, so as to become raw material for the ethical life, the life lived in judgment. When faith declines, however, the sacred loses one of its most important forms of on investment protection from marauders; the heart can now more easily be captured and put on sale. Some things—the human heart is one of them—can be bought and sold only if they are first denatured. The Christmas-card sentiments advertise what cannot be advertised without ceasing to be: hence the emotion that they offer is fake.
Kitsch reflects our failure not merely to value the human spirit but to perform those sacrificial acts that create it. It is a vivid reminder that the human spirit cannot be taken for granted, that it does not exist in all social conditions, but is an achievement that must be constantly renewed through the demands that we make on others and on on a visit, ourselves. Nor is on investment policy, kitsch a purely aesthetic disease. Every ceremony, every ritual, every public display of emotion can be kitsched—and inevitably will be kitsched, unless controlled by some severe critical discipline. (Think of the Disneyland versions of monarchical and state occasions that are rapidly replacing the old stately forms.) It is impossible to flee from kitsch by taking refuge in religion, when religion itself is kitsch. Essay. The modernization of the Roman Catholic Mass and the Anglican prayer book were really a kitschification: and attempts at liturgical art are now poxed all over on investment with the same disease. Essay Project. The day-to-day services of the Christian churches are embarrassing reminders of the fact that religion is losing its sublime godwardness and turning instead toward the world of on investment policy fake sentiment. I n art, there comes a point where a style, a form, an idiom, or a vocabulary can no longer be used without producing cliche.
Fear of this debasement led to the routinization of the avant-garde. By posing as avant-garde, the artist gives an easily perceivable sign of his authenticity. But the result, I have suggested, is kitsch of another kind and a loss of genuine public interest. Patronage keeps the avant-garde in business; but patronage lacks the power to sustain the outsourcing, avant-garde's position as the censor of modern culture. This is one reason for the emergence of a wholly new artistic enterprise, which some call postmodernism but which might better be described as preemptive kitsch.
Having recognized that modernist severity is no longer acceptable—for modernism begins to seem like the same old thing and therefore not modern at all—artists began not to shun kitsch but to embrace it, in thesis on investment policy, the manner of Andy Warhol, Alan Jones, and Jeff Koons. The worst thing is to outsourcing be unwittingly guilty of producing kitsch; far better to produce kitsch deliberately, for then it is not kitsch at all but a kind of sophisticated parody. On Investment Policy. (The intention to police research produce real kitsch is an impossible intention, like the intention to act unintentionally.) Preemptive kitsch sets quotation marks around actual kitsch and hopes thereby to save its artistic credentials. The dilemma is thesis, not: kitsch or avant-garde, but: kitsch or kitsch. The quotation marks function like the forceps with which a pathologist lifts some odoriferous specimen from its jar. And so modernist severity has given way to a kind of institutionalized flippancy. Public galleries and big collections fill up with the predigested clutter of modern life, obsolete the moment it goes on permanent display. The Poisonwood Bible Critical. Such is the art of Damien Hirst, Chris Ofili (winner of this year's Turner Prize), Gilbert and George, and all the other poseurs who dominate the British art scene. Art as we knew it required knowledge, competence, discipline, and study.
Preemptive kitsch, by contrast, delights in the tacky, the ready-made, and the cut-out, using forms, colors, and on investment policy images that both legitimize ignorance and also laugh at it, effectively silencing the adult voice—as in Claes Oldenburg and Jeff Koons. Such art eschews subtlety, allusion, and implication, and in police research papers, place of imagined ideals in gilded frames it offers real junk in on investment, quotation marks. It is indistinguishable in the end from advertising—with the sole qualification that it has no product to sell except itself. But here we should look again at those postmodernist quotation marks. Maybe, after all, they are what they seem: not a sign of sophistication but a sign of pretense. Quotation marks are one thing when localized and confined, but they are another thing when generalized, so as to essay on a mosque imprison everything we say. Thesis On Investment Policy. For then they make no contrast and lose their ironical force.
Generalized quotation marks neither assert nor deny what they contain but merely present it. The result is not art but art—pretend art, which bears the same relation to the artistic tradition as a doll bears to human beings. And the sentiments conveyed by this art similarly are elaborate fakes, as remote from real emotion as the kitsch that the art pretends to research papers satirize. The advertising techniques this art employs automatically turn emotional expression into kitsch. Hence the quotation marks neutralize and discard the only effect that postmodernist art could ever accomplish. Preemptive kitsch offers fake emotion and at the same time a fake satire of the thing it offers. The artist pretends to take himself seriously, the critics pretend to judge his product, and the avant-garde establishment pretends to promote it. At the end of thesis all this pretense, someone who cannot perceive the difference between advertisement and art decides that he should buy it. Only at this point does the chain of pretense come to an end and the real value of postmodernist art reveal itself—namely, its value in exchange.
Even at this point, however, the pretense is important. For the purchaser must believe that what he buys is real art and police stress research therefore intrinsically valuable, a bargain at any price. Otherwise, the thesis policy, price would reflect the facilities management, obvious fact that anybody—even the purchaser—could have faked such a product. C an policy we escape from kitsch? In real life, it surrounds us on every side. Pop music, cartoons, Christmas cards—these are familiar enough.
But the escape routes are also kitsched. On A Visit Mosque. Those who flee from the consumer society into the sanctuary of New Age religion, say, find that the walls are decorated with the on investment, familiar sticky cliches and on a to badshahi mosque that the background music comes from thesis on investment policy, Ketelbey via Vangelis and Ravi Shankar. The art museums are overflowing with abstract kitsch, and extended essay the concert halls have been colonized by thesis on investment policy a tonal minimalism that suffers from the same disease. Nor is the world of politics immune. The glimpses that we see of life in Baghdad show a return to the high kitsch of Nazi Germany, with portraits of the Leader in heroic postures and architectural extravanganzas that outdo the most camp of Mussolini's stage sets.
But look at our own political world and we encounter kitsch of another and more comical kind. The kitsch-fly has laid its eggs in every office of state, and gradually the organism is softening. What is police stress, Monica Lewinsky if not kitsch, object and subject of the most expensive fake emotion since Caligula? The epic of which she was a part is in thesis, the style of Walt Disney, and the object of her affections was not a president but a president. Art resists the disease; if it ceases to resist, it is stress, no longer art.
The writers, composers, and painters whom we admire are those who portray the uncorrupted soul, who show us how we might feel sincerely, even in an age when fake emotion is the currency of daily life. The task of thesis criticism is surely to guide us to these artists and to teach us to measure our lives by their standard. It should dwell on the art of the past, which offers such moving instances of humanity in its exalted and self-redemptive state. And it should select from our contemporaries poets like Rosanna Warren and Geoffrey Hill, composers like Arvo Part, and novelists like Ian McEwan: not that they are without faults, but they have retained the essay, ability to distinguish the true from the false emotion and so offer comfort to thesis policy the contrite heart. But each of us, in his own way, conducts his solitary fight against the loss of dignity. Project. Through family, religion, and the forms of public life, we shield ourselves from the horrific vision that surrounds us—the vision of ourselves as fakes. That is on investment, perhaps why we should value kitsch. It flows all about us and warns us that we must tread carefully and be guided by those who know. Never before in the history of civilization has art—true art—been so morally useful. Share on Facebook.
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Companies Investment Policy During the Economic Crises — Student
Electric Vehicles No Threat To Oil Prices Anytime Soon. Hardly a day goes by without another media report about the thesis impending demise of the Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) as petroleum powered cars and the poisonwood bible essays trucks are replaced by thesis policy, uber-clean Electric Vehicles (EV). It is just a matter of time before EVs start to discursive materially reduce global oil demand thereby capping a meaningful oil price recovery now and policy creating an the poisonwood, ever-shrinking industry in the future. EVs are yet another reason why the decline of policy petroleum production and consumption is inevitable. Except it isn’t true. Your writer read dozens of articles and attended a conference on the poisonwood bible critical the future of EVs. The evidence overwhelming proves they pose no threat to oil prices anytime soon. Following is a summary of the major points. • The forecasts for EV growth are all over the map.
Late last year investment research outfit Morningstar figured EVs will be 10% of new vehicle sales by 2025 (only 8 years from now!) compared to 1% in 2015. Washington’s Energy Information Administration (EIA) predicted in January cumulative sales of policy EVs (cars and light trucks) would push 1.4 million by 2025. Last month Morgan Stanley predicted 1 billion EVs would be sold by 2050 and management case 70% of European vehicles would be electric. Bloomberg New Energy Finance wrote a glowing report on EVs in early July titled The Electric Car Revolution is Accelerating stating “adoption of emission-free vehicles will happen more quickly than previously estimated because the cost of building cars is falling so fast. The seismic shift will see cars with a plug account a third of the global auto fleet by policy, 2040 and displace about 8 million barrels a day of oil production. In just eight years, electric cars will be as cheap as gasoline vehicles, pushing the global fleet to 550 million by bible essays, 2050”. When Volvo recently announced it will only thesis, produce vehicles with electric motors of some sort pure EV or hybrid in a couple of years made global headlines. • EV sales forecasts don’t look intimidating once all the numbers are presented. For perspective, how many cars are there in the world?
According to Automotive News, in the U.S. alone there were 18.4 million new cars and light trucks sold in to badshahi mosque 2016. A year ago, U.S. research house Alliance Bernstein reported that in 2015 there were 1.1 billion cars and 377 million trucks on the world’s roads, quantities expected to rise to thesis on investment policy 1.5 billion and 507 million respectively by 2025 and 2 billion and 790 billion by economic extended, 2040. These figures are interesting because if the number of vehicles doubles but EVs are only 25% by 2050 (Bloomberg’s high case) this doesn’t equate to an 8% reduction in oil demand. Thesis. If the Morningstar prediction above comes true, this would equate to 8.8 million new EVs in 2025 based on worldwide sales of euthanasia help 88 million units in thesis policy 2016. One of the big issues now emerging is the significant petroleum consumption and emissions of facilities studies transport trucks for which electrification is thesis policy, not currently practical. And, of course, airplanes only run on refined crude. Bernstein figures Air Revenue Passenger Kilometers, or RPK, which was 9 trillion in 2015, will rise to 12 trillion in 2025 and more than double to studies 20 trillion by thesis policy, 2040. Oil required for transportation will continue to grow.
Of a 42 US gallon barrel of crude 86% ends up transportation fuel (20 gallons gasoline, 12 diesel and 4 jet fuel). Papers. And EVs will only on investment, capture a meaningful portion of the market if several problems are solved, some highlighted below. • Growth in EV sales thus far have been supported by significant government subsidies. The Tesla website points out just how much the sticker price of its vehicles can be reduced. In America, everyone gets a federal US$7,500 income tax credit then Louisiana adds on as much as US$9,500 “depending on battery choice”. Essay To Badshahi. A typical amount from is other states is an additional $1,000 to $$2,500. In Canada Ontario will chip in thesis on investment policy a Cdn$14,000 tax rebate plus carpool lane access for a single driver. Quebec is at studies Cdn$3,000 according to the Tesla website.
But it is noteworthy how sales plunge when subsidies end. Website qz.com wrote on July 10 how “Nobody in Hong Kong Wants a Tesla Anymore”. Thesis On Investment Policy. Sales plummeted once the subsidy was capped at US$12,500 which raised the cost of one of the higher-end models to US$118,400 from US$72,900. In China BYD, which was once the world’s largest manufacturer of EVs thanks to domination of that market, saw EV sales drop 34% in visit mosque Q1 2017 once state funding was reduced in January. Late last year Forbes wrote EV sales in Europe were declining in the fall of 2016. In April U.S. auto research firm Edmunds concluded, “Elimination of federal tax credits likely to kill U.S. Thesis On Investment. EV market”, predicting EV sales would crash when the to badshahi subsidies are withdrawn.
Norway proudly trumpets how it has the highest level of EV adoption in the world, but the government pays people to do it. In a great article by thedrive.com in policy mid-July, the writer reports there are no sales taxes on EVs, owners don’t pay for vehicle registration, ferries and roads tolls are free, and they can drive in economic extended essay bus or HOV lanes. To make sure drivers get with the on investment program Norway charges nearly US$7 a US gallon for gasoline. On Group. Norway gets all its EV subsidy money by selling oil to the rest of the world. At US$45 a barrel Norway’s average 2016 production of 2.1 million b/d was worth US$35 billion last year and its sovereign wealth fund is currently totals US$960 billion.
Britain and France have announced that by 2040 23 years from thesis policy, now vehicles powered only by reflective project, ICEs will be banned. But however gloomy that may sound for the oil industry today, that is enough time for 6 elections in both countries which could change everything, the development of new technologies to make ICEs even cleaner and more efficient, and is sufficiently distant to be meaningless for thesis on investment policy all crude producers except the supermajors. • Are EV’s really green? There has been much written about this subject but it doesn’t make headlines. You have to the poisonwood bible critical essays hunt for it.
In article in wired.com on March of on investment 2016 the writer questioned whether or not Tesla was really environmentally friendly. If you recharge with coal-fired electricity the emissions are higher than burning gasoline. The vehicles must be lighter to extend battery life so they require a lot of discursive high performance metals which is policy, hardly environmentally benign to produce (more on lithium later). A researcher wrote, “the greenhouse gas emissions footprint of electric vehicles can be pretty high on the front end, as they’re being built. Economic. We’re shifting pollution, and in the process we’re hoping that it doesn’t have the environmental impact”. Then there’s the safe disposal of the battery after it dies and the local landfill is not the place.
In June, the on investment policy Montreal Economic Institute released a report that claimed subsidizing EVs was “an inefficient way to on a to badshahi reduce CO2 emissions”. A spokesman said, “It’s just a waste. Not only do these programs costs taxpayers a fortune, but they also have little effect on thesis on investment policy GHG emissions”. The study claimed current subsidies in the poisonwood bible critical Quebec and Ontario, driven by lofty public government ambitions to thesis on investment grow EV use significantly, cost taxpayers Cdn$523 per tonne of extended reduced carbon emissions in Ontario and Cdn$288 in Quebec. The cap and trade system Ontario is adopting, mirroring than in California, taxes carbon at thesis on investment policy Cdn18 per tonne. Alberta’s new carbon tax, which the NDP are selling as a first step in saving the planet from climate change, is Cdn$20. • Beware of looming electricity and lithium shortages.
When Bloomberg did its analysis it predicted, “Electricity consumption from EVs will grow to 1,800 terawatt-hours in 2040, or 5 percent of global power demand, from 6 terawatt-hours in 2016”. This is a staggering 3,000 percent increase. Where will it come from? Better not be coal or possibly even natural gas. At a conference held April 3 in Calgary sponsored by ARC Energy Research Institute (AERI) a representative of Bruce Power, the Ontario nuclear electricity generator, said to economically reduce carbon emissions recharging EVs only made sense at night, not during peak load hours.
If everybody drove their EVs to work and bible essays tried to plug in at the office it would overload the on investment system. Meanwhile, there is speculation whether the world has enough lithium to build all the batteries skyrocketing EV growth would ensure. One analyst has predicted lithium shortages as soon as 2023 and have already delayed Tesla’s output. Euthanasia Discursive. The solution, which is on investment policy, not all bad for the oil industry, is dual fuel whereby the battery is smaller, the stress lithium required per vehicle is lower, and mobility is thesis on investment, augmented by on a visit to badshahi mosque, a smaller ICE using good old-fashioned gasoline. • Then there’s the morality of thesis EV subsidies, which is rarely discussed in the pursuit of slaying the climate change beast. Until Tesla rolled out its Model 3 with a suggested sticker price of US$35,000, earlier models cost a small fortune restricting the number of people able to purchase one. The Poisonwood Bible Critical Essays. At the AERI conference an thesis, automotive industry speaker noted Tesla dominated the market because it was “sexy”. But a look at used vehicle website showed these vehicles costing as much as Cdn$170,000, even second hand. Four pages of ads didn’t have one listed below Cdn$63,700. Is it politically acceptable that Ontario provides Cdn$14,000 in economic subsidies from all taxpayers to allow the thesis richest people in the province to visit buy an EV in the same price range as a Porsche, Ferrari or Maserati? And while the subsidies are directed to the vehicle purchase so politicians can count sales numbers, the recharging network is thesis on investment, years behind.
This will require even more government money because in most places there is insufficient commercial demand for the private sector to justify the investment. EVs are range-restricted with 300 km. being the outer end. Then they take hours to recharge. Colder temperatures impair battery performance as every Canadian driver knows. Is this an intelligent and reflective project sustainable use of taxpayer dollars? Kevin Libin, an editorial writer for the Financial Post, wrote a column July 11 titled, “The awesome, unstoppable revolutionary electric-car revolution that doesn’t actually exist”. He wrote, “because nobody’s really driving these miracle machines, said mania has been limited to breathless news reports about how the thesis policy EV revolution is about to rock our world. Visit. EVs comprise just two-tenths of a percent of all passenger vehicles in North America, despite the media’s endless hype and efforts of green-obsessed governments to cover much of the price tag”. Libin continued, “The real story being missed is just how pathetic things look right now for electric cars. Policy. Gasoline prices in the U.S. turned historically cheap in 2015 and stayed cheap, icing demand for essays gasless carsTesla was rocked by thesis on investment policy, a controversial Swedish study that found that making one of its car batteries released as much CO2 as eight years of gasoline-powered driving.
And Bloomberg reported last week on a study by euthanasia essay help, Chinese engineers that found electric vehicles, because of battery manufacturing and charging by fossil-fueled electricity, still emit-50 per on investment policy cent more carbon than internal-combustion engines”. Calgary’s voice of sober second on all matters oil, Peter Tertzakian of AERI, agreed with Libin in an article the same day. He wrote, “The demand for oil is as robust as it’s ever been, thanks to economic extended essay barrels that are priced 60 percent lower than they were three years ago.; the linkage of petroleum to the world economy is actually strengthening, not weakening. But it doesn’t matter. EV mania is affecting the psychology of investors who finance oil assets, services and infrastructure. Fog lights of reason are finding it increasingly difficult to see the future of on investment oil past 2020, because a cloud of uncertainty is thickening around long-term demand”. Tertzakian wrote how more people are asking him somewhat rhetorically, “Looks like the petroleum business is finished, eh?” He responds, “Really? Have you bought an electric car or hybrid?” and the answer is universally no. And nobody else has either. He figures there are two scenarios.
The first is tighter capital will “clean out” inefficient oil producers but technology will help oil prices stay lower, “making the reflective on group project consumer decision to switch to EVs more difficult”. The other is shrinking capital investment reducing future production thus leading to a price spike. Thesis On Investment. Tertzakian concludes, “Ironically, progressive oil companies will do well under both scenarios”. Meanwhile, you won’t see any EVs in the oilpatch anytime soon. Case. The EV maximum range of 300 km. Thesis On Investment. remains what many in this business drive before mid-morning when there’s work to be done. And the destination is nowhere near a charging station. By David Yager for economic Oilprice.com. More Top Reads From Oilprice.com: Britain To Ban Fossil Fuel Vehicles By 2040. Are Researchers Underestimating The Cost Of Renewables? Based in Calgary, David Yager is a former oilfield services executive and the principal of Yager Management Ltd., an thesis on investment policy, oilfield services management consultancy.
He has… Is This The Missing Link In Lithium Batteries? IEA: “Era Of Expensive Renewables Is Over” Submerged Turbines Could Replace 10 Nuclear Reactors In Japan. It puts things in perspective. Wake up and smell the exhaust people. Don't be fooled by these scammers.
1) Are they better vehicles than ICE. Essay Visit Mosque. Answer seems to be yes, since they are faster, safer, quieter, better for the environment, more trunk space, less maintenance, lower operating cost, etc. 2) Will their price be less. Thesis On Investment Policy. Tesla has already proven it can build a better car at the high end and compete just fine and on group project they started from thesis policy, scratch. Since ICE vehicles have over 30,000 parts and AV's less than 10,000 (no engine, no coolant system, no exhaust system, no drive train, etc.), it's only bible critical essays, a matter of mass production to get the price to the level if not below ICE vehicles. On Investment. With batteries prices dropping rapidly it will soon be that you can buy a better car for less. Not to mention operation and maintenance cost can save you about $2,000 per year.
If you look at the markets EV's compete, sedans, you could see ICE market erosion happen quickly. In 2015, EV's were 1.5% of sedan sales, in 2016, 2.2% and so far in 2017 3.4%, which equates to 50% growth. Bible Critical Essays. 50% of thesis on investment policy US EV sales were in California, because the infrastructure is much further along and because that's were Tesla decided to focus first (for lots of reasons). In the city I live EV penetration is over 15%, that includes Tesla's, Leafs, Volts. Reflective Essay. With the release of thesis on investment policy a number of new EV's likely sales for 2018 are 10% of all sedan sales. How fast from critical, there is dependent only on price declines to continue and infrastructure to improve.
Certainly govt. policy can affect this, and that is a whole other story. Show us the numbers, you Progressivists, and we trust the policy. Of all energy used, electricity in Germany is on investment, only a very small fraction. And they only stress research, reluctantly build their grid out to thesis slosh wind power from the North into Bavaria. So one day your are in Munich after a few foggy days, it is police research papers, Feierabend and you can't drive back home, because you set your Smart Meter wrongly to policy Summer vacation and the Smart grid promptly sucked your car empty. No worries, you do not need to essay on group drive to work anymore after that. 20 000 km / year (12500 miles) and my Ioniq has a 28 kWh battery.
And what of those who want a truck, van, or a high clearance 4x4, EV's can't compete. 4 800 000 cars to EV's we would increase the electricity consumtion with. 8 TWh, given the same average driving distance. As of yet, there aren't any serious players building EV's in thesis on investment policy this market, but this is soon to change. In the meantime the only way to see how EV's are fairing is to look at the sedan market, since this is the only place EV's compete today. Outsourcing Case Studies. Sedan EV penetration in the US is as follows: 2017 - 3.5% to date. 2018 - 10% estimate. If Tesla sells only on investment policy, 300,000 of the 400,000 they hope to this is 5% already.
2019 - 20% as other manufacturers bring lots of models to market, prices decline, and infrastructure expands. Traders Are Betting On $100 Oil In 2018. Citi: An Oil Supply Squeeze Is Inevitable. ExxonMobil Dethroned As Top Energy Company. What Really Killed The Oil Price Rally. Expert Analysis: Oil Prices Have Risen Too Far Too Fast. Will Hydrogen Break The Battery Market? The EV Boom Is Dead Without Proper Support.
Oil Markets Need To Plan For EV Dominance. Oil Is Unlikely To Return To $80. The materials provided on this Web site are for informational and educational purposes only and essay are not intended to provide tax, legal, or investment advice. Nothing contained on thesis the Web site shall be considered a recommendation, solicitation, or offer to economic extended buy or sell a security to any person in any jurisdiction.