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bob black work essay No one should ever work. Work is the source of in haiti, nearly all the misery in does term essay mean, the world. Almost any evil you'd care to name comes from working or from living in a world designed for on poverty, work. In order to stop suffering, we have to stop working. That doesn't mean we have to test technician cover letter, stop doing things. It does mean creating a new way of life based on play; in other words, a ludic conviviality, commensality, and maybe even art. Essays. There is more to play than child's play, as worthy as that is. I call for a collective adventure in generalized joy and freely interdependent exuberance. Play isn't passive. Doubtless we all need a lot more time for sheer sloth and slack than we ever enjoy now, regardless of income or occupation, but once recovered from public service commission employment-induced exhaustion nearly all of us want to act.
Oblomovism and essays on poverty in haiti Stakhanovism are two sides of the test letter, same debased coin. The ludic life is in haiti totally incompatible with existing reality. So much the worse for relevant coursework consulting, reality, the gravity hole that sucks the in haiti, vitality from the little in life that still distinguishes it from mere survival. Curiously -- or maybe not -- all the old ideologies are conservative because they believe in work. Some of them, like Marxism and most brands of anarchism, believe in work all the more fiercely because they believe in so little else. Liberals say we should end employment discrimination.
I say we should end employment. Conservatives support right-to-work laws. Following Karl Marx's wayward son-in-law Paul Lafargue I support the right to be lazy. Leftists favor full employment. Like the surrealists -- except that I'm not kidding -- I favor full un employment. Trotskyists agitate for permanent revolution. I agitate for permanent revelry.
But if all the ideologues (as they do) advocate work -- and not only because they plan to make other people do theirs -- they are strangely reluctant to say so. They will carry on endlessly about wages, hours, working conditions, exploitation, productivity, profitability. They'll gladly talk about anything but work itself. These experts who offer to do our thinking for us rarely share their conclusions about work, for all its saliency in the lives of all of us. Among themselves they quibble over the details.
Unions and design pass management agree that we ought to sell the time of essays, our lives in exchange for survival, although they haggle over design pass the price. Marxists think we should be bossed by bureaucrats. Libertarians think we should be bossed by businessmen. Feminists don't care which form bossing takes so long as the bosses are women. Essays On Poverty In Haiti. Clearly these ideology-mongers have serious differences over how to divvy up the technician, spoils of power. Just as clearly, none of essays on poverty in haiti, them have any objection to power as such and all of them want to keep us working. You may be wondering if I'm joking or serious. I'm joking and serious. To be ludic is not to be ludicrous.
Play doesn't have to technician cover letter, be frivolous, although frivolity isn't triviality: very often we ought to take frivolity seriously. I'd like life to be a game -- but a game with high stakes. I want to play for keeps . The alternative to essays on poverty, work isn't just idleness. What Does Essay Mean. To be ludic is not to be quaaludic. Essays On Poverty In Haiti. As much as I treasure the pleasure of torpor, it's never more rewarding than when it punctuates other pleasures and pastimes. Nor am I promoting the managed time-disciplined safety-valve called leisure; far from it. Leisure is nonwork for the sake of work. Leisure is the time spent recovering from work and in the frenzied but hopeless attempt to forget about work. On Union Public Commission. Many people return from vacation so beat that they look forward to returning to work so they can rest up. The main difference between work and leisure is that work at least you get paid for on poverty in haiti, your alienation and enervation.
I am not playing definitional games with anybody. When I say I want to abolish work, I mean just what I say, but I want to electronic test letter, say what I mean by defining my terms in non-idiosyncratic ways. My minimum definition of work is forced labor , that is, compulsory production. Both elements are essential. Work is production enforced by economic or political means, by the carrot or the stick. (The carrot is just the stick by other means.) But not all creation is work. Work is in haiti never done for country essay, its own sake, it's done on account of some product or output that the worker (or, more often, somebody else) gets out of it. Essays. This is what work necessarily is. To define it is to despise it. But work is usually even worse than its definition decrees. The dynamic of domination intrinsic to work tends over time toward elaboration. In advanced work-riddled societies, including all industrial societies whether capitalist of Communist, work invariably acquires other attributes which accentuate its obnoxiousness.
Usually -- and this is coursework consulting even more true in Communist than capitalist countries, where the state is almost the only employer and everyone is an employee -- work is employment, i. e., wage-labor, which means selling yourself on the installment plan. In Haiti. Thus 95% of Americans who work, work for somebody (or some thing ) else. In the USSR or Cuba or Yugoslavia or any other alternative model which might be adduced, the corresponding figure approaches 100%. Only the embattled Third World peasant bastions -- Mexico, India, Brazil, Turkey -- temporarily shelter significant concentrations of design pass, agriculturists who perpetuate the traditional arrangement of most laborers in the last several millenia, the on poverty in haiti, payment of taxes (= ransom) to essay on union service commission, the state or rent to essays in haiti, parasitic landlords in return for being otherwise left alone. Even this raw deal is beginning to look good. All industrial (and office) workers are employees and relevant coursework under the sort of in haiti, surveillance which ensures servility. But modern work has worse implications.
People don't just work, they have jobs. One person does one productive task all the time on catskill collected history in life mountain, an or-else basis. Even if the task has a quantum of intrinsic interest (as increasingly many jobs don't) the monotony of its obligatory exclusivity drains its ludic potential. Essays In Haiti. A job that might engage the energies of some people, for a reasonably limited time, for the fun of it, is what does the slang essay mean just a burden on those who have to do it for forty hours a week with no say in how it should be done, for on poverty in haiti, the profit of does term, owners who contribute nothing to the project, and with no opportunity for sharing tasks or spreading the work among those who actually have to do it. This is the real world of work: a world of bureaucratic blundering, of sexual harassment and essays on poverty discrimination, of bonehead bosses exploiting and scapegoating their subordinates who -- by any rational-technical criteria -- should be calling the shots. But capitalism in the real world subordinates the rational maximization of productivity and profit to the exigencies of organizational control. The degradation which most workers experience on the job is the sum of assorted indignities which can be denominated as discipline. Foucault has complexified this phenomenon but it is simple enough. Discipline consists of the does the slang term mean, totality of totalitarian controls at the workplace -- surveillance, rotework, imposed work tempos, production quotas, punching -in and essays -out, etc.
Discipline is what the consulting, factory and on poverty the office and the store share with the prison and the school and online-dissertation-help.com the mental hospital. It is something historically original and horrible. It was beyond the capacities of such demonic dictators of yore as Nero and Genghis Khan and essays on poverty Ivan the Terrible. For all their bad intentions they just didn't have the what the slang term, machinery to control their subjects as thoroughly as modern despots do. Essays In Haiti. Discipline is the distinctively diabolical modern mode of control, it is an innovative intrusion which must be interdicted at catskill collected essay history in life mountain the earliest opportunity. Such is on poverty work. Play is relevant consulting just the opposite.
Play is always voluntary. What might otherwise be play is work if it's forced. This is essays on poverty axiomatic. Bernie de Koven has defined play as the suspension of consequences. Consulting. This is unacceptable if it implies that play is in haiti inconsequential. Online-dissertation-help.com. The point is not that play is without consequences. This is to demean play. The point is on poverty that the consequences, if any, are gratuitous. Playing and giving are closely related, they are the behavioral and transactional facets of the same impulse, the play-instinct. They share an aristocratic disdain for results. The player gets something out of playing; that's why he plays.
But the relevant coursework, core reward is the experience of the activity itself (whatever it is). Essays On Poverty. Some otherwise attentive students of collected country essay history lore mountain, play, like Johan Huizinga ( Homo Ludens ), define it as game-playing or following rules. I respect Huizinga's erudition but emphatically reject his constraints. There are many good games (chess, baseball, Monopoly, bridge) which are rule-governed but there is much more to essays in haiti, play than game-playing. Conversation, sex, dancing, travel -- these practices aren't rule-governed but they are surely play if anything is. And rules can be played with at least as readily as anything else. Work makes a mockery of freedom. Online-dissertation-help.com. The official line is that we all have rights and live in a democracy.
Other unfortunates who aren't free like we are have to live in police states. These victims obey orders or-else, no matter how arbitrary. The authorities keep them under regular surveillance. State bureaucrats control even the smaller details of everyday life. On Poverty In Haiti. The officials who push them around are answerable only to higher-ups, public or private. Either way, dissent and disobedience are punished. Informers report regularly to the authorities. All this is supposed to be a very bad thing. Essay On Union Commission. And so it is, although it is essays nothing but a description of the relevant coursework, modern workplace.
The liberals and conservatives and libertarians who lament totalitarianism are phonies and hypocrites. There is more freedom in any moderately deStalinized dictatorship than there is in the ordinary American workplace. You find the same sort of hierarchy and discipline in an office or factory as you do in a prison or monastery. Essays In Haiti. In fact, as Foucault and others have shown, prisons and factories came in at about the pass, same time, and their operators consciously borrowed from each other's control techniques. On Poverty In Haiti. A worker is a part time slave. The boss says when to show up, when to leave, and what to what does mean, do in the meantime.
He tells you how much work to do and how fast. He is free to carry his control to humiliating extremes, regulating, if he feels like it, the clothes you wear or how often you go to on poverty, the bathroom. With a few exceptions he can fire you for online-dissertation-help.com, any reason, or no reason. He has you spied on by snitches and supervisors, he amasses a dossier on every employee. Talking back is on poverty called insubordination, just as if a worker is electronic test technician cover letter a naughty child, and it not only essays in haiti gets you fired, it disqualifies you for unemployment compensation. What The Slang Term. Without necessarily endorsing it for them either, it is noteworthy that children at home and in on poverty, school receive much the same treatment, justified in their case by their supposed immaturity. Collected In Life Mountain. What does this say about their parents and on poverty teachers who work? The demeaning system of domination I've described rules over half the waking hours of a majority of test technician letter, women and the vast majority of men for decades, for essays on poverty in haiti, most of their lifespans. For certain purposes it's not too misleading to call our system democracy or capitalism or -- better still -- industrialism, but its real names are factory fascism and office oligarchy.
Anybody who says these people are free is essay on union public lying or stupid. You are what you do. If you do boring, stupid monotonous work, chances are you'll end up boring, stupid and on poverty monotonous. Work is a much better explanation for the creeping cretinization all around us than even such significant moronizing mechanisms as television and education. People who are regimented all their lives, handed off to work from school and bracketed by online-dissertation-help.com, the family in the beginning and the nursing home at the end, are habituated to heirarchy and psychologically enslaved.
Their aptitude for autonomy is so atrophied that their fear of freedom is among their few rationally grounded phobias. Their obedience training at work carries over into the families they start, thus reproducing the system in more ways than one, and into on poverty in haiti, politics, culture and everything else. Once you drain the vitality from people at work, they'll likely submit to heirarchy and expertise in everything. Relevant Consulting. They're used to it. We are so close to the world of in haiti, work that we can't see what it does to us. We have to rely on on union public commission, outside observers from other times or other cultures to appreciate the extremity and the pathology of our present position. There was a time in our own past when the work ethic would have been incomprehensible, and perhaps Weber was on to something when he tied its appearance to a religion, Calvinism, which if it emerged today instead of four centuries ago would immediately and appropriately be labeled a cult. Be that as it may, we have only to draw upon the wisdom of antiquity to put work in on poverty in haiti, perspective. The ancients saw work for what it is, and their view prevailed, the Calvinist cranks notwithstanding, until overthrown by relevant consulting, industrialism -- but not before receiving the endorsement of its prophets.
Let's pretend for essays on poverty in haiti, a moment that work doesn't turn people into stultified submissives. Let's pretend, in defiance of any plausible psychology and the ideology of its boosters, that it has no effect on the formation of character. Public Service Commission. And let's pretend that work isn't as boring and tiring and humiliating as we all know it really is. Even then, work would still make a mockery of all humanistic and democratic aspirations, just because it usurps so much of our time. Socrates said that manual laborers make bad friends and essays on poverty bad citizens because they have no time to fulfill the responsibilities of friendship and citizenship. He was right. Service. Because of work, no matter what we do we keep looking at our watches. The only thing free about so-called free time is essays on poverty in haiti that it doesn't cost the design homework, boss anything. Free time is mostly devoted to getting ready for work, going to work, returning from work, and recovering from work. Free time is a euphemism for the peculiar way labor as a factor of essays on poverty in haiti, production not only design homework pass transports itself at its own expense to and from the workplace but assumes primary responsibility for its own maintenance and repair. On Poverty In Haiti. Coal and steel don't do that.
Lathes and typewriters don't do that. But workers do. Catskill History In Life. No wonder Edward G. Robinson in one of his gangster movies exclaimed, Work is for saps! Both Plato and Xenophon attribute to Socrates and essays on poverty obviously share with him an awareness of the destructive effects of work on the worker as a citizen and mean a human being. Herodotus identified contempt for essays on poverty, work as an on union service commission attribute of the classical Greeks at the zenith of their culture. To take only one Roman example, Cicero said that whoever gives his labor for money sells himself and essays on poverty puts himself in what does the slang essay, the rank of slaves. His candor is now rare, but contemporary primitive societies which we are wont to look down upon have provided spokesmen who have enlightened Western anthropologists. The Kapauku of West Irian, according to Posposil, have a conception of essays on poverty in haiti, balance in life and does term accordingly work only every other day, the day of rest designed to regain the lost power and health. Our ancestors, even as late as the eighteenth century when they were far along the path to our present predicament, at least were aware of what we have forgotten, the essays, underside of industrialization. Their religious devotion to St. Monday -- thus establishing a de facto five-day week 150-200 years before its legal consecration -- was the relevant consulting, despair of the earliest factory owners.
They took a long time in essays on poverty in haiti, submitting to the tyranny of the bell, predecessor of the time clock. In fact it was necessary for a generation or two to replace adult males with women accustomed to obedience and children who could be molded to fit industrial needs. Even the exploited peasants of the ancient regime wrested substantial time back from electronic technician letter their landlord's work. According to Lafargue, a fourth of the French peasants' calendar was devoted to Sundays and holidays, and Chayanov's figures from villages in Czarist Russia -- hardly a progressive society -- likewise show a fourth or fifth of essays in haiti, peasants' days devoted to repose. Controlling for productivity, we are obviously far behind these backward societies. The exploited muzhiks would wonder why any of us are working at all. So should we. To grasp the full enormity of our deterioration, however, consider the earliest condition of humanity, without government or property, when we wandered as hunter-gatherers. Hobbes surmised that life was then nasty, brutish and letter short. Others assume that life was a desperate unremitting struggle for subsistence, a war waged against a harsh Nature with death and disaster awaiting the unlucky or anyone who was unequal to the challenge of the struggle for existence.
Actually, that was all a projection of fears for the collapse of government authority over communities unaccustomed to on poverty in haiti, doing without it, like the England of Hobbes during the Civil War. Hobbes' compatriots had already encountered alternative forms of society which illustrated other ways of life -- in technician letter, North America, particularly -- but already these were too remote from on poverty their experience to be understandable. What Does Term Mean. (The lower orders, closer to the condition of the Indians, understood it better and often found it attractive. In Haiti. Throughout the seventeenth century, English settlers defected to Indian tribes or, captured in war, refused to public service, return. But the Indians no more defected to white settlements than Germans climb the Berlin Wall from the west.) The survival of the essays on poverty, fittest version -- the Thomas Huxley version -- of Darwinism was a better account of economic conditions in Victorian England than it was of natural selection, as the online-dissertation-help.com, anarchist Kropotkin showed in his book Mutual Aid, A Factor of Evolution . (Kropotkin was a scientist -- a geographer -- who'd had ample involuntary opportunity for fieldwork whilst exiled in Siberia: he knew what he was talking about.) Like most social and political theory, the story Hobbes and his successors told was really unacknowledged autobiography. The anthropologist Marshall Sahlins, surveying the essays, data on contemporary hunter-gatherers, exploded the Hobbesian myth in an article entitled The Original Affluent Society. They work a lot less than we do, and their work is hard to distinguish from what we regard as play. Sahlins concluded that hunters and gatherers work less than we do; and rather than a continuous travail, the food quest is intermittent, leisure abundant, and there is does mean a greater amount of essays on poverty, sleep in the daytime per capita per year than in any other condition of society. They worked an electronic letter average of four hours a day, assuming they were working at essays on poverty all.
Their labor, as it appears to us, was skilled labor which exercised their physical and intellectual capacities; unskilled labor on any large scale, as Sahlins says, is impossible except under industrialism. Thus it satisfied Friedrich Schiller's definition of play, the only occasion on essay mean, which man realizes his complete humanity by giving full play to both sides of his twofold nature, thinking and feeling. As he put it: The animal works when deprivation is the mainspring of its activity, and on poverty in haiti it plays when the fullness of its strength is this mainspring, when superabundant life is its own stimulus to what does the slang term essay mean, activity. (A modern version -- dubiously developmental -- is Abraham Maslow's counterposition of deficiency and growth motivation.) Play and freedom are, as regards production, coextensive. Even Marx, who belongs (for all his good intentions) in the productivist pantheon, observed that the realm of in haiti, freedom does not commence until the point is passed where labor under the compulsion of electronic cover letter, necessity and external utility is required. He never could quite bring himself to identify this happy circumstance as what it is, the on poverty in haiti, abolition of work -- it's rather anomalous, after all, to be pro-worker and anti-work -- but we can. Essay Service Commission. The aspiration to go backwards or forwards to a life without work is on poverty evident in every serious social or cultural history of pre-industrial Europe, among them M. Dorothy George's England In Transition and Peter Burke's Popular Culture in Early Modern Europe . Online-dissertation-help.com. Also pertinent is Daniel Bell's essay, Work and its Discontents, the on poverty, first text, I believe, to refer to online-dissertation-help.com, the revolt against essays in haiti work in so many words and, had it been understood, an important correction to the complacency ordinarily associated with the online-dissertation-help.com, volume in which it was collected, The End of Ideology . Neither critics nor celebrants have noticed that Bell's end-of-ideology thesis signaled not the end of social unrest but the beginning of a new, uncharted phase unconstrained and on poverty in haiti uninformed by ideology. It was Seymour Lipset (in Political Man ), not Bell, who announced at the same time that the fundamental problems of the Industrial Revolution have been solved, only a few years before the catskill country essay, post- or meta-industrial discontents of college students drove Lipset from UC Berkeley to the relative (and temporary) tranquility of Harvard.
As Bell notes, Adam Smith in in haiti, The Wealth of collected country mountain, Nations , for all his enthusiasm for the market and the division of labor, was more alert to (and more honest about) the seamy side of work than Ayn Rand or the Chicago economists or any of Smith's modern epigones. As Smith observed: The understandings of the greater part of men are necessarily formed by their ordinary employments. The man whose life is spent in performing a few simple operations. has no occasion to exert his understanding. He generally becomes as stupid and ignorant as it is possible for a human creature to become. Here, in a few blunt words, is essays on poverty in haiti my critique of work. Bell, writing in 1956, the Golden Age of Eisenhower imbecility and technician American self-satisfaction, identified the unorganized, unorganizable malaise of the 1970's and since, the one no political tendency is able to harness, the one identified in essays in haiti, HEW's report Work in America , the what does the slang term mean, one which cannot be exploited and so is ignored. That problem is the revolt against work. It does not figure in any text by on poverty, any laissez-faire economist -- Milton Friedman, Murray Rothbard, Richard Posner -- because, in their terms, as they used to say on catskill country history in life, Star Trek , it does not compute.
If these objections, informed by the love of liberty, fail to persuade humanists of a utilitarian or even paternalist turn, there are others which they cannot disregard. Work is essays on poverty in haiti hazardous to your health, to borrow a book title. In fact, work is mass murder or genocide. Directly or indirectly, work will kill most of the people who read these words. Between 14,000 and 25,000 workers are killed annually in this country on the job. Over two million are disabled. Twenty to twenty-five million are injured every year. History Mountain. And these figures are based on a very conservative estimation of what constitutes a work-related injury. Thus they don't count the half million cases of occupational disease every year. I looked at one medical textbook on occupational diseases which was 1,200 pages long.
Even this barely scratches the surface. The available statistics count the obvious cases like the 100,000 miners who have black lung disease, of on poverty, whom 4,000 die every year, a much higher fatality rate than for AIDS, for catskill collected essay lore mountain, instance, which gets so much media attention. This reflects the unvoiced assumption that AIDS afflicts perverts who could control their depravity whereas coal-mining is a sacrosanct activity beyond question. What the essays on poverty in haiti, statistics don't show is that tens of term essay, millions of people have heir lifespans shortened by essays in haiti, work -- which is all that homicide means, after all. Consider the doctors who work themselves to death in their 50's. Consider all the other workaholics.
Even if you aren't killed or crippled while actually working, you very well might be while going to work, coming from work, looking for work, or trying to forget about work. The vast majority of victims of the automobile are either doing one of these work-obligatory activities or else fall afoul of those who do them. To this augmented body-count must be added the victims of design homework pass, auto-industrial pollution and work-induced alcoholism and drug addiction. Essays On Poverty. Both cancer and heart disease are modern afflictions normally traceable, directly, or indirectly, to relevant, work. Work, then, institutionalizes homicide as a way of life. People think the Cambodians were crazy for exterminating themselves, but are we any different? The Pol Pot regime at in haiti least had a vision, however blurred, of an egalitarian society. We kill people in the six-figure range (at least) in order to sell Big Macs and Cadillacs to the survivors. Our forty or fifty thousand annual highway fatalities are victims, not martyrs. They died for nothing -- or rather, they died for work. But work is nothing to die for.
Bad news for liberals: regulatory tinkering is consulting useless in this life-and-death context. The federal Occupational Safety and Health Administration was designed to police the core part of the problem, workplace safety. Even before Reagan and the Supreme Court stifled it, OSHA was a farce. At previous and (by current standards) generous Carter-era funding levels, a workplace could expect a random visit from an on poverty OSHA inspector once every 46 years. State control of the economy is no solution. Work is, if anything, more dangerous in collected in life lore, the state-socialist countries than it is essays on poverty here. Thousands of electronic test letter, Russian workers were killed or injured building the essays on poverty, Moscow subway. Stories reverberate about covered-up Soviet nuclear disasters which make Times Beach and pass Three-Mile Island look like elementary-school air-raid drills. On the on poverty, other hand, deregulation, currently fashionable, won't help and will probably hurt. From a health and safety standpoint, among others, work was at its worst in the days when the economy most closely approximated laissez-faire.
Historians like Eugene Genovese have argued persuasively that -- as antebellum slavery apologists insisted -- factory wage-workers in the Northern American states and in Europe were worse off than Southern plantation slaves. No rearrangement of relations among bureaucrats and businessmen seems to make much difference at the point of production. Serious enforcement of even the rather vague standards enforceable in theory by essay on union public service commission, OSHA would probably bring the economy to a standstill. The enforcers apparently appreciate this, since they don't even try to crack down on on poverty in haiti, most malefactors. Collected Country. What I've said so far ought not to be controversial. Many workers are fed up with work. In Haiti. There are high and what does the slang rising rates of absenteeism, turnover, employee theft and sabotage, wildcat strikes, and overall goldbricking on the job. There may be some movement toward a conscious and not just visceral rejection of work. And yet the prevalent feeling, universal among bosses and their agents and also widespread among workers themselves is that work itself is inevitable and necessary. I disagree.
It is now possible to abolish work and replace it, insofar as it serves useful purposes, with a multitude of new kinds of free activities. Essays On Poverty. To abolish work requires going at relevant consulting it from two directions, quantitative and qualitative. On the one hand, on the quantitative side, we have to cut down massively on the amount of work being done. At present most work is useless or worse and we should simply get rid of it. On the essays on poverty, other hand -- and I think this is the crux of the relevant, matter and the revolutionary new departure -- we have to take what useful work remains and transform it into a pleasing variety of on poverty in haiti, game-like and craft-like pastimes, indistinguishable from other pleasurable pastimes, except that they happen to yield useful end-products. Mean. Surely that shouldn't make them less enticing to do. Then all the artificial barriers of power and property could come down.
Creation could become recreation. On Poverty In Haiti. And we could all stop being afraid of each other. I don't suggest that most work is online-dissertation-help.com salvageable in this way. But then most work isn't worth trying to on poverty, save. Only a small and diminishing fraction of work serves any useful purpose independent of the defense and reproduction of the work-system and its political and legal appendages.
Twenty years ago, Paul and what term Percival Goodman estimated that just five percent of the work then being done -- presumably the figure, if accurate, is lower now -- would satisfy our minimal needs for food, clothing, and shelter. Theirs was only an educated guess but the main point is quite clear: directly or indirectly, most work serves the unproductive purposes of commerce or social control. Right off the bat we can liberate tens of millions of salesmen, soldiers, managers, cops, stockbrokers, clergymen, bankers, lawyers, teachers, landlords, security guards, ad-men and everyone who works for them. There is a snowball effect since every time you idle some bigshot you liberate his flunkeys and underlings also. Thus the economy implodes . Forty percent of the workforce are white-collar workers, most of whom have some of the most tedious and idiotic jobs ever concocted. Entire industries, insurance and banking and real estate for instance, consist of nothing but useless paper-shuffling. It is no accident that the tertiary sector, the service sector, is growing while the secondary sector (industry) stagnates and the primary sector (agriculture) nearly disappears. Because work is unnecessary except to those whose power it secures, workers are shifted from essays on poverty in haiti relatively useful to relatively useless occupations as a measure to assure public order. Anything is better than nothing. That's why you can't go home just because you finish early. They want your time , enough of it to make you theirs, even if they have no use for most of it.
Otherwise why hasn't the average work week gone down by more than a few minutes in the past fifty years? Next we can take a meat-cleaver to production work itself. No more war production, nuclear power, junk food, feminine hygiene deodorant -- and above all, no more auto industry to speak of. An occasional Stanley Steamer or Model-T might be all right, but the auto-eroticism on which such pestholes as Detroit and Los Angeles depend on is out of the question. Already, without even trying, we've virtually solved the energy crisis, the environmental crisis and assorted other insoluble social problems. Relevant Consulting. Finally, we must do away with far and away the largest occupation, the one with the longest hours, the lowest pay and some of the most tedious tasks around. I refer to housewives doing housework and child-rearing. By abolishing wage-labor and achieving full unemployment we undermine the sexual division of labor. The nuclear family as we know it is an inevitable adaptation to the division of labor imposed by modern wage-work. Like it or not, as things have been for in haiti, the last century or two it is economically rational for the man to relevant, bring home the bacon, for the woman to do the shitwork to provide him with a haven in a heartless world, and for the children to be marched off to youth concentration camps called schools, primarily to keep them out of Mom's hair but still under control, but incidentally to acquire the habits of obedience and punctuality so necessary for workers. If you would be rid of patriarchy, get rid of the nuclear family whose unpaid shadow work, as Ivan Illich says, makes possible the work-system that makes it necessary.
Bound up with this no-nukes strategy is the abolition of childhood and the closing of the schools. There are more full-time students than full-time workers in in haiti, this country. We need children as teachers, not students. They have a lot to contribute to the ludic revolution because they're better at playing than grown-ups are. Adults and children are not identical but they will become equal through interdependence. Online-dissertation-help.com. Only play can bridge the generation gap. I haven't as yet even mentioned the possibility of cutting way down on the little work that remains by automating and cybernizing it. All the scientists and engineers and technicians freed from essays on poverty in haiti bothering with war research and what term planned obsolescence would have a good time devising means to eliminate fatigue and tedium and danger from activities like mining.
Undoubtedly they'll find other projects to amuse themselves with. Perhaps they'll set up world-wide all-inclusive multi-media communications systems or found space colonies. Perhaps. Essays On Poverty. I myself am no gadget freak. I wouldn't care to live in relevant coursework consulting, a pushbutton paradise. I don't want robot slaves to do everything; I want to do things myself. There is, I think, a place for labor-saving technology, but a modest place. The historical and essays on poverty in haiti pre-historical record is online-dissertation-help.com not encouraging.
When productive technology went from hunting-gathering to agriculture and on on poverty in haiti, to industry, work increased while skills and self-determination diminished. The further evolution of industrialism has accentuated what Harry Braverman called the degradation of work. Intelligent observers have always been aware of essay on union public, this. John Stuart Mill wrote that all the labor-saving inventions ever devised haven't saved a moment's labor. Karl Marx wrote that it would be possible to write a history of the inventions, made since 1830, for essays in haiti, the sole purpose of supplying capital with weapons against the revolts of the working class. The enthusiastic technophiles -- Saint-Simon, Comte, Lenin, B. F. Skinner -- have always been unabashed authoritarians also; which is to say, technocrats. We should be more than sceptical about the promises of the computer mystics. They work like dogs; chances are, if they have their way, so will the rest of us. But if they have any particularized contributions more readily subordinated to human purposes than the run of high tech, let's give them a hearing.
What I really want to see is work turned into play. A first step is to discard the notions of a job and an occupation. Even activities that already have some ludic content lose most of it by technician, being reduced to jobs which certain people, and only those people are forced to do to the exclusion of all else. Is it not odd that farm workers toil painfully in essays, the fields while their air-conditioned masters go home every weekend and putter about in their gardens? Under a system of permanent revelry, we will witness the Golden Age of the dilettante which will put the Renaissance to shame. There won't be any more jobs, just things to do and people to do them. The secret of turning work into play, as Charles Fourier demonstrated, is to arrange useful activities to take advantage of whatever it is commission that various people at various times in fact enjoy doing. Essays. To make it possible for some people to do the things they could enjoy it will be enough just to eradicate the irrationalities and distortions which afflict these activities when they are reduced to work. I, for instance, would enjoy doing some (not too much) teaching, but I don't want coerced students and I don't care to suck up to relevant consulting, pathetic pedants for tenure. Second, there are some things that people like to do from time to time, but not for too long, and certainly not all the time.
You might enjoy baby-sitting for a few hours in order to share the company of kids, but not as much as their parents do. The parents meanwhile, profoundly appreciate the time to themselves that you free up for them, although they'd get fretful if parted from their progeny for too long. These differences among individuals are what make a life of free play possible. Essays On Poverty. The same principle applies to many other areas of activity, especially the primal ones. Thus many people enjoy cooking when they can practice it seriously at their leisure, but not when they're just fueling up human bodies for work. Third -- other things being equal -- some things that are unsatisfying if done by yourself or in unpleasant surroundings or at the orders of an overlord are enjoyable, at least for a while, if these circumstances are changed. This is probably true, to some extent, of all work. People deploy their otherwise wasted ingenuity to make a game of the least inviting drudge-jobs as best they can. Activities that appeal to some people don't always appeal to all others, but everyone at least potentially has a variety of interests and an interest in variety. As the saying goes, anything once. Fourier was the master at speculating how aberrant and perverse penchants could be put to use in post-civilized society, what he called Harmony.
He thought the Emperor Nero would have turned out the slang all right if as a child he could have indulged his taste for bloodshed by essays, working in a slaughterhouse. Small children who notoriously relish wallowing in electronic cover letter, filth could be organized in Little Hordes to clean toilets and on poverty empty the garbage, with medals awarded to the outstanding. I am not arguing for these precise examples but for the underlying principle, which I think makes perfect sense as one dimension of an coursework consulting overall revolutionary transformation. Bear in mind that we don't have to essays on poverty in haiti, take today's work just as we find it and match it up with the proper people, some of whom would have to be perverse indeed. If technology has a role in all this it is less to automate work out of existence than to open up new realms for re/creation. To some extent we may want to return to handicrafts, which William Morris considered a probable and desirable upshot of communist revolution. Art would be taken back from the service commission, snobs and collectors, abolished as a specialized department catering to on poverty in haiti, an elite audience, and its qualities of beauty and electronic letter creation restored to integral life from which they were stolen by work.
It's a sobering thought that the grecian urns we write odes about and showcase in in haiti, museums were used in their own time to store olive oil. I doubt our everyday artifacts will fare as well in does term, the future, if there is one. The point is that there's no such thing as progress in the world of work; if anything it's just the opposite. We shouldn't hesitate to pilfer the past for what it has to offer, the ancients lose nothing yet we are enriched. Essays On Poverty In Haiti. The reinvention of daily life means marching off the edge of our maps. There is, it is true, more suggestive speculation than most people suspect.
Besides Fourier and Morris -- and even a hint, here and there, in Marx -- there are the writings of Kropotkin, the syndicalists Pataud and Pouget, anarcho-communists old (Berkman) and online-dissertation-help.com new (Bookchin). The Goodman brothers' Communitas is essays exemplary for illustrating what forms follow from given functions (purposes), and test there is something to be gleaned from the on poverty, often hazy heralds of alternative/appropriate/intermediate/convivial technology, like Schumacher and coursework especially Illich, once you disconnect their fog machines. The situationists -- as represented by Vaneigem's Revolution of Daily Life and in the Situationist International Anthology -- are so ruthlessly lucid as to be exhilarating, even if they never did quite square the endorsement of the rule of the worker's councils with the essays in haiti, abolition of what does the slang, work. Better their incongruity, though than any extant version of leftism, whose devotees look to be the last champions of work, for if there were no work there would be no workers, and essays on poverty without workers, who would the left have to organize? So the abolitionists would be largely on their own. Essay Service Commission. No one can say what would result from unleashing the creative power stultified by work. Essays On Poverty In Haiti. Anything can happen.
The tiresome debater's problem of freedom vs. necessity, with its theological overtones, resolves itself practically once the production of use-values is coextensive with the consumption of delightful play-activity. Technician Cover Letter. Life will become a game, or rather many games, but not -- as it is now - -- a zero/sum game. An optimal sexual encounter is the paradigm of productive play, The participants potentiate each other's pleasures, nobody keeps score, and everybody wins. On Poverty. The more you give, the on union public, more you get. In the ludic life, the in haiti, best of sex will diffuse into electronic, the better part of daily life. Generalized play leads to the libidinization of life. Essays. Sex, in turn, can become less urgent and electronic cover letter desperate, more playful. If we play our cards right, we can all get more out of life than we put into it; but only if we play for keeps.
No one should ever work. Workers of the world. relax ! [ This is essays on poverty a typed-in version of Bob Black's 1985 essay, The Abolition of Work, which appeared in his anthology of essays, The Abolition of Work and Other Essays, published by online-dissertation-help.com, Loompanics Unlimited, Port Townsend WA 98368 [ISBN 0-915179-41-5]. The following disclaimer is reproduced from the verso of the title page: Not Copyrighted. On Poverty In Haiti. Any of the material in this book may be freely reproduced, translated or adapted, even without mentioning the source. ]
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Marking Text—Choosing Between Italics and Quotation Marks. last modified March 4, 2017. An error in essays on poverty in haiti the use of italics or quotation marks—using one rather than the other or not using either when their use is required—is not likely a problem that will have an agent or publisher turning down your manuscript, especially if your manuscript isn’t bulging with other errors. Technician Cover. Yet knowing when to use both italics and quotation marks is essays on poverty, useful and term important for writers. Essays. The cleaner the manuscript, the fewer problems it will be perceived to online-dissertation-help.com have. Essays In Haiti. And when rules are followed, the manuscript will have consistency; if you don’t know the rules, it’s likely that you won’t make the same choices consistently throughout a story. And if you self-publish, when you’re the one doing the editing, you’ll definitely want to know how and when to use both italics and relevant coursework quotation marks and know how to choose between them. To start off, I will point out that there is no need to in haiti underline anything in a novel manuscript . Writers used to essay public service underline text where they intended italics, but because it’s now so easy to see and find and identify italics, underlining is essays in haiti, no longer necessary, not for collected in life lore mountain fiction manuscripts.
Note: Underlining may be required for school or college writing projects or other purposes. Essays. I’m strictly addressing fiction manuscripts here. Without underlining, the essay on union service commission, choices are italics, quotation marks, and unmarked or plain text. Let’s start with the essays, last option—plain text—first. Not all text that seems to require italics or quotation marks actually does. Most words in online-dissertation-help.com your manuscript will be roman text—unchanged by italics—and, apart from dialogue, will not be enclosed by quotation marks. Yet sometimes writers are confused about italics and quotation marks, especially when dealing with named entities.
A quick rule: Simple names need only be capitalized—no other marks are necessary. This is one writing question that’s easy to essays overthink once you begin editing, but a name usually only needs to be capitalized; it typically doesn’t require italics or quotation marks. (There are exceptions, of consulting, course.) Capitalize names of people, places, and essays on poverty in haiti things . This means that Bob, Mr. Smith, Grandma Elliott, and Fido are capitalized but not italicized or put in quotation marks. Electronic. The same is essays in haiti, true for Disney World, the Grand Canyon, Edie’s Bistro, and the World Series. Electronic Cover Letter. When a person’s title is paired with a name—Prime Minister Winston Churchill, Reverend Thomas—both name and title are capitalized. But when a title is not used as a name—the president is young, the pastor can sing—no capitalization is in haiti, required. Nouns are typically the words that you’ll capitalize, but not all nouns are capitalized. Capitalize named nouns . Test Technician Cover. So Fido is capitalized, but dog is not; Aunt Margaret (used as a name) is capitalized, but my aunt is not; my aunt Margaret gets a mix of capitalization. Brand names and trademarks are typically capitalized, but some have unusual capitalizations (iPad, eBay, TaylorMade, adidas). Refer to dictionaries and to company guidelines or Internet sources for on poverty correct capitalization and spelling.
Note that home pages of websites may feature decorative text; look at pages with corporate details for correct information. You may make a style decision and capitalize such words according to established rules, and that would be a valid decision. Yet a name is a name, and spelling or capitalizing it the way its creators intended may well be the better choice. That’s it for most named people or things or places—most are capitalized but do not require italics or quotation marks. A quick rule: Names (of people, places, and things) need to catskill country history in life lore be capitalized, but titles (of things) need both capitalization and either quotation marks or italics. Items in the following categories need neither italics nor quotation marks (unless italics or quotation marks are an intrinsic part of the on poverty, title). This is only a very short list, but most named nouns are treated similarly. car manufacturers General Motors, Volkswagen, Toyota. car brands or divisions: Buick, Chevrolet. car names: Riviera, Touareg, Camry.
restaurants: Chili’s, Sally’s Place, Chuck’s Rib House. scriptures and revered religious books: the technician letter, Bible, Koran, the Book of Common Prayer. books of the essays on poverty in haiti, Bible: Genesis, Acts, the Gospel according to Matthew. wars and battles: Korean War, Russian Revolution, the Battle of Antietam, the what the slang term essay, Battle of Hastings. companies: Coca-Cola, Amazon, Barclays, Nokia. product names: Coke, Kleenex, Oreo. shops: Dolly’s Delights, Macy’s, Coffee House. museums, schools and colleges: the High Museum, the Hermitage, Orchard Elementary School, the University of Notre Dame. houses of worship: First Baptist Church of Abbieville, the on poverty in haiti, Cathedral of St.
Philip, Temple Sinai, City Center Community Masjid. Note : There is country essay mountain, much more to capitalization, yet that topic requires an article (or five) of its own. Look for essays on poverty in haiti such an article in the future. The Chicago Manual of Style has an in-depth chapter on capitalization; I recommend you search it for specifics. Quotation Marks and relevant coursework consulting Italics.
Beyond capitalization, some nouns are also distinguished by italics or quotation marks. Think in terms of titles here, but typically titles of essays in haiti, things and not people. So we’re talking book, movie, song, and TV show titles; titles of newspapers and magazines and titles of articles in those newspapers and magazines; titles of artwork and poems. One odd category included here is essay on union public service commission, vehicles. Essays In Haiti. Not brand names of design homework, vehicles but names of individual craft: spaceships, airships, ships, and trains. But which titles get quotation marks and in haiti which get italics? The general rule is online-dissertation-help.com, that titles of works that are made up of smaller/shorter divisions are italicized, and on poverty the smaller divisions are put in consulting quotation marks . Essays. This means a book title is italicized, and chapter titles (but not chapter numbers) are in quotation marks. A TV show title is italicized, but episode titles are in quotation marks.
An album or CD title is put in italics, but the song titles are in online-dissertation-help.com quotation marks. Note : This rule for chapter titles in books is not referring to essays on poverty chapter titles of a manuscript itself, which are not put in quotation marks within the manuscript . Use quotation marks in your text if a character or narrator is thinking about or speaking a chapter title, not for your own chapter titles. Quotation marks and italics are both also used for other purposes in fiction. For example, we typically use italics when we use a word as a word. My stylist always says rebound when he means rebond . I counted only half a dozen um s in consulting the chairman’s speech. Essays On Poverty. (Note that the s making um plural is not italicized.) Since a list is quick and essay on union public service commission easy to read, let’s simply list categories for both italics and quotation marks. Barring exceptions, items from the categories should be italicized or put in quotation marks, as indicated, in your stories.
Titles : Titles of specific types of works are italicized. This is true for essays in haiti both narration and dialogue. operas and relevant ballets. long musical pieces (such as symphonies) works of in haiti, art (paintings, sculptures, photographs) blogs (but not websites in online-dissertation-help.com general, which are only on poverty in haiti capitalized) Odds and Ends: Titles of cartoons and relevant coursework consulting comic strips ( Peanuts, Calvin and Hobbes, Pearls Before Swine ) are italicized. Exhibitions at small venues (such as a museum) are italicized ( BODIES . . . The Exhibition ) but fairs and other major exhibitions (the Louisiana Purchase Exhibition) are only capitalized. Examples : To Kill a Mockingbird (book), Citizen Kane (movie), A Prairie Home Companion (radio show), La boheme (opera), Paradise Lost (long poem), Rhapsody in on poverty in haiti Blue (long musical piece), Washington Post (newspaper), Car and Driver (magazine), Starry Night (painting), The Age of Reason (pamphlet), This American Life (podcast), The Editor’s Blog (blog)
Exception : Generic titles of musical works are not italicized. This includes those named by homework pass number (op. 3 or no. 5) or by key (Nocturne in B Major) and those simply named for the musical form (Requiem or Overture). If names and generic titles are combined, italicize only the name, not the generic title. Exception : Titles of artwork dating from antiquity whose creators are unknown are not italicized. (the Venus de Milo or the Seated Scribe) Ship names : names of ships on water, in space, in the air.
Examples : HMS Illustrious , USS Nimitz, space shuttle Endeavour , Hindenburg, Spruce Goose. Notes: 1. Essays On Poverty. The abbreviations for Her Majesty’s ship (HMS) and United States ship (USS) are not italicized. 2. The current recommendation of The Chicago Manual of Style is to not italicize train names. CMOS may be differentiating between physical ships with individual names and railroad route names, which is typically what is named when we think of trains; the specific grouping of train cars may not be named and may actually change from what the slang term one trip to another. Locomotives, however, may have names. If they do, you would be safe to italicize that name. While I understand this reasoning, I see no problem with italicizing a train’s (or a train route’s) commonly known name— Trans-Siberian Express , Royal Scotsman , California Zephyr —as writers have done in the past. This is strictly a personal opinion. 3. The definite article is essays, unnecessary with ship names—they are names and not titles.
So Yorktown rather than the Yorktown . It’s likely that characters with military backgrounds would follow this rule, but many civilians may not. If your character would say the does the slang, Yorktown , then include the on poverty, article. Words as words: As already noted, words used as words are usually italicized. This helps forestall confusion when these words are not used in the usual manner. Examples : The word haberdashery has gone out of style. Edith wasn’t sure what lugubrious meant, but it sounded slimy to catskill collected essay lore her. Letters as letters : Letters referred to essays on poverty in haiti as letters are italicized. Examples : The i in my name is silent.
On the faded treasure map, an pass X actually did mark the spot. All the in haiti, men in his hometown have at least three s’ s in their names. Notes: 1. Only the letter itself is online-dissertation-help.com, italicized for plurals. On Poverty In Haiti. So we have s ’s, capital L s, and a dozen m’ s. (The apostrophe and concluding s are not italicized.) 2. An apostrophe is used for the plurals (lowercase letters only) to prevent confusion or the misreading of letters as words; a’ s rather than a s and i’ s rather than i s. 3. Familiar phrases including p’s and q’s and dot your i’s and cross your t’s do not require italics. (They are italicized here because I’m using them as words, not for their meaning.) 4. Letters for school grades are not italicized, though they are capitalized.
Sound words : Italicize words that stand in for sounds or reproduce sounds that characters and readers hear. Examples : The whomp-whomp of helicopter blades drowned out her frail voice. An annoying bzzz woke him. C-r-rack ! Something heavy—some one heavy—fell through the rotted floorboards. Foreign words : Uncommon or unfamiliar foreign words are italicized the online-dissertation-help.com, first time they are used in a story. After that, roman type is sufficient.
Foreign-language words familiar to most readers do not need italics. Proper names and essays in haiti places in foreign languages are never italicized. Examples : The words amigo , mucho , coup d’etat, risque, nyet, and others like them are common enough that you wouldn’t need to italicize them in fiction. (I italicized them because in my example they are words used as words.) “Use caution, my dear. That pretty flower you like so much is velenoso. Online-dissertation-help.com. It slows the heart.” It was something my grandmother always said to me. Sie sind mein kostbares kleines Madchen . Building sites on the Potsdamer Platz went for a lot of money once the Berlin Wall came down. Emphasis : Use italics to emphasize a word or part of a word.
Yet don’t overdo. Essays In Haiti. A character who emphasizes words all the time may sound odd. And the italics may annoy your readers. Examples : I wanted a new dress, but I needed new shoes. She quickly said, “It’s not what you think.” “Sal invited everyone to essay public the party at his uncle’s beach house. Essays On Poverty. And I mean every single student from his school.” Something—some one —shattered all the street lights. Character thoughts : Character thoughts can be expressed in term multiple ways; italics is in haiti, one of those ways. (But it isn’t the what term essay mean, only way and may not be the best way. See “How to Punctuate Character Thoughts” for essays on poverty details.)
Example : I expected more from her , he thought. Electronic Test Technician Letter. But he shouldn’t have. You can find many more tips and suggestions for in haiti cleaning up your text in The Magic of Fiction . Titles : As is done with titles and relevant consulting italics, titles of specific types of works are put inside quotation marks. This is essays on poverty, true for both narration and dialogue. book chapters (named, not numbered, chapters) TV show episodes. radio show episodes. short poems (most poems) newspaper, magazine, and journal articles.
unpublished works (dissertations, manuscripts in collections) Odds and Ends: Signs (and other notices) are typically not put in quotation marks or italicized, though they are capitalized—The back lot was marked with No Parking signs. They don’t even require hyphens for online-dissertation-help.com compounds—The gardener was putting up Do Not Walk on on poverty in haiti the Grass signs. However, long signs (think sentence length or longer) are put in quotation marks and not capitalized. Consider them as quotations—Did you see the handwritten sign? “Take your shoes off, line them up at electronic technician the door, and on poverty walk without speaking to the second door on the left.” The same rule applies for mottoes and maxims . An example: To Protect and Serve was the department’s old motto. Now it’s “Cover your tracks, lie if you get caught, blame your behavior on relevant coursework drugs, and vilify the victim.” Examples : They read through “The Laurence Boy” in one sitting. On Poverty. (chapter three of Little Women ) He said he thought it was “The One With Phoebe’s Cookies.” (an episode of Friends ) My mother suggested we both read “The Gift of the Magi.” (short story) Exception : Titles of design, regular columns in essays in haiti newspapers and magazines are not put in quotation marks (Dear Abby, At Wit’s End).
Dialogue : Enclose the spoken words of term mean, direct dialogue (not the dialogue tags or action beats) between opening and essays on poverty in haiti closing quotation marks. Do not use quotation marks for indirect dialogue. Exception : When dialogue continues into a new paragraph, do not include a closing quotation mark at the end of the first paragraph; use the closing quotation mark only at the end of the spoken words. (If dialogue continues uninterrupted for several paragraphs, you will have a number of opening quotation marks but only one closing quotation mark.) Examples : “I told you I loved you. You never believed me.” “I told you I was there,” he said. But I never believed him. “He tried,” I said, waving my fingers, “but he failed.” “My dog ate the first page”—Billy pointed at Dexter Blue—“but I saved the rest.”
Exception Example : “I needed to do it, but I just couldn’t. And then you know what happened—Bing threw his knife and design homework pass I ducked and he hit the minister’s wife. And then pandemonium broke out, everyone running every which way. It was madness. “And after that, we raced out before the cops could get there.” Notes: 1. American English (AmE) always uses double quotation marks for dialogue. If you have a quotation within dialogue, the inner quotation gets single quotation marks. 2. British English (BrE) allows for either single or double quotation marks, with the essays, reverse for quotes inside other quotes or dialogue.
Words used in a nonstandard manner or as sarcasm, irony, or mockery : Use quotation marks to on union service commission point out irony or words used in an unusual way, perhaps as slang or mockery. Most slang wouldn’t need to be put in quotation marks, but words unfamiliar to a character could be put in quotation marks. Always use double quotation marks for AmE and typically use singles for BrE (doubles are acceptable). Example : Yeah, I guess he was on time. If three hours late is “on time” in his book. Andy said his brother “skived off” two days this week. I didn’t tell him I had to check the on poverty in haiti, Internet to figure out what he meant. Made-up words or new words : Use quotation marks for the first use of test, made-up words. Essays. After that, no special punctuation is necessary. Example : He’s a “rattlescallion,” a cross between a rapscallion and a snake. Words as words : We often use italics for design pass words used as words, but we can also use quotation marks.
Example: He used “I” all the on poverty in haiti, time, as if his opinion carried more weight than anyone else’s. When you’re deciding between italics and quotation marks, always remember the rules of clarity and consistency: make it clear for the reader and be consistent throughout the story. If you have to make a choice that doesn’t fit a rule or you choose to flout a rule, do so on online-dissertation-help.com purpose and do so each time the circumstances are the essays, same. Include unusual words or special treatment of words in your style sheet so everyone dealing with your manuscript works from the same foundation. Rewrite any wording that is likely to confuse the reader or that can be read multiple ways. There’s always a way to clear up confusing phrasing, often more than one way. Reduce distracting punctuation and italics when you can, but use both quotation marks and relevant coursework consulting italics when necessary.
Put writing rules to work for your stories. This article is a long one, but I hope it proves useful. Essays In Haiti. Let me know if I omitted a category you wondered about. 207 Responses to “Marking Text—Choosing Between Italics and Quotation Marks” EXCELLENT and timely tips.
I have a question I didn’t see addressed here: what about restaurant names in fiction? Italicized the first time and essay on union public service then roman font after? Italicized with every usage? I’d love to know! Thank you. Heather, restaurants are just names, and essays on poverty in haiti so they are only capitalized—no italics on any use. (I actually have a restaurant included in the third paragraph in the section on design homework plain text—Edie’s Bistro.) This is a great question—maybe I should put in a section that includes categories that are not italicized. Thank you so much! That clears things up for the book I’m about to release. I assume flower shops or any stores with proper names are simply capitalized, as well–no italics?
You’re exactly right, just capitalized. And thanks—you gave me another couple of categories to in haiti add to on union public service commission the capped-but-not-italicized section. Keep asking—it’s great to get all that info out essays on poverty, there in one place. Avoid italics like the electronic, plague. They are hard to read and slow down your story. Once you get rid of them, you will realize how bad they are. Words from in haiti a publisher: ON USING ITALICS FOR THOUGHTS. December 28, 2011.
Some of you will send me examples of does term essay mean, good writers who use italics for thoughts. Good writers can do anything. It is in haiti, true. On Union Public. But a good writer does not need to use italics for thoughts. Essays On Poverty In Haiti. A good editor should help him/her get rid of them. I do.
A good writer doesn’t even need to use italics for emphasis very often – which makes them more effective when s/he does. Hi. Great column. Question. In dialogue, must I always use italics for online-dissertation-help.com a title. Essays On Poverty In Haiti. Example: ” That album was by online-dissertation-help.com the Beatles,” he said. (Is Beatles, the band italicized?……….Also, my italicize the title every time that I use it in a manuscript?
Many thanks, and I’ll be sure to check out in haiti, your website. Rene, you don’t need to italicize a band’s name, just capitalize it. The name is online-dissertation-help.com, just a name, not a title. Great post. On Poverty. This will answer a lot of service, questions that come up in our critique group. In Haiti. I’ll be posting the link to this on what term essay my blog.
Thanks! I’m glad it’s useful, Rosi. Don’t use italics at in haiti all–except for the titles of books. They are hard to read and slow the reader down. Don’t use semicolons. They are HATED by many editors. One critic said they are just a way of proving that you have a college education. Ha! Problem: Even if you use them correctly, some readers will think you used them incorrectly–another slowing of the reading. Test Cover Letter. In my opinion, two single sentences are stronger. Also, have at least ten proofreaders.
I had over twenty for “Finding Sagrado,” and whatever its merits, the writing is clean and essays in haiti polished, thanks to my readers and critics. Here’s my website: I’m offering a free pdf download to anyone who will read and review it (any rating on country essay history lore mountain the review. It doesn’t matter. Just be honest). Roger, while it’s true that italics are hard to read—a reason I don’t recommend that writers include large sections in italics—there are legitimate reasons for using them. Essays. The same is true for semicolons. Sometimes two sentences are indeed stronger, but sometimes the sentences are too close in meaning and feel to warrant the period between them. I seldom promote any blanket prohibition in writing—the same answer will not work for every situation and you may need options. You don’t want to limit yourself simply because of what others have said or for reasons that worked or didn’t work for design homework pass them. Essays On Poverty. Considered advice is good, but prohibitions without exception serve no one.
Any writer can make almost anything work and work well. I love seeing a writer publicly thank his proofreaders; I hope yours continue to be part of your writing circle for many productive years. Proofreaders and beta readers are worth their weight in gold or chocolate. Thank you for giving us something to think about. That’s true, and in online-dissertation-help.com the last novel I read–“The Ghosts of Belfast” by Stuart Nevill I saw some semicolons. Ha! I guess I’m brainwashed against them. Essays On Poverty. I didn’t like them. I particularly hate italics for thoughts.
There’s no need. Why did he look at me that way, she thought. I had over a hundred semicolons and exclamation points. I took out all the semicolons and left only a handful of exclamation points–only for screams. It’s funny how much heat is catskill essay history lore, generated in essays a discussion of grammar. Ha! Discussion is great for clarifying issues.
But you’re right; there’s something about grammar and punctuation that gets us going. Feel free to write me: farcity101 at hotmail.com. if you would like me to send you the pdf file. Thank you so much for all of essay on union service commission, this! I’ve shared it in my fiction group, where I’m sure a lot of people will find some use. I’m curious if the rules are different in essays on poverty the UK/Australia/etc., as I see a lot of essay on union public, quotations for on poverty in haiti thoughts. Also… just curious (and seriously off topic), but if you have an international collection of pass, stories, do you have each story follow the essays in haiti, same rules (U.S., let’s say, with double quotes instead of single, U.S. spellings instead of British) or do you let each story retain its own “culture”?
Alex, I’ve also seen writers use quotation marks for thoughts, both in AmE and catskill BrE, but I know of on poverty in haiti, no standard source or authority that recommends that quotation marks be used this way. There is some contention about the practice, however, because there’s no set-in-stone prohibition either. The thing is, thoughts are not speech and quotation marks for the most part are reserved for spoken words. If thoughts are put in quotation marks, how will people know which words are spoken and design homework which are thought? Then you have to add even more dialogue tags and on poverty in haiti thought tags.
Also, quotation marks work great as a visual for readers— in between these marks are spoken words. Also, the relevant coursework, trend in today’s writing is away from overuse of punctuation. Quotation marks for on poverty thought would be considered unnecessary punctuation. It’s not that it isn’t done—and almost anything can work—but what do you give up and what do you gain? Is it worth a fight to argue (with agents and publishers) about quotation marks for thoughts when there are other legitimate and quite recognizable ways to convey thoughts? The rule of thumb on this one is to reserve quotation marks for spoken dialogue. As far as I can tell, that’s true for both BrE and AmE. I’m not sure that I understand your question about the international collection. International meaning the stories have already been published in different countries and online-dissertation-help.com they are now being brought together into one book?
If that’s your question, I’m guessing you have two options. You could let books stand as they were written—which would give readers a taste of essays on poverty, other cultures and styles—or you could edit for design homework the country in on poverty in haiti which the new combined volume will be published. If the books were published before or if they weren’t but you want to promote the fact that writers are from different parts of the online-dissertation-help.com, world, I would let existing spelling and on poverty word choices stand. Punctuation is a different issue. You could keep punctuation as it was, but changing punctuation rules from story to story might be an annoyance for readers. Punctuation could very easily be adapted for the country in which the new book was being released. While readers typically expect writers from other countries to use different words or spellings, they don’t usually think about punctuation being different. This doesn’t mean you’d have to change the punctuation in some of the design homework, stories, but the on poverty in haiti, option is worth considering.
I don’t know that there is any hard rule about this issue. A publisher would have an opinion and/or guidelines, but beyond that, for consulting those publishing their own books, the choice is theirs. If that’s not what you were asking about, let me know. Hello Beth — just want to thank you for yet another well-written and extremely useful post. I live in essays on poverty India and am “retired”, which means I cannot afford western editorial rates — so this kind of material/guide is vital to online-dissertation-help.com my novel writing. Thanks and look forward to more… Mira, I wish you the best of success with your writing. Essays In Haiti. Here’s hoping that you sell a manuscript or two and collected essay get to enjoy that retirement without worrying about finances. I’m so glad the essays in haiti, article was a useful one.
Beth, thanks for those good wishes — however, watching so many artistes go down the tubes in Manhattan because they relied only on their creative earnings taught me not to count on that happening — so i write because i love to. You must be very busy, i know, but i would love to send you an e-version of the metaphysical novel (set in ancient India – Whip of the Wild God–A Novel of Tantra in online-dissertation-help.com Ancient India) for free if you would care to go through it. It has been getting 5 star reviews, but alas, as you must know, you cannot get rich on the 3% profit on on poverty in haiti sales that Amazon print gives you… Here is an what term example from my novel “Finding Sagrado” where italics are needed: Was a strong like the same as love?” I put “like” in italics to make the sentence absolutely clear. I didn’t want it. “Was a strong like…” Without the italics, a reader might go back and on poverty in haiti think there is a typo. Roger, I think that’s a great use of homework, italics.
Excellent column, Beth. It never hurts to be reminded of the subtleties of our language because as you say, it’s best to eliminate opportunities for on poverty an agent or editor to question the writer’s competence. I agree, Peter. Letter. And there’s no reason to create problems for yourself when the fixes are so easy. Some areas of essays on poverty in haiti, writing aren’t quite as easy to handle, but the ones that are fairly simple to electronic deal with can be mastered by all writers. One great way to fix an awkward paragraph is to delete it. Ha! The reader doesn’t know what was deleted. Essays. Maybe you were trying to put too much in electronic test the paragraph? Ask yourself if the paragraph is really needed. My characters listen to essays and sing along with a few songs in my novel.
So if I am mentioning a song by Bruce Springstein. I should write it as; Dandcing In The Dark. Not; ”Dancing in the Dark.” Italic or not? Also, when they are singing along, I have written it all in capitals. Eg; “HET LITTLE GIRL, IS YOUR DADDY HOME? DID HE GO AND LEAVE YOU ALL ALONE … ETC. Kim, song titles do get quotation marks, so “Dancing in the Dark” is correct. No italics. There’s no reason for all caps—just use mixed letters, the same way you do with regular text. The words of songs are still characters speaking. However, there are restrictions for copyrighted text.
So unless you get permission from Bruce Springsteen to electronic test technician use his words, readers shouldn’t be heard singing his words. While it’s usually okay to quote a line or two from a book or movie, single lines from in haiti songs and poems make up a significant part of the song or poem, and the copyright holder may be ticked off by your use of his or her words. Works in the public domain can be quoted, but copyrighted works have protection. You can mention the name of a song or poem, but you don’t want to use the text. A workaround is to create a song or poem of your own. I’m working on an article concerning this issue that I hope to get up soon.
Does that answer your questions? Thanks. Online-dissertation-help.com. Just re read. Essays In Haiti. Have since removed all lyrical content and am seeking permission on the use of two poems. I use … a lot when a conversation is interrupted or of someone is struggling to say something. I am consistent through out, is letter, this a death nail? Kim, I’ve finally gotten around to on poverty in haiti putting together an article on using lyrics and poems in novels. I hope to test technician have it up today or tomorrow, so good timing with your comment. Use the essays, ellipsis when dialogue trails off, the em dash when it is cut off. Relevant Coursework. Both are legitimate punctuation marks, but they’re unusual enough to be noticed if they’re used too often.
Actually, you typically don’t want to use any piece of in haiti, punctuation or sentence structure or word too often. Think in terms of consistency, yes, but variety as well. If you know you use the online-dissertation-help.com, ellipsis a lot, I suggest that you do a search for it and then make changes if you find it used too often. Also, as a side note, the phrase is on poverty, death knell, from the coursework, practice of essays on poverty, ringing a bell when someone died. Thanks. If someone is gasping for online-dissertation-help.com their last breath, or winded, would you consider that trailing off or being cut off? The ” for a song title, is on poverty in haiti, it okay to public service use single’ to differentiate from speech or is on poverty, this old school? Kim, I can’t nest a reply to test cover letter your last comment, so I hope you find this okay.
I’d definitely use the ellipsis for gasping for breath and probably for being winded, but with being winded, someone’s breath could be completely cut off. Essays. If so, I’d go with the dash. For song titles, stick with double quotation marks, unless the cover letter, title is essays on poverty in haiti, mentioned in dialogue. So double quotation marks would go for the dialogue and singles for a song title (or quoted material) within dialogue. (BrE can use the coursework, reverse—single quotation marks for dialogue and doubles for on poverty in haiti a song title or quoted material within the dialogue.) so space …”is that ame? or no space… and sentence with – in it, is that also ame? Sorry for the confusion. The Slang Term Mean. you said it depends on if it is ame or bre but didn’t clarify. For the ellipsis in American English, there are spaces between the ellipsis points, so if I needed an essays on poverty ellipsis in AmE, I would write . . . this. (If a closing quotation mark follows the ellipsis, do not include the final space.) Use nonbreaking spaces in Word so the ellipsis doesn’t break on a line break. For British English there are typically no spaces between the term essay, points though there are spaces before and after the points. In BrE I’d use … this. The sentence with the spaces surrounding the dash is BrE.
No spaces for either punctuation mark in essays in haiti AmE (given the examples we’ve looked at). love your long technical posts. always very useful I’m using smt akin to your style sheet also for names, layout of places, items that reoccur, e.g. the cars (model, colour, general condition, etc). cheers! Sina, I’m glad you’re finding the info helpful. They do get long sometimes, don’t they? How do I treat a program that is held here at our large hospital? The program is called ( made up ) We want you to get better soon. sponsored by the department of Internal Medicine. Do I put the program name in homework quotation marks, italic or plain text?
Beverly, I would say that typically you’d put the name of the essays, program in caps—Our cutting-edge program—We Want You to does the slang term Get Better Soon—is sponsored by the department of essays on poverty in haiti, Internal Medicine. Yet, you may have some options. Will this line be in a letter to donors? In e-mails to staff? In public promotional materials? While you wouldn’t use anything else if you were writing fiction, you may want to collected history in life consider italics for real-world purposes. Essays On Poverty. You probably want the collected country essay mountain, text to stand out, and essays mixed caps and italics would be useful for such a purpose. That or a different font (a change in style or in online-dissertation-help.com color). The Get Better program has already been introduced to more than 300 individuals and families. Bottom line: you wouldn’t have to use anything more than capital letters for the major words. But depending on your needs, you may want to essays use a specific font, a specific color, or italics.
You don’t want the words blending in electronic technician letter with the essays on poverty, surrounding text in electronic test technician promotional materials—you want readers to see the program name as the program name. Thank you for all the information you provide in the blog. Will you please clarify how the name of a house (i.e., an historic residence) is treated? Just capitals? Italics? Quotation marks? Thanks so much. Just capitals, Deborah. On Poverty In Haiti. They are names, not titles. So the White House, Mount Vernon, Hearst Castle, and online-dissertation-help.com Gracie Mansion and fictional places Regent Hall, Dinsmore Cottage, and Salisbury Manor. If (in a novel) someone is essays, reading a passage to another person and this is in italics, should the italics (quote from catskill collected essay history newspaper) also have quotation marks?
How do you treat a book title that is shortened? For example, if my character discusses “The Secret Life of in haiti, Bees” (italics, not quotes) but just calls it “The Secret Life”, should I italicize that part or use quotes? Corene, italicize the shortened title the same way you’d italicize the full title. (Or if it’s material that should be put in on union service commission quotation marks, use quotation marks for the shortened title.) I’m just about to publish my first novel, The Art of on poverty, Peeling an Orange, on Amazon Kindle, and catskill country essay history in life I encountered a small “disaster.” I can convert my pages file into ePub and upload to amazon without a problem, but then I lose my formatting. Essays In Haiti. ie: chapter heads all run together and don’t start on a new page. Essay Public Service. It is an esthetic problem and my book doesn’t look professional. If I upload a word.doc, the above issue is on poverty, solved, but I lose my italics, therefore some meaning and context.
Does anyone have a solution? Please help. New author drinking herself to death over this… Would you italicize certain interjections as sounds? For example, ahem, hmm, or humph? Good question, Tanis. Test Cover Letter. I consider those words as dialogue and would therefore use quotation marks rather than italics.
However, hmm could be used as a thought rather than as a word spoken sound. In Haiti. In that case it would get italics or simply roman type, depending on how you were treating direct thoughts in your story. Thank you so much! First of all, thanks for sharing all your useful information! By far the most informative reading I’ve done about relevant coursework consulting, quotation marks and on poverty italics. I have two questions: 1. When a character is writing/have written something, is it marked as usual dialogue? He left a note on the table (“Out for essay on union a walk”).
He left a note on the table (‘Out for a walk’). Or should it get italics? He wrote, “Out for a walk” on essays on poverty the note. He wrote, ‘Out for a walk’ on the note. I’m wondering about the comma there as well. What Does Term Essay. As far as I’m concerned, there’s always a comma before dialogue in the middle of essays in haiti, a sentence, but is it the same in this situation? 2. Essay Public. In gestures that might be communicating in a suggestive manner, is that also written as normal dialogue? He looked at essays on poverty in haiti her in a way that clearly said, “I’m not giving up on on union public commission you.”
Thanks in advance! I’m with you, Katherine. What is the best way to punctuate text that is essays on poverty, supposedly read, not said? I’ve seen it done different ways, and my copy of CMS isn’t being very helpful. I’m also curious about your second question. There’s been some debate among my writing buddies lately re the use of quotes or italics when the character is either reading something verbatim in the text (say a sign, or a note or something).
The sign read, “Kingsbridge 2 miles.” The sign read, Kingsbridge 2 miles. Also, if a character is remembering something she’d read or heard said at some time in commission the past verbatim, should it be italicized like internal dialog, or quoted? Or does it depend on how it’s presented? Also, should a colon precede the remembered quotation, or a comma, or a period, or something else?
For example, how to present the words in a case like this: She could see the pages of that old book, as if it were in front of her right now. Work hard but don’t be obsessive. I have the same questions. “This rule for chapter titles in books is essays on poverty in haiti, not referring to chapter titles of online-dissertation-help.com, a manuscript itself, which are not put in quotation marks within the manuscript. Use quotation marks in your text if a character or narrator is thinking about or speaking a chapter title, not for your own chapter titles.” In a non-fiction work, I (as the author) explain to my reader the major sections in the book. Essays On Poverty In Haiti. Would I use quotations around the title names of those sections when I write about them in coursework the text?
For instance, assuming the use of a colon is correct – would this be the correct way to include this text? Part Two: “Title of Major Section” Yes, Melissa, you’re referring to real sections (or chapters) within the on poverty, text, and putting those references into quotation marks is exactly what you’d want to do. And the colon is good as well. You could do the same setup for chapters—Chapter Five: “The Hope Within Us All” Your chapters, sections, and parts get quotation marks just as chapters, sections, and parts of other books would get quotation marks. For anyone else reading this, my note was a reference to the slang chapter titles of the manuscript, those on the first page of every chapter. Those would not get quotation marks in essays the manuscript itself.
I have an odd question about the use of quotation marks. Online-dissertation-help.com. This is my third novel in a series (Southern fiction). In my character’s dialog which is in quotation marks, he is talking and also quoting something his wife said. Do I use a quote within a quote? Here’s the example.
” Macie was bound and determined to on poverty in haiti find out which one of design homework pass, her hens wasn’t laying and one day she came in essays on poverty and said to me, ‘I think it’s that funny looking chicken. I’ve seen every chicken go into the hen house today except her.’ I went out to test technician see what all the fuss was about and lo and behold, that hen was a rooster.” Yes, Glenda. Essays In Haiti. This is exactly the time you want to use a quote within a quote. What is BRE? If I write. “But I love the Bruce Springsteen song “Dancing in electronic test technician cover letter the Dark,””she said – it look weird. I would think it would be”But I like the in haiti, song ‘Dancing in the Dark’ by test Bruce Springsteen,” she said. Essays On Poverty. . Kim, BrE is British English; AmE is American English. If someone is speaking and then quoting someone else (or naming something that gets quotation marks), the quotation marks switch from doubles to singles (or in on union commission BrE, they can change from singles to essays in haiti doubles). Glenda used single quotation marks inside her doubles for her examples. Your example would work either of the what the slang term mean, ways you pointed out. Note the space between the single and double quotation marks.
“But I love the Bruce Springsteen song ‘Dancing in the Dark,’ ” she said. ”But I like the song ‘Dancing in the Dark’ by Bruce Springsteen,” she said. If someone using BrE wrote they same sentence, the following options would be correct. Note the comma outside the double quotation mark after dark. ‘But I love the Bruce Springsteen song “Dancing in essays on poverty the Dark”, ‘ she said. ‘But I like the song “Dancing in the Dark” by Bruce Springsteen,’ she said. Does this make sense? If I’ve confused you, let me know where I lost you. Thanks so much, you are very prompt. Is a poem in dialogue italicized?
You probably covered this in your article, I will read it soon. Coursework Consulting. Am in the middle of in haiti, applying for a grant for what term essay future publication. Why when I make a comment why does blank out. I am writing an essays American based fiction, inital audience is Australia and i have used American lingo. Mom and realize etc. Is this a death knell? Kim, yes, do read the article about lyrics and poetry in fiction . You may find you won’t quote any long sections of text once you consider some of the points in the article.
In general, however, you wouldn’t need to technician cover use italics to quote a poem. If someone is reading it aloud, you could use quotation marks. If someone is reading a line silently to himself, then italics would be useful. On Poverty. As for relevant coursework a full poem or even a stanza, you could set it off in the text with extra margins on both sides. But, still, read the article. It’s not often that you’ll want to plop a full poem into the middle of essays on poverty in haiti, a novel. I’m not sure what’s blanking out.
Let me know more if you’re still having problems. If you’ve got Americans in a story, have them use AmE for the words they think and speak, so mom rather then mum is essay public commission, appropriate. But if your audience is in essays on poverty Australia, you may want to use BrE spellings, so realise rather than realize. Let the characters’ language fit them, but let the story’s grammar and punctuation fit your audience. What about using capital when someone is shouting? “I don’t want your whisky dick!” “I DON’T WANT YOUR WHISKY DICK!” I was doing this a lot, but have since stopped. And when using; she thought it odd he would wear such heavy clothing in the middle of summer DASH it was the hottest on record after all. Is the DASH sp[ace controldash space, making it longer than a regular dash, or is it alt control dash or just dash? Plus, is afteralll, after-all? And when I use … I space then … Should it be; matter…” His voice trailed off at the sight of country history lore, her taking off her clothes.
OR matter…” his voice trailed off at the sight of on poverty in haiti, her bla bla . I know, I am dumb, but your advice is paramount. How do you get paid? If I submit a sample for quote on editing, you require a chapter and page 250, does that mean an what does essay mean average of essays on poverty in haiti, 250 words per design page? Please read the above if you get time. Kim, unless you’re writing for children, you really don’t want to use all caps. Shouting is identified through the words and an exclamation point, if one is on poverty, truly necessary. Definitely don’t use all caps for regular shouting. But could you use a few instances of all caps under certain conditions? You could. But I’d limit them to once or twice over the course of a manuscript.
And for only one or two words at a time, not long sentences. This is something you might have to play by homework pass ear, but the on poverty in haiti, fewer words with all caps, the stronger the impact will be when you actually use all caps. Maybe a character has been taken over by a demon and speaks with a powerful demon voice—that might be the time you could get away with all caps. Dash—The dash you’re referring to in American English is an design pass em dash. In MS Word you can insert it by holding the Alt key and essays on poverty typing 0151 on the numeric keypad (or Alt-Ctrl-minus). Collected In Life. There are other ways of inserting the em dash as well. And there are no spaces. So it would look something like this: She did like strawberries—they were her favorite fruit.
For British English, the en dash is often used instead. It is surrounded by in haiti spaces. The en dash is shorter than an online-dissertation-help.com em dash (but still longer than a hyphen). The MS Word shortcut is Alt 0150 (or Ctrl minus). It would look something like this: She did like strawberries — they were her favorite fruit. After all is spelled after all . The spaces with an ellipsis also depends on whether you’re using AmE or BrE.
But as for what follows, in your example, capitalize the first word that follows the quotation mark because you’re beginning a new sentence. As for submitting a sample for a quote, I require at least the first chapter and the chapter that contains page 250 (not just page 250). In other words, I’m looking for a chapter from the middle of the essays on poverty, book. Technician Cover Letter. However, I really like having as much to work with as possible, you if you send submit something, sending the full manuscript is best. I was just curious how you would punctuate the in haiti, name of public, games, like Hide and Seek, or Truth or Dare–just capital, or italics, or quotes? Thanks so much for all your advice. You’re the best! Darien, this is going to be one of those “it depends” answers. For hide-and-seek and truth or dare—no caps, no italics, and on poverty no quotation marks. The same would hold true for checkers, chess, bridge, tag, dodgeball, and poker.
Games with trademarked names such as Monopoly, Scrabble, and design Parcheesi would get capital letters, but nothing else. For video games, capitalize initial letters of essays in haiti, each word. You might also want to relevant consulting use italics—that’s a recommendation I’ve seen in several places. On Poverty. If you use italics, that’s treating the game like a book or album. For this one, you have some leeway—just be consistent. The best option is to check a dictionary if you’re unsure about a particular game. A great question—I’m sure others have wondered too. If you’re grandmother tells you, “you are my precious little girl.” In German she’d say, “Du bist mein kostbares kleines Maedchen.” Irene, I’m not sure what issue you’re pointing out online-dissertation-help.com, with your example. Is there something missing from essays on poverty in haiti your comment?
I found these tips helpful, but I was curious about another instance. On Union Public. What about the name of essays on poverty, a program? Not a computer program (though I didn’t see that on there and don’t know if the coursework consulting, rule would be the essays on poverty in haiti, same or different), but something like “We are considering withdrawing funding from the letter, Excellence in Education program”. Would “Excellence in Education” be italicized or put in quotes or something else? Thanks!
Sharon, I’ve never seen italics or quotation marks recommended for essays program names, and I just did another quick search to test letter be sure. Capital letters should be sufficient. Computer programs are also capped but not italicized. On Poverty In Haiti. The titles of does essay mean, computer games can be italicized, but apparently that one is not set in stone. Make a choice and then be consistent.
I use both italics and quotes when referring to non-human speech, or that of an animal, in my fantasy books. It helps to differentiate between that of ordinary speaking and essays on poverty in haiti that of an entity or spirit. Dawn, I’m in agreement with trying anything that woks. But how do you differentiate between thoughts in quotes and essay on union public commission dialogue in quotes? Can readers easily tell the difference? That is, do you do something specific each time to indicate that you’re showing thoughts rather than italics? Other writers might want to try whatever it is that you’re doing. Thank you for a great article!
My student wrote a fiction story and the name for one of the on poverty, agencies in her story is “Happily ever after”. Should she use quotation marks for this name of the place all the coursework consulting, name or just capital letters? I am confused because “Happily ever after” is usually a phrase in essays a story and not a name. Amy, no quotation marks are necessary. The names of companies and businesses need only to be capitalized, no matter where the name came from. I have written a novel in does mean American English. How do I write am and pm?
I have used a lot of essays, poetry and does the slang when I have a character about to recite I go, cleared his throat then began: “I Had Something To Say. Is the [:] correct? or is it; or just, ? also when writing ages thirty-three, is the – correct? Could you give me an I idea of format for a 23.5 by 15 cm novel. Nora Roberts kind of essays, size. Could you confirm proper industry size? I have margins currently at online-dissertation-help.com 2.54 top and bottom, inside 2.3 and outside at on poverty in haiti 1.9. I know the inside and outside sound ass about coursework, but it is the on poverty in haiti, only way I can get my opening page lined up so spine is the catskill essay history, bigger margin. . I am trying to keep page numbers down and it looks okay on the eye, although there are more than normal words on a page and font is 11 tnr. One more thing, when writing ASAP and GFC of Ford F 100, are there dots or gaps. Yes I am that dumb!
He he. Very helpful! Thank you. I requested a comment on using famous writers quotes; Shakespeare and Banjo Patterson – at the beginning of a novel, pre story. I know if you use other peoples info in text, you have to get copyright permission, but these peeps are dead! Kim, with material in the public domain, you don’t need to secure permission since no one owns the copyright. Essays On Poverty. Yet do be aware that some newer versions of some materials may have copyrights—so some modern versions of the Bible do have active copyrights. For works in what term the public domain, include author name and title of the source if it’s not just a general quote.
I have a question that I can’t seem to find the answer to, and that was not mentioned in this article. Can you/should you italicize quotes? Patrick, direct quotes go inside quotation marks, but there’s no need to use italics. That’s the essays in haiti, basic answer, yet you might be thinking of does the slang term, some example in particular. If so, let me know. Two examples of the basic rule— I’d been walking along the shore, nicely alone, when a couple of teen girls came jogging up the on poverty in haiti, beach. What The Slang Term. One said, “And my parents said I couldn’t go unless I aced both exams and finished in the top three in essays on poverty this weekend’s meet.” Thomas wanted to know if it was Shakespeare who said, “Judge me by my size, do you?” I hope that helps.
I wasn’t actually talking about a quote within a sentence or paragraph. I’m talking about an actual quote from somebody. For example: “I know not with what weapons World War III will be fought, but World War IV will be fought with sticks and stones” -Albert Einstein. Would it be wrong to italicize a quote like that? Thanks for collected country in life mountain the reply, Okay, so you’re using the quote at the beginning of a book or chapter, something like that? An epigraph?
In that case, the choice is solely up to you. In Haiti. Italics or roman, either is letter, acceptable. In Haiti. Just be consistent if you include multiple quotations. You’ll likely also want to center the text. And no quotation marks are necessary. It’s actually not for anything formal at all; it’s for a forum signature. I just wanted it to be correct. Again, I really appreciate you taking the time to online-dissertation-help.com answer my question. Thanks for essays in haiti your help,
Patrick, you’re welcome. For something like that, you definitely have a style choice. Hi Beth, Thank you very much for catskill country history in life your article. It is very useful, and even more for essays in haiti a foreigner like me (I’m French). I wrote a novel in my language and since last September, I have been working on its translation in English. The second part of the story is taking place in England and the main characters are French. When they speak to online-dissertation-help.com each other, they use a mixture of French and English words. I decided to italicise the English words. Consequenltly, when any character -be French, English or of any other nationality-, uses English, I have also italicised what they say. Is there a rule for essays in haiti that particular situation ? Also some characters who are not French use French when they speak. Homework Pass. Should it be italicised ? Merci for your help.
Vincent. Vincent, if you’ve written the story in French, then anything in English should be written in italics. There are exceptions for on poverty in haiti common English words that anyone would know; don’t italicize English words that would be known to your French-speaking audience. On the coursework consulting, other hand, you don’t want too much to be italicized. Are there long sections in English? If your audience is French, I wouldn’t include too much in English. You don’t want to lose your readers. But for occasional words and phrases—even sentences—in English, yes, you would use italics. No, don’t use italics for essays on poverty in haiti those who are not French but speak French. The italics use is for your readers—it identifies words in a foreign language, which in your book means a language other than French.
Does that answer both your concerns? Do italicize words in what is not the primary language of your story. But try not to have too many of test technician cover, such words in your story. You don’t want readers unable to in haiti read what’s going on. Beth, Thank you very much for your reply but all my questions are about the English version, not the French. Sorry if I was not clear in my previous message and merci encore. Vincent. Vincent, I’m sorry I missed the part about you working on the English translation. In that case, you want to italicize the French but not the English.
So italicize any words not in the major language of the story. Collected Essay In Life Lore Mountain. It doesn’t matter who is essays, speaking them—if words are in a language other than the story’s main language, they are italicized. Online-dissertation-help.com. (Again, allowances for on poverty common words that everyone would understand without translation.) This is a cue for the reader and has nothing to do with character. Since your readers will expect English, French words should be italicized to show that they are not English words. Again, you wouldn’t want to include too many passages in on union public service commission French since you can’t expect your readers to essays understand that language and you don’t want them to miss vital information. If you want to show characters speaking a language other than the design homework pass, main language the story is written in and need to on poverty convey what they are saying, put the scene in the viewpoint of one of the characters who is speaking and try something like this— Charles and Marc switched over to French when Billy entered the room. Electronic Technician Cover Letter. Not to intentionally keep the essays in haiti, information from him, but he was a gossip.
And he always told his mother everything they said about the family business. After including something like that paragraph, you can still report the the slang term mean, dialogue in English, but readers will assume they’re speaking French. You may want to remind readers that they’re speaking French, however, especially if they keep speaking it for a while. And you should let the readers know when they switch to English. I hope this information better fits your circumstances. Thank you so much for all the information.
What a service this is. My question is not for fiction, it’s for a blog I am putting together. (Although, considering the way I write it will probably come up in a story I’m writing as well.) The language is essays, very informal, but I still want it to catskill collected history mountain be understandable and consistent. Essays In Haiti. I was using common phrases in does a sentence. For instance: She’s a live and let live kind of girl. It feels like “live and let live” should be italicised or something but I’m not sure. Essays On Poverty. I’m sure it is technically incorrect but it seems understandable. I guess I’m struggling with whether ideas should be put in quotes or italicised. Another example would be something like, “She reached nirvana when she tasted the ice cream.” I hope that makes sense. Thanks, again. Bria, your instincts are right on.
Your first example can be written a couple of ways. She’s a live-and-let-live kind of girl. She’s a live and let live kind of girl. The hyphens are preferable; we typically hyphenate compound adjectives before a noun. Design Homework. You can use italics, but often we reserve those for longer compound adjectives—Her happiness was gained through trick your boyfriend for as long as you can games. Yet even for something such as this sentence, the hyphens would work. I see no need for anything special with your second example; it’s just a sentence. Essays In Haiti. What were you thinking needed emphasis? Regarding italics and a character’s thoughts in novels, the distinction needs to be made between verbatim thoughts and the narrative rambling of a close third POV. If the narrator is online-dissertation-help.com, speaking to himself using a conversational format, i.e., addressing the reader/himself in thought, that text is italicized.
Too many writers get the general advice to italicize a narrator’s thoughts resulting in what becomes meaningless punctuation that’s difficult to read. Bonnie, I agree that italicized text that goes on and on is definitely hard to essays read. And there’s no reason to catskill collected country in life lore mountain include too much of it. Essays. There are options for working around the need for italicized text. While writers can use italics for thoughts directed from a character to himself, italics are not a requirement for that format. Relevant Consulting. See this article—and the comment section—for a discussion on Writing Character Thoughts . Let me first say thank you. Your blog has been invaluable. A quick question. Essays On Poverty. In one of my stories, I have a ship named The Lucky Lady. I know, according to collected in life lore this blog, the name would be in italics.
But sometimes, in either the narrative or when a character is speaking, they shorten the name…call it The Lady. My question is, do the same rules apply when that is done? When they shorten the name do I still use italics or would it be normal font? Thanks in on poverty advance. I’m glad the blog has been useful, CJ. Yes, use italics even when a character shortens the catskill collected country essay mountain, name of essays in haiti, a ship.
Do the same for catskill collected history other titles. So Love in the Time of essays in haiti, Cholera might be referred to as Cholera, and italics would still be used. A great question. I may edit the catskill collected country lore mountain, article to address the issue. Thank you so much for your speedy reply!
I’m just at a final editing now, and on poverty can put forth this change to my editor. Whoot! Sorry to bother you so soon, but just came to another example in my book of something that may need italics. T-shirts. I mean when you have a character in a story wearing a T-shirt with a caption on it, is homework, that caption italicized or in quotes? For example… Once properly clothed in in haiti a pair of gray sweat pants and T-shirt that read, “Are You Feeling Lucky?” he carried her out to the bed and wrapped her in some blankets. I’ve only used quotation marks here to mark the T-shirt slogan for you, so should Are You Feeling Lucky? be in italics instead?
Or written as is? I looked through the comments, but didn’t see that this example had been addressed. Thanks again for the help. CJ, for this one, you have options. The Chicago Manual of essay mean, Style advises that we capitalize words from (common) signs and mottoes used in running text if the phrase is in haiti, short—no italics and no quotation marks. But CMOS does recommend quotation marks for design longer messages. And you could argue that a T-shirt is a sign of a sort. Your T-shirt message is a familiar and short phrase, so you could probably just capitalize it.
However, a quick check of a handful of newspapers shows that they all use quotation marks for essays the text of a T-shirt. So if you do use quotation marks, that wouldn’t be considered wrong. Cover. Yet if you do go with the on poverty in haiti, quotation marks, you don’t need to capitalize every word. Capitalize only the first word. Adding weight to the recommendation to use quotation marks is the online-dissertation-help.com, way the T-shirt’s message is introduced. If you use words such as said or read, readers will likely expect quotation marks. But if you mention the T-shirt’s text in a different way—as in the next example—I’d suggest capital letters and no quotation marks. His faded T-shirt featured the essays on poverty in haiti, familiar phrase Are You Feeling Lucky. Bottom line, I think you’re safe going with quotation marks for coursework your example. (Remember to capitalize just the first word.) Thanks so much! I have a character in on poverty in haiti another book that’s known for wearing funny T-shirts as well and will need this information for online-dissertation-help.com her, too.
I very much appreciate all your help and essays on poverty in haiti hard work. My pleasure, CJ. Glad to be of help. Sorry if this question has already been answered, but what is the case for fictitious books? For example, in what does the slang essay Markus Zusak’s The Book Thief (imagine that that title is italicized), one of the characters, Max Vandenburg, creates several books that do not exist in real life, one of which is called The Standover Man. Would I italicize the on poverty in haiti, title of that book in my essay? If not, how should I format it? A good question, Ryan. And I don’t think it’s been asked before. Yes, go ahead and electronic cover italicize it, even though the essays on poverty in haiti, book’s not real. The title is does the slang term essay, a real title, and that’s what matters.
Thank you for this. That’s a question I’ve been looking everywhere to find the answer to. I generally use made up magazine names, tv show titles, etc. (to avoid any legal complications) in my writing and was never quite sure if the italics were appropriate. Mike, I’m glad you found what you were looking for. And I quite understand using fictitious names and titles.
I think it’s a great option. Thank you, again. Beth, I always check your blog when I have questions. It’s a wonderful service! My question concerns this sentence: They might not last in essays on poverty the long run, but he wasn’t going to rush their demise with a tale of two cities.
Should there be single or double quotation marks, italics, or nothing at test technician cover all around tale of two cities? Thanks, Cassie. I’m always glad to essays on poverty hear that writers and editors can find what they’re looking for. I’m assuming your intent is to collected mountain refer to the book? If so, you need capital letters and essays on poverty italics.
They might not last in the long run, but he wasn’t going to rush their demise with A Tale of Two Cities. If you don’t intend to reference the book directly—perhaps the character wanted to use the design pass, title for a play on words—then you’d approach this differently. But if you did intend a play on words, you’d change the title in some way. Let me know if that didn’t answer the question for essays in haiti you. Beth, thanks so much for answering so quickly! I truly appreciate it. Yes, the character is referring to what does the slang mean the book title.
I guess it could be considered a play on words because he and his significant other are trying to work out essays, their relationship while living in different cities. In that case, would it still need caps and italics? I’m always flummoxed about this subject. Again, thanks so very much for taking the time to answer! Cassie, if he’s actually referring to the book itself, with something like this next example, you do need capital letters and italics— They might not last in the long run, but he wasn’t going to rush their demise by online-dissertation-help.com making them play out A Tale of Two Cities. For a play on essays the title (which sounds more like what you have in mind), you wouldn’t use the title directly and essay public commission therefore wouldn’t need caps or italics. You’d want the on poverty, reference close enough to service the original to be recognizable but different enough to fit your scene’s context.
They might not last in the long run, but he wasn’t going to on poverty in haiti rush their demise by dwelling on their own sad tales of two very distant cities. Does that settle the issue for you? You can refer to exact titles, so don’t feel that you can’t. But if you do mention them, use italics (or quotation marks when necessary) to indicate that you’re mentioning a title. Otherwise make the reference different enough that you’re not just using the what does essay, title’s words without the essays on poverty in haiti, proper punctuation and capital letters. Oh, my goodness, thank you so very, very much!
Your explanation is collected essay in life lore mountain, exactly what I was looking for! You are a treasure for writers! Thank you, Beth! I know you’ll tell me to recast—but I can’t. Which version would you pick for the possessive of a song title in on poverty quote marks? Again, I’m not permitted to recast—so which is the most viable alternative here? And would you use straight or curly quotes to enclose both the title and the possessive?
Thank you kindly. Lou, are you sure you can’t rewrite? That’s the best option. Letter. If you truly can’t, go with your third choice, with the essays in haiti, apostrophe and s outside the quotation marks. (I assume the direction of the apostrophe is simply a function of the blog.) I’ve not seen that anyone expressly suggests using the space between the double quotation mark and the apostrophe for this purpose, yet I suggest it for ease of online-dissertation-help.com, reading. But use a thin space if you can. And use curly quotes (for most purposes). You might use straight quotes in an e-mail.
Chicago 16 doesn’t specifically address this. Essays In Haiti. They use a comma—inside the online-dissertation-help.com, quote marks next to essays an exclamation point/question mark—with quoted titles only. Are these correct? When Jill screamed, “Help!” the neighbors called 911. When Frank asked, “Where’s the collected essay in life mountain, keg?” his wife said that his friend drank it all.
The weekly periodical, “How Do We Invest In the on poverty, Future?,” is collected essay history mountain, very popular. (Comma goes inside the ending quote because a title of essays on poverty, a work is being referenced, correct?) I say no commas in these, correct? I resented her “How old are you?” “Are you married?” and relevant coursework consulting “Are you interested in a fling?” questions. (No commas, I say.) Lou, there are a couple of issues and options here. Let’s do these one issue at a time. (I’m answering for on poverty you as well as for others who might read this, so I’ll go into commission, a bit of detail.) Because I gave Lou some bad advice, I deleted this answer (11/8//15) and essays in haiti wrote up answers to the questions in design pass this article— replacing commas with question marks . Lou, after more investigation, I realize that I steered you wrong here with some of this information. I’m going to correct this answer and on poverty in haiti use your questions in catskill collected in life an article to essays make this issue clear.
When will your article be coming out? (Yaaaay!) And which ones were incorrect above? The article is finally up— replacing commas with question marks . I think it should provide the info you need. *g* Beth, you shouldn’t have answered me in terms I could truly understand because you’re quickly becoming my “go to” expert! With that admittance, I have another question about the essay, following sentence: But his emptiness was so pervasive, he gave the muse idea serious consideration when he looked at in haiti his latest pieces—uninspired, apathetic, lifeless. If I were to change “he gave the muse” to “he had to give the muse,” would it be grammatically correct? My confusion lies in the use of simple past vs an public commission infinitive.
Any light you could shed on my addled brain would be greatly appreciated! Thanks, Beth! Cassie, either option is correct. The second gives the reader more insight into the character’s thoughts and/or puts more emphasis on his reason for essays on poverty in haiti giving the muse idea consideration. The first option is more a statement of fact. An option for tweaking each—
But his emptiness was so pervasive, he actually gave the muse idea serious consideration as he studied his latest pieces—uninspired, apathetic, lifeless. But his emptiness was so pervasive, he had to give the online-dissertation-help.com, muse idea serious consideration after he evaluated his latest pieces—uninspired, apathetic, lifeless. Thank you, Beth! Yes, you’ve definitely helped! I’m going for essays “more insight into relevant, the character’s thoughts.” I appreciate your taking the on poverty in haiti, time to answer me! Hi what about names of online-dissertation-help.com, buildings, but I have made up the names.
This is for a building project brochure. So we want to call it “The Children’s House” or “Dining Hall A” or “The Orange Hill”. In Haiti. These names are used many times throughout the brochure. Italics, quotes? Or quote it once and then every other time just plain caps? Mara, names of pass, buildings require only capital letters, no italics or quotation marks. When used in a caption (under a photo or illustration, for example), capitalize all the words in the name, including the essays on poverty in haiti, article—The Children’s House and The Orange Hill. Test Cover Letter. When you use the essays, name in what the slang term essay running text—Building begins on the Children’s House in December—don’t capitalize the the.
None of the top-gun style guide address these. With the on poverty in haiti, approaching holidays I’d like to know which words to correctly capitalize. What is the technically correct capitalization rule for each, please? Should “Merry” in essay on union public “Merry Christmas” and “Happy New Year” be capped below? If not, how would you punctuate this exact sentence? Have a Merry Christmas and essays in haiti a Happy New Year! Hope you have a great New Year! Have a Happy Thanksgiving! A Happy Anniversary to the both of you. Happy Birthday, Michael!
Have a Happy Birthday, Michael! Cap “Birthday” in the first and “Happy Birthday” in the second? Have a Happy Thanksgiving! Thank you so much! Denise, perfect questions for a topic I’ve not addressed here at the blog. Names of holidays (religious and secular) are capitalized. So Christmas (and Eve), Thanksgiving Day, New Year’s Day (and Eve ) are always capitalized. The words happy, merry, birthday, and public service anniversary are not capped in running text (although we often capitalize such words in headings. Do capitalize these words at in haiti the beginnings of sentences, as usual.
Have a merry Christmas and a happy New Year. (But—I hope the new year is what the slang essay, a happy one for you.) I hope you have a great new year. In Haiti. (No caps here. This is electronic test letter, referring to on poverty in haiti the year, not to the holiday.) Have a happy Thanksgiving. A happy anniversary to cover letter . . . Happy birthday, Michael. Have a happy birthday . . In Haiti. . Have a happy Thanksgiving. Happy holidays to electronic test cover you and essays on poverty yours.
Season’s greeting to you all. This really is a great topic (and there’s lots more to cover). I guess this calls for what does the slang essay a full article. Thanks for the tip. This blog of yours is just unbelievably great! I’ve never seen anything quite like this.
Am I dreaming?? This site is better than the top style guides, and I mean that. Essays. You’re awesome, Beth! Great, great work. You should be very proud. Thanks so much for this post, I am currently studying for a Graduate Certificate in Editing and Publishing and what the slang found this immensely helpful! I have a question, if you don’t mind, about a passage I’m currently editing. You said in your post that for essays in haiti songs, the CD or album title would be in catskill country in life lore mountain italics and on poverty the song names would be in on union service quotation marks. This makes perfect sense, but would you say the same for an old or traditional folk song? Here is the sentence: “But when his voice, ripe and full and strong, lofted “Macushla” and “Mother Machree” to the soaring roof of the hired theatre, that stunning opposition of school shirt and matinee idol voice had the essays in haiti, crowd cheering and catskill essay lore pulping their palms.”
Would you say that the quotations marks are correct here? My understanding is essays, that these are titles of Irish folk songs, and as such, don’t belong to online-dissertation-help.com a larger group like an essays on poverty in haiti album. Essay Commission. Should they be italicised instead? Thanks very much! Erin, stay with quotation marks for songs, even folk songs. The punctuation helps to identify the words as song titles in the middle of other text. Songs don’t have to be on albums in order to have quotation marks; the album/song comparison is simply a way to in haiti differentiate between the online-dissertation-help.com, kinds of titles. Thank you so much for essays in haiti replying, Beth!
Much appreciated. He received two As on his report card. (Chicago prefers this.) Would the what does the slang term essay, reader momentarily stumble and construe As as the word “as”? Is this clearer to in haiti the reader in your opinion? He received two A’s on does the slang term essay his report card. Which would you go with? He received two A’s, three Bs, and two Cs on his report card. (Could this work, or is it a no-no?) Which would Beth Hill personally use—As or A’s in all the examples above? PS This is the essays on poverty, greatest reference source available anywhere on consulting the Net or in any bookstore! You are to be commended! Awesome, awesome, awesome site!
Denise, you hit on one of the on poverty in haiti, contentious ones. Chicago does recommend As , but I think it’s clearer with the design, apostrophe, A’s . On Poverty. Used alone—I got all A’s—I’d definitely go with the on union public service commission, apostrophe. Used in a group of essays on poverty, letter grades, As is probably clear, but I’d still go with A’s . Then readers don’t have to guess or hesitate. And I wouldn’t use apostrophes for the other letters–two A’s, three Bs, and two Cs. I’m sure you’ve seen lots of relevant coursework consulting, different possibilities for this one. But there are already allowances, so why not include this one? I’m glad you like the site. But always keep in essays mind that I’m an editor, not a proofreader, so my answers may not always match CMOS or another source. I try to provide reasons when I disagree with major reference sources or when a writer has options. CMOS 16 says that PS (for postscriptum) has no periods. So if I were to use PS, is there any punctuation (i.e., a period or a colon) that should follow?
1. PS Keep up the great work! 2. PS: Keep up the great work! 3. PS. Keep up the great work! Per Chicago, do you think that 1, 2, or 3 is correct? Denise, I didn’t see CMOS’s suggestion for no periods, but the Oxford Dictionary of current English shows PS as well. I looked at several sources and found nothing definitive for the punctuation following the PS.
A period or a colon should be acceptable. (And both options were given as options from the essay commission, Gregg Reference Manual in one resource I found.) In several questions directed to essays in haiti the CMOS folks online, they use the format P.S. Text, text, text in their answers. Catskill Collected Country History In Life. (Admittedly, those answers may be older, from the essays on poverty, days before P.S. Design Homework Pass. became PS.) I may check another source or two—I’m more than curious that this doesn’t seem to be addressed in many places. But you should be fine with the period or the colon following PS. On Poverty. Or you could revert to P.S. and what does the slang term mean follow it with your postscript sentence. How do you create italics on essays your website? It didn’t work in the post above.
Lol. For italics (i), bold (b), or underline (u), bracket your text as follows, omitting the space after the first bracket of each pair— If I have an italicized place name that includes “The” at the beginning (I know I shouldn’t but lets just say for online-dissertation-help.com arguments sake that I have) do I always have to italicize the “The” part? Ben, I’m not sure if I’m considering all your possibilities, but I’m guessing you mean places such as the United States or the Philippines contrasted with names such as The Hague , Le Havre, and The Plains (Ohio). If you had to italicize the place names, as I did here, italicize the essays in haiti, word the in online-dissertation-help.com names that capitalize the in haiti, the . Is that what you’re getting at? If not, let me know. Thanks for your great website! I’m going back on forth on the punctuation of the last name in this sentence: She picked up the envelope marked Jamison that sat on her desk. Electronic Technician Cover. My latest thought is that Chicago 7.58 applies here. It says that proper nouns used as words are usually set in roman (as opposed to words used as words, which are italicized or enclosed in quotation marks).
What do you think? PS Do you have an idea of when your new book will be out in print format? Oops, typing too fast! Meant “back and on poverty forth.” Diane, I don’t think that Jamison is being used as a word here. Catskill Country Lore Mountain. At least not the same way the word iPod is used in the CMOS example (and in this sentence). Essays On Poverty. Yet that’s just my opinion.
I’d probably use italics for a reference to words on an envelope or piece of paper. What Does The Slang Term Essay Mean. Maybe quotation marks if the essays on poverty, wording was different, if the sentence included said or write . —She picked up the envelope—with its chicken-scratch version of Jamison on the back—from her desk. Like you, I go back and forth with the electronic test technician cover, options. But sometimes the rest of the on poverty, sentence guides the choice. The book is being formatted. I’ll let everyone know when it’s coming as soon as I have a date. Thank you for essay on union public all that you do for essays in haiti us. How would you use quotations in an author’s thoughts to herself. Example: The executive officers never intended to so thoroughly betray their underlings. Term Essay Mean. “Or do they?” I would often ask myself. Melissa, this article (and the comments) on character thoughts should give you some ideas. If you can’t find what you’re looking for there, let me know.
Do italicize the on poverty in haiti, names of catskill collected essay in life lore, specific Disney attractions? For example, do I italicize The Festival of Fantasy Parade? A great question, Brianna. I had to do a little checking, but no italics for on poverty in haiti the attractions or the areas of the park (Fantasyland). Just capitalize the names of the attractions. If you refer to a movie or book title on which a ride is online-dissertation-help.com, based, be sure to use italics for the movie or book reference.
How do you list TV shows and essays on poverty episodes on social media where you can’t use italics and bold? Nicky, definitely capitalize them, both the names of the pass, shows and the names of the episodes. Since you can probably still use quotation marks, use those for the episode titles. You might have to essays go with only caps for online-dissertation-help.com the show titles. This is CMOS’s response when asked about the inability to use italics on social media— Capitalization, Titles . I’m thinking that all caps might be the essays, best solution if you show both a show title and episode titles, simply to online-dissertation-help.com differentiate them. But quotation marks should be acceptable when you have only the show titles. A great question. Maybe others will contribute their solutions.
Thank you for the help. Such a helpful article – thanks Beth. The only thing I’m still not 100% on is when referring to a historically significant event within a story. E.g. Things hadn’t seemed so bleak since . (Note: I don’t know how to stylise what’s in essays on poverty in haiti the “pointy brackets.”) I’m guessing it only needs to be capitalised like the relevant coursework consulting, Great Depression, or the Big Bang…? Please help. Thank you, thank you, thank you!
Ahh, that didn’t work. What I wrote in the “pointy brackets” got removed. In Haiti. Here’s my example again: Things hadn’t seemed so bleak since [the scouring of scones]. A good question, Joel. Treat fictional historical events the same way you’d treat actual historical events in our world. So for something like a famous battle—The Battle of design homework pass, Britain—you’d capitalize it. For a family tale, even if the story’s been passed down for years—the raiding of old Tom’s farm—don’t capitalize the event. No quotation marks or italics are necessary for either.
Is the scouring of scones a known historical event in your story world or is essays, this wording just a casual way some characters refer to electronic test technician cover the event? CMOS 16 (8.74) gives a list of events, some capitalized (the Boston Tea Party, the Great Chicago Fire, the essays on poverty in haiti, Cultural Revolution) and some not (the civil rights movement, the crash of 1929, the cover letter, fire of 1871). You may simply have to make a decision. Capitalizing the words would turn the Scouring of the Scones into a big deal, maybe into an event that’s commemorated annually, an event known to both sides in a war or disagreement. But not all big events are capitalized. We wouldn’t write the Signing of the Magna Carta (capitalizing the in haiti, word signing ) or the Opening of Hunting Season (capitalizing any of the words) or the Last Trek of the Alloni. If the event was written the homework pass, Great Scone Scourge? You might want to cap that. We do, after all, capitalize the Black Death. Yet you’ll also want to consider the in haiti, scope of the event. An event known only locally probably doesn’t need caps.
The event can still be important, even if it’s not capitalized. I hope that helps. “I”, he said, “am disgusted.” Original sentence is “I am disgusted”, not “I, am disgusted”, with the comma after “I”. Test Cover. Thus, the in haiti, question mark goes outside the ending quote marks (“I”,). “I am disgusted,” he said, “but I think I’ll get over it.”
Original sentence is “I am disgusted, but I think I’ll get over homework, it.” The comma goes after “disgusted” (inside the essays in haiti, quotes) because a comma is required before “but” at relevant coursework consulting that point in in haiti the sentence—that is, the comma separates two independent clauses, the online-dissertation-help.com, second of which starts with the coordinating conjunction “but”. Do you agree with my punctuation and essays on poverty logic in both sentences above? This is strictly for logical punctuation. I recently wrote a movie review on my blog, and relevant coursework because I couldn’t italicize the movie’s title in my blog post title, I used double quotation marks, as follows: “Far from the Madding Crowd”. In Haiti. But I’ve seen that most titles of blog posts that refer to online-dissertation-help.com movies and essays books either don’t use any quotation marks or they use single quotation marks that read as follows: ‘Far from the Madding Crowd’. If I can’t use italics in my blog post title, which should I use: double quotation marks, single quotation marks, or no quotation marks? And thanks for relevant coursework such an informative and helpful website! Ginger, when you see single quotation marks, it’s probably because the author or editor is following the practice of newspapers to in haiti use single quotation marks when titles (of books or movies) or other words requiring quotation marks appear in article titles. Space is at a premium in newspapers, so single quotation marks are a standard practice there. You could do the collected mountain, same thing with a blog post title, but you could just as easily use double quotation marks—it’s not likely that you’d be dealing with a space issue. Essays In Haiti. But either would work and what does the slang be acceptable.
I wouldn’t recommend going without any quotation marks because that could confuse readers. On Poverty. If you’re going to mention a book or movie in a blog post title and you can’t italicize, use quotation marks of one kind or the other. And thank you. I’m glad you find the design homework pass, site useful. That clarifies things. Thanks so much! Beth, for some reason punctuation for essays on poverty the following sentence flummoxes me: When Jennifer Patterson paid me an ill-timed visit, asking me to take her son and fix him, she started with “We haven’t always agreed.” Should there be quotations marks, should there be commas after ‘started with’ and online-dissertation-help.com ‘visit,’ and is it correct to capitalize ‘we’? Total brain drain on this one!
Any help would be greatly appreciated! Thanks! Cassie, I can see why this one has you wondering. Let’s look at the first comma first. You actually have options here. That is, this sentence would be correct with and without that first comma. Comma use depends on the intended meaning.
I see asking me to take her son as a nonessential phrase. If that’s the case, put a comma between visit and asking. Essays On Poverty. If the meaning you want is the same one you’d create if you used dashes or parentheses, then that first comma is essay service, needed. If, however, you consider that phrase to be essential, don’t include that first comma. If the meaning you’re going for is similar to this—When Jennifer Patterson paid me an ill-timed visit to ask me to take her son and fix him . Essays. . Coursework Consulting. .—then you wouldn’t include that first comma. In this second case, the information is essential and therefore you wouldn’t need that first comma. (The comma between him and she is necessary, however, to separate the dependent clause from the independent clause that follows it.) As for the next questions, they’re a bit tricky. You haven’t included a true attribution—she said—so you don’t actually have to use a comma. You’re quoting in this instance, not conveying a section of dialogue. Your example is closer to examples in CMOS that show run-in quotations (section 13.14 in the 16th edition) without a comma.
In The Copyeditor’s Handbook (CH) (in the section on stronger and weaker punctuation), the on poverty, same kind of setup is shown without the catskill collected country essay history lore, introductory comma as well. Consider this as a quote that’s part of the structure of the in haiti, sentence. CMOS calls similar constructions a syntactical part of the sentence. She started with a song. She started with hope. She started with the words “We haven’t always agreed.” ** She started with “We haven’t always agreed.” She started with the what does the slang essay mean, admission “we haven’t always agreed.” You’d be safe to drop the comma. As for the capital letter, CH shows a capital letter in essays their example. On Union Service. CMOS says that you can use a lowercase letter if the quotation is truly syntactical.
CMOS shows a capital letter when there’s an attribution, when the quotation is being set apart. Since there seems to be disagreement between at least two sources, you probably could argue the case for either a capital letter or a lowercase one. But if you usually use CMOS recommendations, you might want to stick to lowercase. As for the quotation marks themselves, since it is a quote, use them. If you rewrote and said something like—She started with the words** we haven’t always agreed —you could use italics and essays on poverty lowercase the first letter. We can use italics for words used as words, so italics is an option. It’s likely that some might say that started with is closer to being an electronic technician cover letter attribution than it is different from being one and insist on a comma. Essays In Haiti. And I think that argument could be made. Yet because the sentence could imply or include so many other components that wouldn’t require a comma—as in my example sentence with the word admission —omitting the essay, comma in this case is perfectly acceptable. For your sentence, I’d suggest no comma and lowercase first letter.
Thanks for such great questions. You likely weren’t the on poverty, only one wondering such things. Oh, thank you so much! The more I searched, the more confused I became! You explained it so well, I actually understood your answer! Again, thank you!
Hi I’m not sure if you’ve answered this question, but I think it would be similar to your previous answer regarding video games. Homework Pass. If I’m discussing an app on my blog, would I just capitalize each initial word. The name of the app is Think Dirty. Shelbi, you’re right—just caps. To make sure your readers understand that it’s the title of an essays on poverty app, you might want to mention that at the very beginning:
The Think Dirty app is essay public service commission, a . . Essays On Poverty. . Think Dirty is an app you can use to . Consulting. . . Thank you! You’re awesome. Beth, I’m back. (I’m really not as dense as I seem *g*). I have a question about ellipses in the middle of a sentence like this: I wouldn’t have thought twice about dragging her to the back room except … glassy eyes, dilated pupils. On Poverty. I put on one of those damn hats again, too worried about the drugs she took and who gave them to her.
Is an ellipsis the proper punctuation in that example? If it is, should there be a space before and after when it’s in the middle of coursework, a sentence, or is an em dash the more correct punctuation? Thanks so much for taking the essays on poverty in haiti, time to answer the questions posted! Hi Beth, I understand that if I say the catskill collected, following—he sounded like Jesus from South Park—that South Park should be italicised (as it’s a TV show). But should the on poverty, character, Jesus, be in quotations (given this particular name of essay on union commission, a fictional cartoon character)? Just a capital J for in haiti Jesus, Paula.
It’s a name, so nothing else is required. I have a question for you. I’m including a will reading in my book. And though the lawyer is the on union public, one physically reading it to essays the niece I want the readers to get a sense of the aunt. Like what they do in movies. Design. When you see someone reading a letter or something from essays on poverty someone and country essay in life lore instead of the readers voice, we hear the writers voice? Am i making sense? Anyway, my question is should I italicize the will reading since that is the on poverty in haiti, effect i’m going for or should I leave it just as the lawyer reading it, Thank you! If I am including segments of newspaper articles or segments of legal documents in country in life lore my genealogical research writing, do I, or can I, italicize it and set it off in the center of the page for clarity or emphasis?
Beth, I’m told that we very technically punctuate words as words in the following manner (i.e., we italicize the word and on poverty place the plural ending in roman type). Can you confirm this on your end? No recasts, please. Thank you for any help. Let me try that again. What Does The Slang Mean. Sorry. Do all of the following look good?
Lou, for words as words and when the on poverty in haiti, word itself isn’t plural but we’re making it plural, these look good—and yes, roman text for the plural ending. But I’d certainly rewrite some of these. The letter of the law makes for some pretty poor options for a few of these words. Of course, the examples above are the plurals of words as words. Could quote marks (like this) be used as an alternative? “was”es, “his”es, “is”es, “as”es, “us”es, etc. CMOS recommends “wases” rather than “was”es—no plural ending outside of the closing quotation mark. (And of course, no italics needed with the use of the quotation marks.) Thanks as always, Beth. So these are correct too, then? “was”es, “his”es, “is”es, “as”es, “us”es, etc. And Chicago recommends “wases” without an italicized “was”?
Where did you find “wases” in Chicago 16? I didn’t find “wases” as an example. The CMOS example is homework pass, “to be continueds.” They say to form plurals inside quotation marks in the usual way—so not “to be continued”s. This is in CMOS 7.12 (16th ed.) CMOS shows no italics for their example, just the plural phrase in quotation marks.
So when you’re using quotation marks, follow their example. If you’re using italics, use italics for only the word itself, not the in haiti, plural. Except, of course, if the whole word, the plural version, is in italics. Aside from Chicago, I think these could work (they are much clearer). Do you think that all examples below, for the plurals of words as words, are correct. Sorry, Lou. I meant to get back to does essay mean these. Actually, I probably wouldn’t ever use these for plurals. The standard way to make plurals (adding s or es ) works well. The apostrophe would likely cause too much confusion.
I agree with CMOS (7.13) on this one. Hi, Beth. It’s possible that you already answered this question and I just missed it, but what would you do if you’re hearing both sides of a phone conversation? For example, in the book I’m currently working on, my main character is at home talking to her brother on the phone. Rather than constantly referencing the phone, I have his dialogue in italics to show that he’s not the room, and hers in regular roman text. Would this be correct, or should I keep it all in roman? I’ve seen it both ways in other books – is essays in haiti, there an industry standard?
Megan, there isn’t a standard because there are different ways to approach such a conversation. Yet yours seems a straightforward conversation. I suggest simply letting readers know the online-dissertation-help.com, conversation is talking place by phone and then treat that conversation like regular dialogue. If the reader gets to hear both sides, there’s nothing wrong with roman text and quotation marks. Essays In Haiti. Whether characters are face to face, in what does the slang term mean different rooms of a house, or talking by essays on poverty phone, if the reader gets to hear everything, this is normal dialogue. Beth, I’m at design homework pass a loss about punctuation in the following sentence: I shivered as icicles of expectation—or was it foreboding?—carreened down my spine. Is the punctuation correct as is, and if I wanted to get rid of the em dashes, could I still use a question in the middle of the sentence? Cassie, the in haiti, question inside the does, dashes works well. If you’re talking nonfiction, you could go with either the dashes or a pair of parentheses.
But for fiction, stick with the dashes. I can’t see another way—a better way—to include a question midsentence. Commas aren’t strong enough. Thanks, Beth! I appreciate your comment! Hi, thanks for this informative article. I have a question about signs. Specifically, in this sentence: “There was a sign on the door that said Knock Before Entering.” Quotes?
Italics? Neither? Jared, the Chicago Manual of Style recommends headline style for signs in essays on poverty in haiti running text—no quotation marks or italics. Consulting. So that means capitalize first and last words and almost all words except for on poverty conjunctions, prepositions, and articles. But when the essay public service commission, sign text gets long, CMOS suggests quotation marks and no caps. For your example, keep it as is—capitalizing the three words. Awesome.
Thanks for the reply. What a rich resource you have provided us with, Beth Hill! I am having difficulty finding an answer to a specific question. Essays On Poverty. Foreign language organization names: to italicize or not? In the work I am currently editing, the writer sometimes refers to a Spanish organization name, and often (but not always) she also provides the catskill country history lore, English translation (or actual English version, when there is one in use). My tendency is to start with the English and put the Spanish version next to essays on poverty in haiti it in brackets, italicised, and, if I only have the Spanish version, to essay commission simply italicize it. Am I on the right track? Many thanks if you can help me! Yasemin, I know we talked about this on essays in haiti another thread, but to answer here for other readers—no, don’t italicize proper nouns in foreign languages. Names, including company names, don’t get italics.
I am a bit puzzled why you don’t use the names of parts of speech in design pass your guidelines. Essays. For example: “Nouns are typically the words that you’ll capitalize, but not all nouns are capitalized. Capitalize named nouns. So Fido is capitalized, but dog is not; Aunt Margaret (used as a name) is capitalized, but my aunt is not; my aunt Margaret gets a mix of capitalization.” You are actually defining a new term, “named noun”, instead of using an existing term, “proper noun”. It is confounding because all nouns are names of things. So the above paragraph could be re-written as. “Nouns are typically the words that you’ll capitalize, but not all nouns are capitalized. Capitalize proper nouns, not common nouns.
So Fido (proper noun) is capitalized, but dog (common noun) is mean, not. On Poverty In Haiti. Titles are covered under proper nouns: Aunt Margaret (title of a specific person and proper noun) is capitalized, but my aunt (common noun) is not; my aunt Margaret gets a mix of capitalization.” Ranjeet, I wasn’t intending to create a new term. Not all readers here know all the terms, so I try to provide examples that make sense whether or not someone knows proper terminology. Homework Pass. Saying that a name is capitalized helps explain what to do with nouns that are names and those that aren’t. All nouns aren’t actually names—dog isn’t a name, but Fido is. Girl isn’t a name, but Sally is. That is what I was trying to in haiti stress with my examples. I’m sorry to have confused you. Hi Beth.
Great stuff. Thanks. A quickie, since I can’t see it in design the growing list of comments. I have some narrative sections where I need/want to provide a definition of a foreign term. For example: The town of essays on poverty, Careiro do Castanho (Castanho, for short, meaning nut-coloured)…
In this example, the second use of the word ‘Castanho’ is catskill country essay in life lore, as a proper noun (as an abbreviation for essays in haiti the full name), but it has a meaning in the foreign language for which I also want to provide a translation to English. I’m writing in online-dissertation-help.com British English. The question is, what is the appropriate style to use for the words in parenthesis ‘Castanho’ and ‘nut-coloured’? (If you could also tell me the answer to the question of life, the universe and eveything, that would be nice. In witting, when you say, I gave him a look that said, you wanna bet? or her look said, you’re joking, right? what is the proper way to format this? Would you use quotations or italicize? Hii…I’m at on poverty in haiti a loss about punctuation in the following sentence: I shivered as icicles of expectation—or was it foreboding?—carreened down my spine. Online News Publish. News, your sentence works just as you’ve written it.
What punctuation are you worried about? Thank you Beth. To have it all collected is very helpful. One small hint: Your Grandmother would use “Du bist …” rather than “Sie sind …”, except if she’s never met you before. It’s a little confusing as both translate into electronic test cover, “You are …” Steve, thanks for the tip on the German. I do believe the essays on poverty, grandmother would know her grandchild.
Hi Beth. I read elsewhere in a style guide that quotation mark and italics should never be used together for a title. But I have a dilema. I’m quoting the title of an Italian song. The song title is a bit long, and design homework it’s in Italian, which would normally require italics. How should I handle this? Do I supplant one rule in favor of the other? And if so, which one? Thanks for your input. J.D., yours is another great question.
Go with the quotation marks, no italics. We don’t italicize proper nouns in foreign languages, so look at on poverty a title in the same way. Test Cover Letter. Let the quotation marks do the work. Hi Beth. An italics question—in fiction, a character picks up a letter and begins to read it, but she is not reading it out loud. Does the text of the letter go in italics? Hope you weren’t already asked this—I did try to skim all the comments before posting. I was asked to comment on a document which contained this phrase (quotation marks deliberately left out for clarity here):
This direction is essays on poverty in haiti, usually referred to as a ‘shelter in place’. The single quotation marks seem wrong to me. Essay On Union Public Service. I am pretty sure “shelter in place” should be capitalised, but would you use italics or leave the quotes? This post was very helpful. I’m a former English teacher, and my memory of essays on poverty, all the minutiae has eroded. Thanks for the refresher. This post is design pass, amazing!
I wish I had stumbled upon it BEFORE I finished my 170k-word manuscript! Or should I say before (italics)? What do you think of using all-caps for the words you want to emphasize? Not recommended? One of your readers mentioned using both quotation marks and italics for his fantasy characters’ dialogs to essays on poverty in haiti differentiate between that of ordinary speaking and that of an what does essay mean entity or spirit. On Poverty. What’s your take on that?
My heroine has a split-personality and multiple dialogs with the collected essay history in life lore, voice in her head. They are all in italics and essays in haiti quotation marks, resulting in sometimes entire pages in italics. Should I just skip the italics all together and treat those crazy inner conversations as regular dialogs, in roman type? I hope you still have patience to on union reply to essays comments on this 2,5-year-old post. #128512; This post is really good. My book starts from relevant a writings of a journal and later it quickly gets to the scene where the writer of essays in haiti, that journal is distracted by online-dissertation-help.com something. On Poverty. How do I separate the essay public service, scene and the words of essays in haiti, journal? Is it okay to use italics as a representation writings of that character? I have encountered an what does essay mean entire line quoted in essays on poverty foreign words in collected essay in life a written short story that I am trying to proofread. I would like to know whether the essays in haiti, quote must remain as it is, or be Italicized instead?
I would greatly appreciate if you d reply. Mohamed, go ahead and italicize it. On Union Commission. That way it stands out as something other. Which would I use (italics or quotation marks) for the last word? The painting had a small plaque in the corner that read Facets. “Facets” is the title of the painting. Just italics, as it’s like a sign?
Or quotes, because it’s quoting the essays on poverty, plaque? And would it require a comma between “read” and electronic technician “Facets”? (I can’t make italics on my post, so I just put it all in quotes, sorry.) TLH, no comma is necessary when you run a quotation into the sentence this way. So if you use the quotation marks, no comma. If the text on essays on poverty in haiti the plaque was long, a phrase or a sentence rather than a single word, I’d definitely suggest quotation marks. It’s as if someone is electronic technician letter, quoting the sign. But a single word—and a title, at that—makes the essays, situation different.
In my opinion you’re no longer quoting the sign, simply reporting the title. Still, there’s an argument for online-dissertation-help.com both conditions. I’d go with italics for this one, but quotation marks wouldn’t be wrong. Essays On Poverty. Or you could rewrite. The painting bore a small plaque in one corner: Facets.
To create italics or bold or underlining in comments, encase the text between the following commands, except substitute angle brackets for parentheses (): The space shuttle name is pass, spelled Endeavour. It is indeed. Thanks for the heads-up, Will. So maybe it's not only about the words. It's about syntax. And plot. And action. It's voice and pacing and dialogue. It's about characters with character. It's about essays on poverty in haiti, putting the design homework pass, words together to touch, to entertain, to move the reader.
So, yeah, maybe it's all about the on poverty, words. Expanded Version Now Available in a PDF. Buy your PDF copy today. Good folks, every one. Each on a path toward fulfilling their writing dreams. Our paths have crossed, and I'm honored to call these friends and colleagues. The reader will focus on what essay mean what stands out.
Turn the reader's attention where you want it to go. Thank you for reading The Editor's Blog, an Internet resource for fiction writers, freelance editors, and on poverty everyone who loves words. Copyright 2010-2016 E. A. Hill Visit Beth at A Novel Edit.
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Essay on Root Causes of Poverty in Haiti
Transcript: President Obama's State Of The Union Address. President Obama's State of the Union address as prepared for delivery on Jan. Essays On Poverty. 20, 2015: Mr. Speaker, Mr. Test Letter. Vice President, Members of Congress, my fellow Americans: We are fifteen years into this new century. Fifteen years that dawned with terror touching our shores; that unfolded with a new generation fighting two long and costly wars; that saw a vicious recession spread across our nation and the world. It has been, and still is, a hard time for many. But tonight, we turn the page.
Tonight, after a breakthrough year for America, our economy is growing and creating jobs at the fastest pace since 1999. Our unemployment rate is in haiti now lower than it was before the financial crisis. More of our kids are graduating than ever before; more of our people are insured than ever before; we are as free from the grip of foreign oil as we've been in collected in life mountain almost 30 years. Tonight, for on poverty in haiti, the first time since 9/11, our combat mission in Afghanistan is over. Six years ago, nearly 180,000 American troops served in Iraq and Afghanistan. Today, fewer than 15,000 remain.
And we salute the courage and service, sacrifice of every man and woman in on poverty this 9/11 Generation who has served to keep us safe. We are humbled and grateful for your service. America, for online-dissertation-help.com, all that we've endured; for all the grit and hard work required to come back; for all the tasks that lie ahead, know this: The shadow of in haiti crisis has passed, and the State of the Union is what the slang essay mean strong. At this moment – with a growing economy, shrinking deficits, bustling industry, and booming energy production – we have risen from recession freer to on poverty in haiti write our own future than any other nation on Earth. Essay Service. It's now up to us to in haiti choose who we want to be over the next fifteen years, and for decades to essay on union come. Will we accept an economy where only a few of on poverty in haiti us do spectacularly well? Or will we commit ourselves to an economy that generates rising incomes and chances for everyone who makes the effort? Will we approach the design homework pass world fearful and reactive, dragged into costly conflicts that strain our military and essays, set back our standing? Or will we lead wisely, using all elements of our power to defeat new threats and protect our planet? Will we allow ourselves to be sorted into factions and turned against one another – or will we recapture the sense of common purpose that has always propelled America forward?
In two weeks, I will send this Congress a budget filled with ideas that are practical, not partisan. And in the months ahead, I'll crisscross the country making a case for those ideas. So tonight, I want to focus less on a checklist of proposals, and focus more on the values at homework pass stake in the choices before us. It begins with our economy. Seven years ago, Rebekah and Ben Erler of Minneapolis were newlyweds. She waited tables. He worked construction. Their first child, Jack, was on the way. They were young and in love in in haiti America, and it doesn't get much better than that. If only we had known, Rebekah wrote to me last spring, what was about to commission happen to essays on poverty in haiti the housing and construction market.
As the crisis worsened, Ben's business dried up, so he took what jobs he could find, even if they kept him on the road for long stretches of time. Relevant Coursework Consulting. Rebekah took out student loans, enrolled in essays on poverty in haiti community college, and service, retrained for a new career. They sacrificed for each other. And slowly, it paid off. They bought their first home.
They had a second son, Henry. Rebekah got a better job, and then a raise. Ben is back in construction – and home for essays in haiti, dinner every night. It is online-dissertation-help.com amazing, Rebekah wrote, what you can bounce back from when you have to. Essays In Haiti. we are a strong, tight-knit family who has made it through some very, very hard times. We are a strong, tight-knit family who has made it through some very, very hard times. America, Rebekah and Ben's story is our story.
They represent the millions who have worked hard, and collected country essay history, scrimped, and sacrificed, and retooled. You are the reason I ran for this office. You're the essays on poverty people I was thinking of six years ago today, in the darkest months of the homework pass crisis, when I stood on the steps of essays on poverty in haiti this Capitol and design pass, promised we would rebuild our economy on a new foundation. And it's been your effort and resilience that has made it possible for our country to essays in haiti emerge stronger. We believed we could reverse the tide of outsourcing, and electronic cover, draw new jobs to our shores. Essays. And over the past five years, our businesses have created more than 11 million new jobs. We believed we could reduce our dependence on foreign oil and protect our planet. And today, America is essay on union public service number one in on poverty in haiti oil and coursework, gas. America is number one in essays on poverty in haiti wind power.
Every three weeks, we bring online as much solar power as we did in all of 2008. And thanks to lower gas prices and higher fuel standards, the typical family this year should save $750 at the pump. We believed we could prepare our kids for a more competitive world. And today, our younger students have earned the highest math and reading scores on record. Our high school graduation rate has hit an all-time high. And more Americans finish college than ever before. We believed that sensible regulations could prevent another crisis, shield families from ruin, and encourage fair competition. Today, we have new tools to relevant consulting stop taxpayer-funded bailouts, and a new consumer watchdog to protect us from predatory lending and abusive credit card practices. And in the past year alone, about ten million uninsured Americans finally gained the security of health coverage. At every step, we were told our goals were misguided or too ambitious; that we would crush jobs and explode deficits. Instead, we've seen the fastest economic growth in over a decade, our deficits cut by two-thirds, a stock market that has doubled, and essays on poverty, health care inflation at its lowest rate in fifty years.
So the catskill country essay in life lore mountain verdict is clear. Essays. Middle-class economics works. Expanding opportunity works. And these policies will continue to work, as long as politics don't get in the way. Online-dissertation-help.com. We can't slow down businesses or put our economy at essays on poverty in haiti risk with government shutdowns or fiscal showdowns. We can't put the security of families at risk by coursework consulting, taking away their health insurance, or unraveling the new rules on Wall Street, or refighting past battles on in haiti immigration when we've got a system to fix. And if a bill comes to online-dissertation-help.com my desk that tries to do any of these things, it will earn my veto.
Today, thanks to a growing economy, the on poverty in haiti recovery is touching more and more lives. Wages are finally starting to rise again. The Slang Essay Mean. We know that more small business owners plan to raise their employees' pay than at any time since 2007. But here's the thing – those of us here tonight, we need to set our sights higher than just making sure government doesn't halt the progress we're making. Essays In Haiti. We need to relevant do more than just do no harm. Tonight, together, let's do more to restore the link between hard work and growing opportunity for every American.
Because families like Rebekah's still need our help. She and Ben are working as hard as ever, but have to forego vacations and a new car so they can pay off student loans and save for retirement. Basic childcare for Jack and Henry costs more than their mortgage, and essays on poverty, almost as much as a year at the University of Minnesota. Like millions of hardworking Americans, Rebekah isn't asking for a handout, but she is asking that we look for homework pass, more ways to help families get ahead. In fact, at on poverty every moment of economic change throughout our history, this country has taken bold action to adapt to new circumstances, and to make sure everyone gets a fair shot. On Union Public Service Commission. We set up worker protections, Social Security, Medicare, and Medicaid to protect ourselves from the harshest adversity.
We gave our citizens schools and on poverty in haiti, colleges, infrastructure and online-dissertation-help.com, the internet – tools they needed to on poverty in haiti go as far as their effort will take them. That's what middle-class economics is – the idea that this country does best when everyone gets their fair shot, everyone does their fair share, and everyone plays by the same set of rules. We don't just want everyone to share in America's success – we want everyone to contribute to our success. So what does middle-class economics require in our time? First – middle-class economics means helping working families feel more secure in the slang term a world of constant change. That means helping folks afford childcare, college, health care, a home, retirement – and my budget will address each of these issues, lowering the taxes of working families and putting thousands of dollars back into their pockets each year. Here's one example. During World War II, when men like my grandfather went off to war, having women like my grandmother in the workforce was a national security priority – so this country provided universal childcare. In Haiti. In today's economy, when having both parents in the workforce is an economic necessity for pass, many families, we need affordable, high-quality childcare more than ever.
It's not a nice-to-have – it's a must-have. Essays. It's time we stop treating childcare as a side issue, or a women's issue, and treat it like the national economic priority that it is for all of us. And that's why my plan will make quality childcare more available, and country essay in life lore mountain, more affordable, for every middle-class and low-income family with young children in America – by creating more slots and a new tax cut of up to $3,000 per child, per year. Here's another example. Today, we're the only advanced country on Earth that doesn't guarantee paid sick leave or paid maternity leave to our workers. Forty-three million workers have no paid sick leave. Forty-three million. Think about essays on poverty in haiti, that. And that forces too many parents to make the gut-wrenching choice between a paycheck and a sick kid at essay on union public service home.
So I'll be taking new action to help states adopt paid leave laws of essays in haiti their own. And since paid sick leave won where it was on catskill collected country in life lore mountain the ballot last November, let's put it to essays in haiti a vote right here in essay on union commission Washington. Send me a bill that gives every worker in essays America the opportunity to earn seven days of paid sick leave. It's the right thing to do. Of course, nothing helps families make ends meet like higher wages. That's why this Congress still needs to pass a law that makes sure a woman is paid the same as a man for doing the same work. The Slang Mean. Really. It's 2015.
It's time. We still need to make sure employees get the overtime they've earned. And to everyone in this Congress who still refuses to raise the minimum wage, I say this: If you truly believe you could work full-time and support a family on less than $15,000 a year, go try it. Essays On Poverty In Haiti. If not, vote to give millions of the essay hardest-working people in America a raise. These ideas won't make everybody rich, or relieve every hardship. That's not the job of government.
To give working families a fair shot, we'll still need more employers to see beyond next quarter's earnings and recognize that investing in essays on poverty in haiti their workforce is in their company's long-term interest. We still need laws that strengthen rather than weaken unions, and give American workers a voice. But things like child care and sick leave and essay on union service commission, equal pay; things like lower mortgage premiums and a higher minimum wage – these ideas will make a meaningful difference in the lives of millions of families. That is a fact. And that's what all of us – Republicans and Democrats alike – were sent here to do. Second, to essays in haiti make sure folks keep earning higher wages down the road, we have to do more to help Americans upgrade their skills. America thrived in the 20 th century because we made high school free, sent a generation of GIs to college, and trained the electronic best workforce in the world. But in a 21 st century economy that rewards knowledge like never before, we need to in haiti do more. By the end of test technician letter this decade, two in in haiti three job openings will require some higher education.
Two in three. Design Homework. And yet, we still live in a country where too many bright, striving Americans are priced out of the education they need. It's not fair to them, and it's not smart for our future. That's why I am sending this Congress a bold new plan to lower the cost of essays community college – to zero. Forty percent of our college students choose community college. Some are young and starting out. Some are older and looking for a better job. Some are veterans and electronic test cover, single parents trying to transition back into the job market. Whoever you are, this plan is on poverty in haiti your chance to graduate ready for public service commission, the new economy, without a load of debt. Understand, you've got to earn it – you've got to keep your grades up and in haiti, graduate on time.
Tennessee, a state with Republican leadership, and Chicago, a city with Democratic leadership, are showing that free community college is possible. I want to spread that idea all across America, so that two years of catskill country essay in life lore college becomes as free and universal in America as high school is today. And I want to work with this Congress, to make sure Americans already burdened with student loans can reduce their monthly payments, so that student debt doesn't derail anyone's dreams. Thanks to Vice President Biden's great work to in haiti update our job training system, we're connecting community colleges with local employers to train workers to design pass fill high-paying jobs like coding, and nursing, and robotics. Tonight, I'm also asking more businesses to follow the lead of on poverty companies like CVS and UPS, and offer more educational benefits and paid apprenticeships – opportunities that give workers the chance to earn higher-paying jobs even if they don't have a higher education. And as a new generation of veterans comes home, we owe them every opportunity to live the American Dream they helped defend. Already, we've made strides towards ensuring that every veteran has access to the highest quality care.
We're slashing the backlog that had too many veterans waiting years to get the benefits they need, and the slang term, we're making it easier for vets to translate their training and experience into essays civilian jobs. Joining Forces, the consulting national campaign launched by Michelle and Jill Biden, has helped nearly 700,000 veterans and military spouses get new jobs. So to every CEO in America, let me repeat: If you want somebody who's going to get the job done, hire a veteran. Finally, as we better train our workers, we need the new economy to keep churning out high-wage jobs for essays in haiti, our workers to fill. Since 2010, America has put more people back to does essay work than Europe, Japan, and on poverty in haiti, all advanced economies combined. Essay Service Commission. Our manufacturers have added almost 800,000 new jobs. Some of our bedrock sectors, like our auto industry, are booming. In Haiti. But there are also millions of Americans who work in jobs that didn't even exist ten or twenty years ago – jobs at companies like Google, and eBay, and relevant coursework, Tesla.
So no one knows for certain which industries will generate the jobs of the future. But we do know we want them here in on poverty in haiti America. That's why the third part of middle-class economics is electronic technician cover letter about building the essays in haiti most competitive economy anywhere, the country in life lore mountain place where businesses want to locate and hire. 21 st century businesses need 21 st century infrastructure – modern ports, stronger bridges, faster trains and the fastest internet. Democrats and Republicans used to agree on this. So let's set our sights higher than a single oil pipeline. Let's pass a bipartisan infrastructure plan that could create more than thirty times as many jobs per essays on poverty in haiti year, and make this country stronger for decades to come. 21 st century businesses, including small businesses, need to what the slang mean sell more American products overseas. Today, our businesses export more than ever, and exporters tend to pay their workers higher wages.
But as we speak, China wants to write the rules for the world's fastest-growing region. That would put our workers and businesses at a disadvantage. Why would we let that happen? We should write those rules. We should level the playing field. That's why I'm asking both parties to give me trade promotion authority to on poverty in haiti protect American workers, with strong new trade deals from Asia to Europe that aren't just free, but fair. Look, I'm the first one to admit that past trade deals haven't always lived up to on union service commission the hype, and that's why we've gone after countries that break the rules at our expense.
But ninety-five percent of the world's customers live outside our borders, and we can't close ourselves off from those opportunities. More than half of manufacturing executives have said they're actively looking at essays on poverty in haiti bringing jobs back from China. Let's give them one more reason to get it done. 21 st century businesses will rely on American science, technology, research and development. I want the country that eliminated polio and mapped the human genome to lead a new era of medicine – one that delivers the right treatment at the right time. What Essay. In some patients with cystic fibrosis, this approach has reversed a disease once thought unstoppable. Tonight, I'm launching a new Precision Medicine Initiative to bring us closer to curing diseases like cancer and diabetes – and to give all of us access to the personalized information we need to essays keep ourselves and our families healthier.
I intend to protect a free and open internet, extend its reach to every classroom, and every community, and help folks build the design homework fastest networks, so that the on poverty in haiti next generation of digital innovators and entrepreneurs have the platform to keep reshaping our world. I want Americans to design homework pass win the race for the kinds of discoveries that unleash new jobs – converting sunlight into liquid fuel; creating revolutionary prosthetics, so that a veteran who gave his arms for his country can play catch with his kid; pushing out into the Solar System not just to essays on poverty in haiti visit, but to stay. Last month, we launched a new spacecraft as part of a re-energized space program that will send American astronauts to Mars. In two months, to prepare us for those missions, Scott Kelly will begin a year-long stay in public space. Good luck, Captain – and make sure to Instagram it. Now, the truth is, when it comes to issues like infrastructure and basic research, I know there's bipartisan support in this chamber. Members of both parties have told me so. Where we too often run onto the rocks is how to pay for these investments. As Americans, we don't mind paying our fair share of taxes, as long as everybody else does, too. But for far too long, lobbyists have rigged the tax code with loopholes that let some corporations pay nothing while others pay full freight.
They've riddled it with giveaways the superrich don't need, denying a break to middle class families who do. This year, we have an opportunity to essays on poverty change that. Letter. Let's close loopholes so we stop rewarding companies that keep profits abroad, and reward those that invest in America. Essays In Haiti. Let's use those savings to rebuild our infrastructure and make it more attractive for companies to bring jobs home. Let's simplify the system and let a small business owner file based on her actual bank statement, instead of the number of accountants she can afford. And let's close the loopholes that lead to inequality by electronic test technician cover, allowing the top one percent to essays in haiti avoid paying taxes on their accumulated wealth. We can use that money to help more families pay for does the slang term mean, childcare and send their kids to college.
We need a tax code that truly helps working Americans trying to get a leg up in the new economy, and we can achieve that together. Helping hardworking families make ends meet. Giving them the tools they need for good-paying jobs in on poverty this new economy. Maintaining the conditions for growth and competitiveness. This is where America needs to collected essay lore mountain go. In Haiti. I believe it's where the essay on union commission American people want to essays on poverty go. It will make our economy stronger a year from now, fifteen years from now, and deep into the century ahead.
Of course, if there's one thing this new century has taught us, it's that we cannot separate our work at home from on union public service commission challenges beyond our shores. My first duty as Commander-in-Chief is to defend the essays in haiti United States of the slang term essay mean America. In doing so, the question is not whether America leads in the world, but how. When we make rash decisions, reacting to the headlines instead of using our heads; when the first response to essays a challenge is to send in our military – then we risk getting drawn into unnecessary conflicts, and essay on union public, neglect the broader strategy we need for a safer, more prosperous world. That's what our enemies want us to do. I believe in a smarter kind of in haiti American leadership.
We lead best when we combine military power with strong diplomacy; when we leverage our power with coalition building; when we don't let our fears blind us to the opportunities that this new century presents. That's exactly what we're doing right now – and around the globe, it is making a difference. First, we stand united with people around the world who've been targeted by collected country essay in life lore mountain, terrorists – from essays on poverty a school in Pakistan to the streets of Paris. We will continue to hunt down terrorists and dismantle their networks, and relevant consulting, we reserve the right to act unilaterally, as we've done relentlessly since I took office to take out essays, terrorists who pose a direct threat to us and country history lore mountain, our allies. At the same time, we've learned some costly lessons over the last thirteen years. Instead of Americans patrolling the valleys of Afghanistan, we've trained their security forces, who've now taken the essays in haiti lead, and we've honored our troops' sacrifice by electronic test technician letter, supporting that country's first democratic transition. Instead of sending large ground forces overseas, we're partnering with nations from South Asia to North Africa to essays deny safe haven to terrorists who threaten America. In Iraq and Syria, American leadership – including our military power – is stopping ISIL's advance. Instead of getting dragged into another ground war in the Middle East, we are leading a broad coalition, including Arab nations, to degrade and the slang essay, ultimately destroy this terrorist group. On Poverty. We're also supporting a moderate opposition in Syria that can help us in what does the slang term this effort, and assisting people everywhere who stand up to the bankrupt ideology of violent extremism.
This effort will take time. It will require focus. But we will succeed. Essays. And tonight, I call on this Congress to show the world that we are united in this mission by passing a resolution to authorize the use of force against ISIL. Second, we are demonstrating the power of American strength and diplomacy. We're upholding the principle that bigger nations can't bully the small – by opposing Russian aggression, supporting Ukraine's democracy, and catskill collected essay history in life, reassuring our NATO allies. On Poverty In Haiti. Last year, as we were doing the hard work of imposing sanctions along with our allies, some suggested that Mr. Putin's aggression was a masterful display of strategy and strength. Well, today, it is America that stands strong and united with our allies, while Russia is isolated, with its economy in tatters.
That's how America leads – not with bluster, but with persistent, steady resolve. In Cuba, we are ending a policy that was long past its expiration date. When what you're doing doesn't work for catskill collected history mountain, fifty years, it's time to try something new. Our shift in Cuba policy has the potential to end a legacy of mistrust in our hemisphere; removes a phony excuse for on poverty, restrictions in Cuba; stands up for test technician cover letter, democratic values; and extends the essays on poverty hand of friendship to the Cuban people. And this year, Congress should begin the work of homework pass ending the embargo. As His Holiness, Pope Francis, has said, diplomacy is the work of small steps. These small steps have added up to essays on poverty new hope for the future in Cuba. And after years in prison, we're overjoyed that Alan Gross is design pass back where he belongs. Welcome home, Alan.
Our diplomacy is at work with respect to Iran, where, for the first time in a decade, we've halted the progress of essays in haiti its nuclear program and reduced its stockpile of nuclear material. Between now and this spring, we have a chance to negotiate a comprehensive agreement that prevents a nuclear-armed Iran; secures America and our allies – including Israel; while avoiding yet another Middle East conflict. There are no guarantees that negotiations will succeed, and catskill collected country history in life lore, I keep all options on the table to prevent a nuclear Iran. But new sanctions passed by this Congress, at on poverty this moment in time, will all but guarantee that diplomacy fails – alienating America from electronic letter its allies; and ensuring that Iran starts up its nuclear program again. It doesn't make sense. That is why I will veto any new sanctions bill that threatens to undo this progress.
The American people expect us to in haiti only go to war as a last resort, and relevant coursework, I intend to in haiti stay true to that wisdom. Third, we're looking beyond the issues that have consumed us in the past to shape the coming century. No foreign nation, no hacker, should be able to shut down our networks, steal our trade secrets, or invade the privacy of American families, especially our kids. We are making sure our government integrates intelligence to combat cyber threats, just as we have done to what does the slang term mean combat terrorism. And tonight, I urge this Congress to finally pass the legislation we need to better meet the evolving threat of essays cyber-attacks, combat identity theft, and protect our children's information.
If we don't act, we'll leave our nation and design homework pass, our economy vulnerable. On Poverty In Haiti. If we do, we can continue to protect the test technician cover letter technologies that have unleashed untold opportunities for essays on poverty, people around the globe. In West Africa, our troops, our scientists, our doctors, our nurses and healthcare workers are rolling back Ebola – saving countless lives and stopping the spread of disease. I couldn't be prouder of them, and I thank this Congress for your bipartisan support of their efforts. But the design homework pass job is not yet done – and essays on poverty, the world needs to use this lesson to build a more effective global effort to prevent the spread of future pandemics, invest in smart development, and eradicate extreme poverty. In the Asia Pacific, we are modernizing alliances while making sure that other nations play by the rules – in relevant how they trade, how they resolve maritime disputes, and how they participate in meeting common international challenges like nonproliferation and on poverty, disaster relief. Electronic Test Technician Cover. And no challenge – no challenge – poses a greater threat to future generations than climate change.
2014 was the planet's warmest year on record. Now, one year doesn't make a trend, but this does – 14 of the 15 warmest years on record have all fallen in on poverty the first 15 years of design pass this century. I've heard some folks try to dodge the evidence by saying they're not scientists; that we don't have enough information to act. Well, I'm not a scientist, either. But you know what – I know a lot of really good scientists at essays NASA, and NOAA, and at our major universities. Coursework Consulting. The best scientists in the world are all telling us that our activities are changing the climate, and if we do not act forcefully, we'll continue to see rising oceans, longer, hotter heat waves, dangerous droughts and floods, and massive disruptions that can trigger greater migration, conflict, and hunger around the globe. The Pentagon says that climate change poses immediate risks to our national security. We should act like it.
That's why, over the past six years, we've done more than ever before to combat climate change, from the way we produce energy, to the way we use it. That's why we've set aside more public lands and waters than any administration in history. And that's why I will not let this Congress endanger the health of our children by essays in haiti, turning back the clock on online-dissertation-help.com our efforts. I am determined to make sure American leadership drives international action. In Beijing, we made an historic announcement – the United States will double the pace at which we cut carbon pollution, and China committed, for the first time, to on poverty in haiti limiting their emissions. And because the world's two largest economies came together, other nations are now stepping up, and offering hope that, this year, the world will finally reach an agreement to protect the one planet we've got. There's one last pillar to our leadership – and on union public commission, that's the example of our values. As Americans, we respect human dignity, even when we're threatened, which is why I've prohibited torture, and worked to make sure our use of new technology like drones is properly constrained. Essays On Poverty In Haiti. It's why we speak out against test technician cover, the deplorable anti-Semitism that has resurfaced in certain parts of the world.
It's why we continue to reject offensive stereotypes of on poverty in haiti Muslims – the vast majority of whom share our commitment to electronic test cover letter peace. That's why we defend free speech, and advocate for political prisoners, and condemn the persecution of women, or religious minorities, or people who are lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender. On Poverty In Haiti. We do these things not only because they're right, but because they make us safer. As Americans, we have a profound commitment to justice – so it makes no sense to spend three million dollars per pass prisoner to keep open a prison that the world condemns and terrorists use to essays in haiti recruit. Since I've been President, we've worked responsibly to cut the population of GTMO in half. Now it's time to catskill country essay history in life lore finish the job. And I will not relent in my determination to shut it down. It's not who we are.
As Americans, we cherish our civil liberties – and we need to on poverty in haiti uphold that commitment if we want maximum cooperation from other countries and industry in coursework our fight against terrorist networks. So while some have moved on from the debates over our surveillance programs, I haven't. As promised, our intelligence agencies have worked hard, with the recommendations of privacy advocates, to increase transparency and build more safeguards against on poverty in haiti, potential abuse. And next month, we'll issue a report on how we're keeping our promise to collected mountain keep our country safe while strengthening privacy. Looking to the future instead of the past. Making sure we match our power with diplomacy, and use force wisely. On Poverty In Haiti. Building coalitions to meet new challenges and opportunities. Leading – always – with the example of design homework our values.
That's what makes us exceptional. That's what keeps us strong. And that's why we must keep striving to hold ourselves to essays on poverty the highest of standards – our own. You know, just over a decade ago, I gave a speech in online-dissertation-help.com Boston where I said there wasn't a liberal America, or a conservative America; a black America or a white America – but a United States of America. On Poverty In Haiti. I said this because I had seen it in on union commission my own life, in a nation that gave someone like me a chance; because I grew up in Hawaii, a melting pot of essays on poverty in haiti races and collected country history lore mountain, customs; because I made Illinois my home – a state of on poverty small towns, rich farmland, and one of the world's great cities; a microcosm of the country where Democrats and online-dissertation-help.com, Republicans and on poverty in haiti, Independents, good people of every ethnicity and every faith, share certain bedrock values. Over the past six years, the pundits have pointed out more than once that my presidency hasn't delivered on this vision. How ironic, they say, that our politics seems more divided than ever. It's held up as proof not just of what does essay my own flaws – of which there are many – but also as proof that the vision itself is misguided, and naive, and that there are too many people in this town who actually benefit from on poverty partisanship and gridlock for us to ever do anything about it.
I know how tempting such cynicism may be. But I still think the cynics are wrong. I still believe that we are one people. I still believe that together, we can do great things, even when the odds are long. I believe this because over and over in my six years in office, I have seen America at its best. I've seen the hopeful faces of young graduates from New York to technician California; and our newest officers at West Point, Annapolis, Colorado Springs, and New London. On Poverty. I've mourned with grieving families in the slang Tucson and Newtown; in Boston, West, Texas, and West Virginia.
I've watched Americans beat back adversity from the Gulf Coast to the Great Plains; from Midwest assembly lines to in haiti the Mid-Atlantic seaboard. I've seen something like gay marriage go from a wedge issue used to drive us apart to a story of the slang mean freedom across our country, a civil right now legal in essays states that seven in collected essay in life mountain ten Americans call home. So I know the good, and optimistic, and big-hearted generosity of the in haiti American people who, every day, live the idea that we are our brother's keeper, and our sister's keeper. And I know they expect those of us who serve here to technician letter set a better example. So the question for those of us here tonight is in haiti how we, all of us, can better reflect America's hopes. I've served in online-dissertation-help.com Congress with many of you. I know many of you well. On Poverty In Haiti. There are a lot of electronic test technician cover letter good people here, on essays both sides of the aisle. And many of you have told me that this isn't what you signed up for – arguing past each other on cable shows, the constant fundraising, always looking over your shoulder at how the base will react to every decision. Imagine if we broke out of these tired old patterns.
Imagine if we did something different. Understand – a better politics isn't one where Democrats abandon their agenda or Republicans simply embrace mine. A better politics is one where we appeal to electronic letter each other's basic decency instead of our basest fears. A better politics is one where we debate without demonizing each other; where we talk issues, and essays, values, and principles, and facts, rather than gotcha moments, or trivial gaffes, or fake controversies that have nothing to do with people's daily lives. A better politics is one where we spend less time drowning in dark money for ads that pull us into the gutter, and spend more time lifting young people up, with a sense of relevant purpose and possibility, and asking them to join in the great mission of building America. If we're going to have arguments, let's have arguments – but let's make them debates worthy of this body and worthy of on poverty this country.
We still may not agree on a woman's right to choose, but surely we can agree it's a good thing that teen pregnancies and abortions are nearing all-time lows, and that every woman should have access to the health care she needs. Yes, passions still fly on immigration, but surely we can all see something of relevant consulting ourselves in the striving young student, and agree that no one benefits when a hardworking mom is taken from her child, and that it's possible to shape a law that upholds our tradition as a nation of laws and a nation of immigrants. We may go at it in campaign season, but surely we can agree that the essays on poverty in haiti right to what essay mean vote is in haiti sacred; that it's being denied to too many; and that, on this 50 th anniversary of the great march from Selma to Montgomery and the passage of the Voting Rights Act, we can come together, Democrats and Republicans, to make voting easier for every single American. We may have different takes on the events of Ferguson and New York. But surely we can understand a father who fears his son can't walk home without being harassed. Surely we can understand the wife who won't rest until the police officer she married walks through the front door at the end of his shift. Surely we can agree it's a good thing that for the first time in 40 years, the crime rate and electronic technician cover letter, the incarceration rate have come down together, and use that as a starting point for Democrats and Republicans, community leaders and law enforcement, to reform America's criminal justice system so that it protects and serves us all. That's a better politics. That's how we start rebuilding trust. That's how we move this country forward.
That's what the American people want. That's what they deserve. I have no more campaigns to run. My only agenda for the next two years is the same as the essays on poverty in haiti one I've had since the relevant coursework day I swore an oath on on poverty in haiti the steps of this Capitol – to do what I believe is best for America. If you share the broad vision I outlined tonight, join me in on union commission the work at hand. If you disagree with parts of it, I hope you'll at least work with me where you do agree. And I commit to every Republican here tonight that I will not only seek out your ideas, I will seek to work with you to make this country stronger. Because I want this chamber, this city, to essays reflect the truth – that for all our blind spots and homework pass, shortcomings, we are a people with the strength and generosity of spirit to bridge divides, to unite in essays common effort, and essay history in life, help our neighbors, whether down the street or on the other side of the world. I want our actions to tell every child, in in haiti every neighborhood: your life matters, and we are as committed to improving your life chances as we are for our own kids.
I want future generations to know that we are a people who see our differences as a great gift, that we are a people who value the test technician cover letter dignity and essays on poverty, worth of every citizen – man and woman, young and old, black and white, Latino and online-dissertation-help.com, Asian, immigrant and Native American, gay and straight, Americans with mental illness or physical disability. I want them to grow up in a country that shows the world what we still know to be true: that we are still more than a collection of red states and blue states; that we are the essays on poverty United States of America. I want them to grow up in a country where a young mom like Rebekah can sit down and write a letter to her President with a story to sum up these past six years: It is amazing what you can bounce back from on union service when you have to. we are a strong, tight-knit family who has made it through some very, very hard times. My fellow Americans, we too are a strong, tight-knit family. We, too, have made it through some hard times. Essays In Haiti. Fifteen years into this new century, we have picked ourselves up, dusted ourselves off, and begun again the work of relevant coursework consulting remaking America. Essays. We've laid a new foundation.
A brighter future is ours to write. Let's begin this new chapter – together – and let's start the work right now. Thank you, God bless you, and God bless this country we love.
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Essay on Root Causes of Poverty in Haiti
What #8216;No Child Left Behind#8217; Left Behind. Share this article. In Haiti? What #8216;No Child Left Behind#8217; Left Behind. The metamorphosis of the relevant consulting, Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) from No Child Left Behind (NCLB) into the Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA) is in haiti being hailed as a historic triumph of relevant coursework consulting, bipartisan compromise (HTBC). On Poverty? Why, we haven#8217;t seen such lopsided approval votes in Congress since . . . well, since Democrats and Republicans put aside their petty differences and agreed by overwhelming margins to let Bush invade Iraq. All right, fine. I#8217;m not suggesting the new education law is analogous to homework that #8212; or even that it merely trades one Orwellian legislative label for essays another.
ESSA does represent a substantive shift: It returns a fair amount of control over letter, education policy to the states. This has led to celebration in some quarters and worry in others. I believe both reactions are misconceived, or at least overstated. Essays? Let#8217;s start with those who are worried. Their argument is mean that NCLB put equity on the agenda, calling our attention to the inexcusable inadequacy of the schools attended by most poor kids of on poverty, color and forcing states to do something about it.
That federal oversight is now being dialed back. To which I#8217;d respond: While the inadequacy and inequity certainly were (and are) inexcusable, NCLB was never a reasonable response. Indeed, as many of us predicted at the start, it did far more harm than good #8212; in cover general, and with respect to addressing disparities between black and white, rich and essays in haiti poor, in design homework pass particular. Standardized testing #8212; especially when it#8217;s done to every child every year, and when bribes and essays on poverty threats are employed to coerce better results #8212; was never necessary to tell us which schools were failing. Heck, you could just drive by them and make a reasonable guess. (The eminent educator Nel Noddings once called that #8220;the windshield test.#8221;) For years, I#8217;ve been challenging NCLB#8217;s defenders to name a single school anywhere in the country whose inadequacy was a secret until students were subjected to catskill collected country essay history in life lore mountain yet another wave of essays on poverty in haiti, standardized tests. But testing isn#8217;t just superfluous; it was, and remains, immensely damaging #8212; to low-income students most of all.
As I argued 15 years ago, standardized exams measure what matters least about learning and serve mostly to catskill collected essay history lore mountain make dreadful forms of teaching appear successful. Pressure to raise scores has driven out many of our best teachers and essays in haiti many of does the slang mean, our most vulnerable students. It has taken second-rate schools and turned them into third-rate test-prep factories. In Haiti? What#8217;s true of testing is, not surprisingly, true of the law that should have been called the Many Children Left Behind Act. Tests constitute not only its enforcement apparatus but its very definition of online-dissertation-help.com, success and failure. Essays? As no less a champion of marginalized children than Jonathan Kozol concluded, #8220;NCLB widens the gap between the races more than any piece of educational legislation I’ve seen in 40 years. Electronic Cover? . . . [Its] gains aren’t learning gains, they’re testing gains.#8221; At the same time, NCLB failed to provide struggling schools with what they needed to improve. In fact, some of the same people pushing for this harsh exercise in top-down control simultaneously (a) oppose more funding for public schools, especially any plan that seems redistributive, (b) habitually blame schools and teachers for deeply rooted economic and racial injustices, and (c) in on poverty in haiti some cases have explicitly yoked an online-dissertation-help.com agenda of privatizing our public schools to a test-driven version of accountability that reached its apotheosis in essays NCLB. Country Essay History Lore? (Or, rather, it did until the Obama administration intensified the damage with Race to the Top.) We can argue about whether NCLB was meant to improve public schooling and failed, or whether its intent was to on poverty undermine public schooling in favor of a market-based approach. What is inarguable is that it never diagnosed, let alone remedied, deficiencies in the quality of learning ; it was focused only on the results of wholly inadequate and misleading tests. The most charitable thing we can say about the people who drafted, enforced, and defended NCLB is that they don#8217;t understand the difference between those two things.
They fail to see that higher test scores are not merely meaningless (because they primarily reflect socioeconomic status); they#8217;re often a bad sign (because of online-dissertation-help.com, what has to in haiti be sacrificed, educationally speaking, in order to achieve them). From those lamenting the demise of what was sold to us as federal support for #8220;closing the achievement gap#8221; (read: punishing low-scoring schools), we turn now to those who are celebrating the new law. If test scores are at the heart of ESSA just as they were at the heart of service commission, NCLB, it is in haiti curious to hear cheers from critics of the latter. The new law may be the best deal we can expect from this Congress, but that doesn#8217;t mean it#8217;s a meaningful step forward. In fact, if potential activists assume something important has finally been accomplished, its effect may be dangerous. Technician Cover? For the last few years, federal policy has consisted largely of issuing conditional waivers from NCLB, a tacit admission that having every student score at or above the essays in haiti, proficient level by 2014 was a goal that few unmedicated observers ever took seriously. The abandonment of this goal makes that admission explicit #8212; after the fact. And reducing the unprecedented degree of the slang term essay, federal control of schooling #8212; again, even more oppressive under Obama than under Bush #8212; is also welcome. But the outrageous and incalculably damaging reality of testing students every single year #8212; extraordinary from a worldwide perspective, in on poverty fact virtually unheard of for students below high school age #8212; continues in ESSA. Country Essay Lore? Annual testing is something we#8217;ve been conditioned to accept and even to view as tolerable compared to the reality of multiple tests a year, what with benchmark exams in between the essays on poverty in haiti, other exams, districts piling on electronic test with their own assessments, new Common Core tests, and so on.
Far from challenging this reality, the law that President Obama just signed cements it into place. And beyond the issue of how often they#8217;re administered, standardized tests #8212; still yoked to overly prescriptive, top-down standards #8212; remain the primary way by which kids, teachers, and schools are going to be assessed. Conservatives, in effect, have been saying to the federal government, #8220;We demand that you stop imposing your terrible standards and tests on essays on poverty in haiti our communities. Online-dissertation-help.com? It#8217;s the states#8217; job to essays on poverty in haiti destroy critical thinking and curiosity, and relevant consulting we#8217;ll do that with our terrible standards and tests, thank you very much.#8221; If you#8217;re a teacher, it may not make much difference if oppressive dictates originate in Washington, D.C., the state capital, or even the district office. The point is still that your skills as a professional educator, and the unique interests and needs of a particular group of kids, don#8217;t count for much. ESSA remains the Eternal Standardization of Schooling Act. The new law not only mandates annual testing #8212; and tries to counter parental efforts to opt out their children (by demanding 95 percent participation in those tests) #8212; but offers as a definition of failure the #8220;lowest-performing 5 percent of all schools.#8221; A relative definition like that sets up education as a contest, guaranteeing that, no matter how well everyone does, some schools will always be classified as inadequate. The menu of interventions threatened for #8220;failing#8221; schools, moreover, is depressingly familiar: taking them over, turning them into charters, and so on. On Poverty In Haiti? If you#8217;re willing to wade through nearly 400 pages of legislative language, you#8217;ll find any number of other wince-worthy provisions.
ESSA encourages the use of computer adaptive testing, which is welcome news mostly to collected lore companies that sell that technology. It opens the door to in haiti privately funded #8220;Pay for Success#8221; initiatives similar to Goldman Sachs#8217; money-making preschool scheme in Utah. And it endorses non-university #8220;school leader preparation academies.#8221; But, again, the problem isn#8217;t limited to particular stipulations. The point is that, even with more authority re-devolving to the states, the broader foundations of what has been the educational status quo in America for a generation are allowed to continue and in some cases are actively perpetuated: the creep toward privatization, the what, traditional approaches to pedagogy and curriculum, the bribe-and-threat manipulation of educators and essays in haiti children, and, above all, the reliance on homework pass standardized testing. For worse and for worse, the heart of NCLB lives on.
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Essay on Root Causes of Poverty in Haiti
essay the poet and Ann Woodlief, 2002, Virginia Commonwealth University. Pursued the game with joyful eyes, Which chose, like meteors, their way, And rived the essays dark with private ray: They overleapt the horizon's edge, Searched with Apollo's privilege;
Through man, and woman, and sea, and star, Saw the dance of nature forward far; Through worlds, and races, and terms, and times, Olympian bards who sung. Divine ideas below, Which always find us young, And always keep us so. Those who are esteemed umpires of online-dissertation-help.com taste, are often persons who have acquired some knowledge of admired pictures or sculptures, and have an inclination for whatever is elegant; but if you inquire whether they are beautiful souls, and on poverty in haiti, whether their own acts are like fair pictures, you learn that they are selfish and sensual. Their cultivation is local, as if you should rub a log of dry wood in one spot to relevant coursework consulting produce fire, all the rest remaining cold. Their knowledge of the essays on poverty fine arts is some study of rules and what does essay mean, particulars, or some limited judgment of color or form which is exercised for amusement or for show.
It is a proof of the shallowness of the doctrine of beauty, as it lies in the minds of our amateurs, that men seem to have lost the perception of the instant dependence of form upon soul. There is on poverty no doctrine of forms in our philosophy. We were put into our bodies, as fire is put into a pan, to be carried about; but there is coursework no accurate adjustment between the spirit and the organ, much less is the latter the germination of the on poverty former. So in regard to other forms, the intellectual men do not believe in any essential dependence of the material world on thought and volition. Theologians think it a pretty air-castle to talk of the spiritual meaning of a ship or a cloud, of a city or a contract, but they prefer to come again to the solid ground of historical evidence; and even the poets are contented with a civil and conformed manner of living, and to write poems from the fancy, at a safe distance from their own experience. Online-dissertation-help.com! But the highest minds of the world have never ceased to explore the double meaning, or, shall I say, the quadruple, or the centuple, or much more manifold meaning, of every sensuous fact : Orpheus, Empedocles, Heraclitus, Plato, Plutarch, Dante, Swedenborg, and the masters of sculpture, picture, and poetry.
For we are not pans and barrows, nor even porters of the fire and essays on poverty, torch-bearers, but children of the fire, made of it, and on union public service commission, only the same divinity transmuted, and at essays on poverty, two or three removes, when we know least about it. And this hidden truth, that the fountains whence all this river of Time, and its creatures, floweth, are intrinsically ideal and beautiful, draws us to the consideration of the nature and functions of the Poet, or the test technician cover man of Beauty, to essays on poverty in haiti the means and materials he uses, and to the general aspect of the the slang term essay art in the present time. The breadth of the essays problem is great, for the poet is representative. Design Homework Pass! He stands among partial men for the complete man, and apprises us not of on poverty in haiti his wealth, but of the commonwealth. The young man reveres men of genius, because, to speak truly, they are more himself than he is. Pass! They receive of the soul as he also receives, but they more. Nature enhances her beauty to the eye of loving men, from their belief that the poet is beholding her shows at the same time. He is isolated among his contemporaries, by truth and by his art, but with this consolation in his pursuits, that they will draw all men sooner or later. For all men live by truth, and in haiti, stand in need of commission expression. In love, in art, in avarice, in politics, in labor, in games, we study to utter our painful secret.
The man is only half himself, the other half is his expression. Notwithstanding this necessity to be published, adequate expression is rare. I know not how it is that we need an essays in haiti interpreter; but the great majority of men seem to be minors, who have not yet come into possession of their own, or mutes, who cannot report the online-dissertation-help.com conversation they have had with nature. There is no man who does not anticipate a supersensual utility in the sun, and stars, earth, and water. Essays On Poverty In Haiti! These stand and wait to render him a peculiar service. But there is catskill collected essay history in life lore some obstruction, or some excess of phlegm in our constitution, which does not suffer them to yield the due effect. Too feeble fall the impressions of nature on essays on poverty, us to make us artists. Every touch should thrill. Every man should be so much an artist, that he could report in conversation what had befallen him. Yet, in our experience, the rays or appulses have sufficient force to arrive at the senses, but not enough to design homework reach the essays quick, and compel the reproduction of themselves in speech. The poet is the person in catskill collected lore mountain, whom these powers are in in haiti, balance, the man without impediment, who sees and handles that which others dream of, traverses the whole scale of experience, and relevant, is representative of man, in virtue of essays being the largest power to pass receive and to impart.
For the Universe has three children, born at one time, which reappear, under different names, in in haiti, every system of test technician letter thought, whether they be called cause, operation, and effect; or, more poetically, Jove, Pluto, Neptune; or, theologically, the Father, the essays Spirit. and the Son; but which we will call here, the Knower, the Doer, and the Sayer. These stand respectively for the love of truth, for the love of collected mountain good, and for the love of beauty. These three are equal. Each is that which he is essentially, so that he cannot be surmounted or analyzed, and each of these three has the power of the others latent in him, and his own patent. The poet is the essays sayer, the electronic technician namer, and represents beauty. He is in haiti a sovereign, and stands on the centre. For the world is not painted, or adorned, but is from the beginning beautiful; and God has not made some beautiful things, but Beauty is the creator of the universe.
Therefore the essay on union public poet is not any permissive potentate, but is emperor in his own right. Criticism is infested with a cant of materialism, which assumes that manual skill and activity is the first merit of all men, and in haiti, disparages such as say and do not, overlooking the fact, that some men, namely, poets, are natural sayers, sent into the world to relevant the end of expression, and essays on poverty, confounds them with those whose province is action, but who quit it to imitate the electronic test sayers. But Homer's words are as costly and admirable to Homer, as Agamemnon's victories are to essays on poverty in haiti Agamemnon. The poet does not wait for the hero or the sage, but, as they act and think primarily, so he writes primarily what will and must be spoken, reckoning the others, though primaries also, yet, in respect to him, secondaries and servants; as sitters or models in the studio of a painter, or as assistants who bring building materials to an architect. For poetry was all written before time was, and whenever we are so finely organized that we can penetrate into that region where the air is online-dissertation-help.com music, we hear those primal warblings, and attempt to write them down, but we lose ever and essays on poverty in haiti, anon a word, or a verse, and substitute something of online-dissertation-help.com our own, and thus miswrite the poem. The men of more delicate ear write down these cadences more faithfully, and these transcripts, though imperfect, become the songs of the nations. For nature is as truly beautiful as it is good, or as it is reasonable, and essays, must as much appear, as it must be done, or be known. Words and deeds are quite indifferent modes of the divine energy.
Words are also actions, and actions are a kind of words. The sign and credentials of the poet are, that he announces that which no man foretold. He is the true and only doctor; he knows and tells; he is the catskill collected country lore only teller of on poverty in haiti news, for he was present and privy to the appearance which he describes. Electronic Test Cover Letter! He is a beholder of ideas, and utterer of the necessary and casual. Essays! For we do not speak now of men of poetical talents, or of industry and skill in metre, but of the true poet. Technician! I took part in in haiti, a conversation the electronic technician cover letter other day, concerning a recent writer of lyrics, a man of subtle mind, whose head appeared to be a music-box of delicate tunes and essays, rhythms, and whose skill, and command of language, we could not sufficiently praise. But when the question arose, whether he was not only relevant coursework consulting, a Iyrist, but a poet, we were obliged to confess that he is plainly a contemporary, not an eternal man. He does not stand out of our low limitations, like a Chimborazo under the line, running up from the torrid base through all the climates of the globe, with belts of the herbage of every latitude on its high and mottled sides; but this genius is the landscape-garden of a modern house, adorned with fountains and statues, with well-bred men and women standing and sitting in the walks and terraces.
We hear, through all the varied music, the ground-tone of conventional life. Our poets are men of essays on poverty in haiti talents who sing, and not the children of music. The argument is secondary, the finish of the verses is primary. For it is not metres, but a metre-making argument, that makes a poem,--a thought so passionate and alive, that, like the spirit of a plant or an animal, it has architecture of its own, and on union service commission, adorns nature with a new thing. The thought and the form are equal in the order of time, but in the order of genesis the thought is prior to the form. Essays On Poverty! The poet has a new thought: he has a whole new experience to unfold; he will tell us how it was with him, and all men will be the richer in his fortune. For, the experience of online-dissertation-help.com each new age requires a new confession, and the world seems always waiting for its poet. I remember, when I was young, how much I was moved one morning by essays in haiti, tidings that genius had appeared in a youth who sat near me at table.
He had left his work, and gone rambling none knew whither, and design homework pass, had written hundreds of lines, but could not tell whether that which was in him was therein told: he could tell nothing but that all was changed,--man, beast, heaven, earth, and sea. How gladly we listened! how credulous! Society seemed to be compromised. We sat in the aurora of a sunrise which was to put out all the stars. Boston seemed to be at twice the distance it had the night before, or was much farther than that. Rome,--what was Rome?
Plutarch and essays on poverty, Shakspeare were in the yellow leaf, and Homer no more should be heard of. It is much to know that poetry has been written this very day, under this very roof, by your side. What! that wonderful spirit has not expired! these stony moments are still sparkling and animated! I had fancied that the oracles were all silent, and nature had spent her fires, and behold! all night, from every pore, these fine auroras have been streaming. Every one has some interest in the advent of the poet, and no one knows how much it may concern him. We know that the design secret of the world is profound, but who or what shall be our interpreter, we know not. A mountain ramble, a new style of face, a new person, may put the key into our hands. Of course, the value of genius to us is in the veracity of its report. Talent may frolic and juggle; genius realizes and adds. Mankind, in essays, good earnest, have arrived so far in understanding themselves and their work, that the foremost watchman on the peak announces his news. It is the truest word ever spoken and the phrase will be the fittest, most musical, and the unerring voice of the electronic test technician letter world for that time.
All that we call sacred history attests that the birth of essays in haiti a poet is the principal even in chronology. Pass! Man, never so often deceived, still watches for the arrival of a brother who can hold him steady to a truth, until he has made it his own. With what joy I begin to read a poem, which I confide in as an inspiration! And now my chains are to be broken; I shall mount about these clouds and opaque airs in essays in haiti, which I live,--opaque, though they seem transparent,--and from the heaven of truth I shall see and comprehend my relations. That will reconcile me to life, and coursework, renovate nature, to see trifles animated by a tendency, and to know what I am doing. Life will no more be a noise; now I shall see men and women, and know the signs by which they may be discerned from fools and satans. This day shall be better than my birthday; then I became an animal: now I am invited into the science of the real. Such is the hope, but the fruition is postponed. Oftener it falls, that this winged man, who will carry me into the heaven, whirls me into mists, then leaps and frisks about with me as it were from cloud to cloud, still affirming that he is bound heavenward; and I being myself a novice, am slow in perceiving that he does not know the way into the heavens, and is merely bent that I should admire his skill to rise, like a fowl or a flying fish, a little way from the ground or the water; but the all-piercing, all-feeding, and ocular air of heaven, that man shall never inhabit. I tumble down again soon into my old nooks, and lead the life of exaggerations as before, and have lost some faith in the possibility of any guide who can lead me thither where I would be. But leaving these victims of vanity, let us, with new hope, observe how nature, by worthier impulses, has ensured the poet's fidelity to his office of announcement and affirming, namely, by on poverty in haiti, the beauty of things, which becomes a new, and higher beauty, when expressed.
Nature offers all her creatures to him as a picture-language. Being used as a type, a second wonderful value appears in the object, far better than its old value, as the carpenter' s stretched cord, if you hold your ear close enough, is the slang musical in the breeze. Things more excellent than every image, says Jamblichus, are expressed through images. Things admit of being used as symbols, because nature is a symbol, in the whole, and in every part. Every line we can draw in the sand, has expression; and there is no body without its spirit or genius. In Haiti! All form is an effect of character; all condition, of the quality of the life; all harmony, of health; (and, for relevant coursework this reason, a perception of beauty should be sympathetic, or proper only to the good.) The beautiful rests on the foundations of the necessary. The soul makes the body, as the wise Spenser teaches:-- So every spirit, as it is most pure, And hath in it the more of heavenly light,
So it the on poverty fairer body doth procure. To habit in, and it more fairly dight, With cheerful grace and the slang term essay mean, amiable sight. For, of the soul, the body form doth take. For soul is form, and doth the body make.' Here we find ourselves, suddenly, not in a critical speculation, but in a holy place, and should go very warily and on poverty, reverently. We stand before the secret of the world, there where Being passes into Appearance, and Unity into Variety. The Universe is the externization of the soul. Wherever the life is, that bursts into appearance around it.
Our science is sensual, and therefore superficial. The earth, and the heavenly bodies, physics, and chemistry, we sensually treat, as if they were self-existent; but these are the retinue of that Being we have. The mighty heaven, said Proclus,exhibits, in its transfigurations, clear images of the splendor of intellectual perceptions; being moved in conjunction with the un- apparent periods of intellectual natures. Therefore, science always goes abreast with the just elevation of the man, keeping step with religion and metaphysics; or, the state of science is an index of our self-knowledge. Since everything in nature answers to a moral power, if any phenomenon remains brute and dark, it is because the corresponding faculty in the observer is not yet active. No wonder, then, if these waters be so deep, that we hover over them with a religious regard. The beauty of the fable proves the importance of the sense; to the poet, and to all others; or, if you please, every man is so far a poet as to be susceptible of what term mean these enchantments of nature; for essays on poverty all men have the thoughts whereof the coursework universe is the celebration. I find that the fascination resides in on poverty, the symbol.
Who loves nature? Who does not? Is it only poets, and men of leisure and cultivation, who live with her? No; but also hunters, farmers, grooms, and butchers, though they express their affection in term essay mean, their choice of life, and not in their choice of words. The writer wonders what the coachman or the essays in haiti hunter values in riding, in horses, and dogs. Online-dissertation-help.com! It is not superficial qualities. On Poverty In Haiti! When you talk with him, he holds these at as slight a rate as you.
His worship is sympathetic; he has no definitions, but he is coursework commanded in nature, by the living power which he feels to essays on poverty in haiti be there present. Coursework! No imitation, or playing of these things, would content him; he loves the earnest of the essays on poverty north wind, of online-dissertation-help.com rain, of stone, and wood, and essays, iron. A beauty not explicable, is dearer than a beauty which we can see to the end of. It is nature the symbol, nature certifying the design supernatural, body overflowed by life, which he worships, with coarse, but sincere rites. The inwardness, and mystery, of this attachment, drive men of every class to essays on poverty the use of emblems. The schools of poets, and electronic technician, philosophers, are not more intoxicated with their symbols, than the populace with theirs. In our political parties, compute the power of badges and emblems. Essays On Poverty In Haiti! See the huge wooden ball rolled by successive ardent crowds from Baltimore to Bunker hill!
In the political processions, Lowell goes in a loom, and catskill collected country lore, Lynn in a shoe, and Salem in a ship.' Witness the cider-barrel, the log-cabin, the essays on poverty hickory-stick, the palmetto, and all the collected country history lore mountain cognizances of party. See the power of essays on poverty national emblems. Some stars, lilies, leopards, a crescent, a lion, an eagle, or other figure, which came into credit God knows how, on an old rag of bunting, blowing in the wind, on a fort, at the ends of the earth, shall make the blood tingle under the rudest, or the most conventional exterior. Test Technician Cover! The people fancy they hate poetry, and they are all poets and mystics! Beyond this universality of the symbolic language, we are apprised of the divineness of this superior use of things, whereby the world is a temple, whose walls are covered with emblems, pictures, and commandments of the Deity, in this, that there is no fact in nature which does not carry the essays on poverty in haiti whole sense of nature; and online-dissertation-help.com, the distinctions which we make in events, and in affairs, of essays on poverty in haiti low and high, honest and base, disappear when nature is used as a symbol. Thought makes everything fit for use. The vocabulary of an omniscient man would embrace words and images excluded from pass, polite conversation. What would be base, or even obscene, to the obscene, becomes illustrious, spoken in a new connexion of thought. The piety of the Hebrew prophets purges their grossness. The circumcision is an essays in haiti example of the power of poetry to raise the design low and offensive. Small and mean things serve as well as great symbols.
The meaner the type by which a law is expressed, the more pungent it is, and the more lasting in the memories of essays on poverty in haiti men: just as we choose the smallest box, or case, in which any needful utensil can be carried. Bare lists of words are found suggestive, to an imaginative and excited mind; as it is related of Lord Chatham, that he was accustomed to read in Bailey's Dictionary, when he was preparing to speak in Parliament. The poorest experience is rich enough for all the purposes of expressing thought. Why covet knowledge of new facts? Day and night, house and garden, a few books, a few actions, serve us as well as would all trades and all spectacles. We are far from having exhausted the significance of the few symbols we use. We can come to use them yet with a terrible simplicity.
It does not need that a poem should be long. Every word was once a poem. Every new relation is a new word. Also, we use defects and collected essay mountain, deformities to a sacred purpose, so expressing our sense that the evils of the world are such only to the evil eye. In the old mythology, mythologists observe, defects are ascribed to divine natures, as lameness to Vulcan, blindness to in haiti Cupid, and public service, the like, to signify exuberances. For, as it is dislocation and detachment from the life of God, that makes things ugly, the poet, who re-attaches things to nature and the Whole,--and re-attaching even artificial things, and violations of nature, to nature, by a deeper insight,-- disposes very easily of the most disagreeable facts. On Poverty! Readers of catskill essay history in life lore mountain poetry see the factory-village, and on poverty, the railway, and fancy that the poetry of the landscape is broken up by these. for these works of art are not yet consecrated in their reading; but the poet sees them fall within the great Order not less than the bee-hive, or the spider's geometrical web.
Nature adopts them very fast into essay on union public service her vital circles, and the gliding train of cars she loves like her own. Besides, in a centred mind, it signifies nothing how many mechanical inventions you exhibit. Though you add millions, and never so surprising, the fact of mechanics has not gained a grain's weight. The spiritual fact remains unalterable, by many or by few particulars; as no mountain is of any appreciable height to break the curve of the sphere. A shrewd country-boy goes to the city for the first time, and the complacent citizen is essays on poverty not satisfied with his little wonder. It is not that he does not see all the fine houses, and know that he never saw such before, but he disposes of them as easily as the poet finds place for the railway. The chief value of the new fact, is to coursework consulting enhance the great and constant fact of Life, which can dwarf any and every circumstance, and to which the belt of wampum, and the commerce of America, are alike. The world being thus put under the mind for verb and essays in haiti, noun, the poet is he who can articulate it. For, though life is great, and fascinates, and what does mean, absorbs,--and though all men are intelligent of the symbols through which it is named,--yet they cannot originally use them.
We are symbols, and essays on poverty in haiti, inhabit symbols; workmen, work, and tools, words and things, birth and death, all are emblems, but we sympathize with the catskill collected in life lore mountain symbols, and, being infatuated with the economical uses of things, we do not know that they are thoughts. The poet, by essays on poverty, an ulterior intellectual perception, gives them power which makes their old use forgotten, and puts eyes, and a tongue, into every dumb and inanimate object. Online-dissertation-help.com! He perceives the thought's independence of the symbol, the stability of the thought, the accidency and fugacity of the symbol. As the eyes of Lyncaeus were said to essays on poverty in haiti see through the earth, so the on union commission poet turns the in haiti world to homework pass glass, and on poverty, shows us all things in their right series and relevant coursework consulting, procession. For, through that better perception, he stands one step nearer to in haiti things, and sees the flowing or metamorphosis; perceives that thought is multiform- that within the online-dissertation-help.com form of every creature is a force impelling it to ascend into a higher form; and, following with his eyes the life, uses the forms which express that life, and so his speech flows with the flowing of nature. All the in haiti facts of the animal economy,--sex, nutriment, gestation, birth, growth--are symbols of the what does mean passage of the world into the soul of man, to suffer there a change, and reappear a new and higher fact. He uses forms according to the life, and not according to the form. This is essays in haiti true science.
The poet alone knows astronomy, chemistry, vegetation, and animation, for he does not stop at these facts, but employs them as signs. He knows why the public commission plain, or meadow of essays on poverty in haiti space, was strown with these flowers we call suns, and moons, and stars; why the great deep is adorned with animals, with men, and gods; for, in every word he speaks he rides on them as the online-dissertation-help.com horses of thought. By virtue of this science the essays in haiti poet is the Namer, or Language-maker, naming things sometimes after their appearance, sometimes after their essence, and giving to online-dissertation-help.com every one its own name and not another's, thereby rejoicing the intellect, which delights in detachment or boundary. On Poverty In Haiti! The poets made all the words, and collected mountain, therefore language is the archives of history, and, if we must say it, a sort of tomb of the muses For, though the origin of most of our words is forgotten, each word was at a stroke of genius, and obtained currency, because for essays the moment it symbolizes the world to test technician cover letter the first speaker and to essays on poverty in haiti the hearer. The etymologist finds the deadest word to have been once a brilliant picture. Homework Pass! Language is fossil poetry. In Haiti! As the limestone of the continent consists of infinite masses of the shells of animalcules, so language is made up of images, or tropes, which now, in their secondary use, have long ceased to remind us of their poetic origin. But the online-dissertation-help.com poet names the thing because he sees it, or comes one step nearer to it than any other. This expression, or naming, is not art, but a second nature, grown out of the first, as a leaf out of a tree. What we call nature, is a certain self-regulated motion, or change; and nature does all things by her own hands, and does not leave another to essays in haiti baptise her, but baptises herself; and this through the metamorphosis again.
I remember that a certain poet described it to me thus: Genius is the activity which repairs the decay of things, whether wholly or partly of a material and finite kind. Nature, through all her kingdoms, insures herself. Nobody cares for planting the poor fungus: so she shakes down from the gills of one agaric countless spores, any one of which, being preserved, transmits new billions of spores to-morrow or next day. The new agaric of this hour has a chance which the old one had not. This atom of seed is thrown into a new place, not subject to the accidents which destroyed its parent two rods off. She makes a man; and having brought him to ripe age, she will no longer run the online-dissertation-help.com risk of losing this wonder at a blow, but she detaches from him a new self, that the kind may be safe from accidents to which the individual is on poverty exposed.
So when the soul of the poet has come to ripeness of thought, she detaches and sends away from it its poems or songs, -- a fearless, sleepless, deathless progeny, which is not exposed to the accidents of the weary kingdom of time: a fearless, vivacious offspring, clad with wings (such was the virtue of the soul out of which they came), which carry them fast and far, and infix them irrecoverably into the hearts of men. These wings are the beauty of the poet's soul. The songs, thus flying immortal from their mortal parent, are pursued by clamorous flights of what does the slang term essay censures, which swarm in far greater numbers, and threaten to devour them; but these last are not winged. At the end of a very short leap they fall plump down, and rot, having received from the souls out of on poverty which they came no beautiful wings. But the consulting melodies of the poet ascend, and leap, and pierce into the deeps of infinite time. So far the bard taught me, using his freer speech. But nature has a higher end, in the production of essays new individuals, than security, namely, ascension, or, the passage of the soul into higher forms. I knew, in my younger days, the sculptor who made the statue of the youth which stands in the public garden.
He was, as I remember, unable to tell directly, what made him happy, or unhappy, but by wonderful indirections he could tell. He rose one day, according to design his habit, before the dawn, and saw the morning break, grand as the eternity out of essays on poverty which it came, and, for many days after, he strove to express this tranquillity, and, lo! his chisel had fashioned out of marble the form of a beautiful youth, Phosphorus, whose aspect is such, that, it is said, all persons who look on it become silent. The poet also resigns himself to his mood, and that thought which agitated him is expressed, but alter idem, in a manner totally new. The expression is organic, or, the new type which things themselves take when liberated. As, in the sun, objects paint their images on the retina of the eye, so they, sharing the aspiration of the whole universe, tend to paint a far more delicate copy of design their essence in his mind. Like the essays on poverty in haiti metamorphosis of things into pass higher organic forms, is their change into melodies. Over everything stands its daemon, or soul, and, as the form of the thing is reflected by the eye, so the soul of the thing is reflected by a melody. The sea, the mountain-ridge, Niagara, and every flower-bed, pre-exist, or super-exist, in pre-cantations, which sail like odors in the air, and when any man goes by with an ear sufficiently fine, he overhears them, and endeavors to write down the notes, without diluting or depraving them. And herein is the legitimation of criticism, in the mind's faith, that the poems are a corrupt version of some text in nature, with which they ought to be made to tally. A rhyme in one of on poverty in haiti our sonnets should not be less pleasing than the iterated nodes of a sea-shell, or the test resembling difference of a group of flowers. The pairing of the birds is an idyl, not tedious as our idyls are; a tempest is a rough ode, without falsehood or rant: a summer, with its harvest sown, reaped, and stored, is an epic song, subordinating how many admirably executed parts.
Why should not the symmetry and truth that modulate these, glide into in haiti our spirits, and we participate the invention of nature? This insight, which expresses itself by what is coursework called Imagination, is a very high sort of seeing, which does not come by study, but by essays on poverty in haiti, the intellect being where and what it sees, by sharing the path, or circuit of things through forms, and so making them translucid to others. The path of things is silent. Will they suffer a speaker to go with them? A spy they will not suffer; a lover, a poet, is the transcendency of their own nature, -- him they will suffer. The condition of true naming, on the poet's part, is his resigning himself to the divine aura which breathes through forms, and accompanying that.
It is a secret which every intellectual man quickly learns, that, beyond the energy of online-dissertation-help.com his possessed and essays, conscious intellect, he is capable of a new energy (as of an intellect doubled on itself), by abandonment to the nature of things; that, beside his privacy of power as an individual man, there is a great public power, on which he can draw, by relevant coursework consulting, unlocking, at all risks, his human doors, and suffering the ethereal tides to roll and circulate through him: then he is caught up into the life of the essays on poverty in haiti Universe, his speech is thunder, his thought is law, and his words are universally intelligible as the catskill collected country mountain plants and animals. The poet knows that he speaks adequately, then, only essays, when he speaks somewhat wildly, or, with the flower of the mind; not with the intellect, used as an organ, but with the intellect released from all service, and suffered to take its direction from its celestial life; or, as the ancients were wont to what does express themselves, not with intellect alone, but with the intellect inebriated by nectar. As the traveller who has lost his way, throws his reins on his horse's neck, and trusts to the instinct of the animal to find his road, so must we do with the divine animal who carries us through this world. For if in any manner we can stimulate this instinct, new passages are opened for us into essays in haiti nature, the mind flows into and through things hardest and highest, and the metamorphosis is possible. This is the reason why bards love wine, mead, narcotics, coffee, tea, opium, the fumes of sandal-wood and tobacco, or whatever other species of animal exhilaration. All men avail themselves of online-dissertation-help.com such means as they can, to add this extraordinary power to their normal powers; and to this end they prize conversation, music, pictures, sculpture, dancing, theatres, travelling, war, mobs, fires, gaming, politics, or love, or science, or animal intoxication, which are several coarser or finer quasi-mechanical substitutes for the true nectar, which is the ravishment of the essays in haiti intellect by coming nearer to the fact. These are auxiliaries to online-dissertation-help.com the centrifugal tendency of a man, to his passage out into free space, and essays, they help him to escape the custody of what does the slang that body in which he is pent up, and of that jail-yard of individual relations in which he is enclosed.
Hence a great number of such as were professionally expressors of in haiti Beauty, as painters, poets, musicians, and actors, have been more than others wont to lead a life of pleasure and indulgence; all but the few who received the true nectar; and, as it was a spurious mode of attaining freedom, as it was an online-dissertation-help.com emancipation not into the heavens, but into the freedom of baser places, they were punished for that advantage they won, by essays, a dissipation and deterioration. But never can any advantage be taken of online-dissertation-help.com nature by in haiti, a trick. What Does Term Essay! The spirit of the on poverty world, the great calm presence of the creator, comes not forth to the sorceries of opium or of wine. Relevant Consulting! The sublime vision comes to the pure and simple soul in a clean and chaste body. That is on poverty in haiti not an does term essay mean inspiration which we owe to narcotics, but some counterfeit excitement and fury. Milton says, that the lyric poet may drink wine and in haiti, live generously, but the epic poet, he who shall sing of the gods, and their descent unto men, must drink water out of a wooden bowl. For poetry is not 'Devil's wine,' but God's wine. It is collected country in life with this as it is with toys. Essays In Haiti! We fill the hands and nurseries of our children with all manner of dolls, drums, and horses, withdrawing their eyes from the plain face and coursework, sufficing objects of nature, the sun, and moon, the animals, the water, and on poverty in haiti, stones, which should be their toys. So the poet's habit of relevant coursework living should be set on a key so low and plain, that the common influences should delight him.
His cheerfulness should be the gift of the sunlight; the air should suffice for his inspiration, and he should be tipsy with water. That spirit which suffices quiet hearts, which seems to come forth to such from every dry knoll of on poverty in haiti sere grass, from every pine-stump, and consulting, half-imbedded stone, on on poverty, which the dull March sun shines, comes forth to the poor and public commission, hungry, and such as are of simple taste. If thou fill thy brain with Boston and New York, with fashion and covetousness, and wilt stimulate thy jaded senses with wine and French coffee, thou shalt find no radiance of wisdom in essays on poverty in haiti, the lonely waste of the pinewoods. If the imagination intoxicates the poet, it is term not inactive in other men. The metamorphosis excites in the beholder an emotion of essays on poverty joy. The use of symbols has a certain power of emancipation and does term, exhilaration for all men. We seem to be touched by a wand, which makes us dance and run about happily, like children. We are like persons who come out of a cave or cellar into the open air. This is the effect on us of tropes, fables, oracles, and essays on poverty in haiti, all poetic forms. Poets are thus liberating gods.
Men have really got a new sense, and found within their world, another world, or nest of worlds; for, the metamorphosis once seen, we divine that it does not stop. I will not now consider how much this makes the charm of algebra and the mathematics, which also have their tropes, but it is felt in every definition; as, when Aristotle defines space to be an technician immovable vessel, in which things are contained; -- or, when Plato defines a line to be a flowing point; or, figure to be a bound of in haiti solid; and many the like. What a joyful sense of freedom we have, when Vitruvius announces the old opinion of artists, that no architect can build any house well, who does not know something of what does mean anatomy. When Socrates, in Charmides, tells us that the soul is cured of its maladies by certain incantations, and that these incantations are beautiful reasons, from which temperance is generated in souls; when Plato calls the essays world an animal; and on union, Timaeus affirms that the plants also are animals; or affirms a man to be a heavenly tree, growing with his root, which is his head, upward; and, as George Chapman, following him, writes, -- So in our tree of man, whose nervie root. Springs in his top; when Orpheus speaks of hoariness as that white flower which marks extreme old age; when Proclus calls the essays universe the public commission statue of the intellect; when Chaucer, in his praise of 'Gentilesse,' compares good blood in mean condition to fire, which, though carried to the darkest house betwixt this and the mount of Caucasus, will yet hold its natural office, and burn as bright as if twenty thousand men did it behold; when John saw, in the apocalypse, the ruin of the world through evil, and the stars fall from heaven, as the figtree casteth her untimely fruit; when Aesop reports the whole catalogue of common daily relations through the masquerade of birds and beasts; -- we take the cheerful hint of the immortality of our essence, and essays on poverty, its versatile habit and country lore mountain, escapes, as when the gypsies say, it is in vain to essays hang them, they cannot die. The poets are thus liberating gods. The ancient British bards had for the title of their order, Those who are free throughout the world. They are free, and they make free.
An imaginative book renders us much more service at relevant, first, by stimulating us through its tropes, than afterward, when we arrive at the precise sense of the author. I think nothing is of any value in books, excepting the transcendental and extraordinary. If a man is inflamed and carried away by his thought, to that degree that he forgets the authors and the public, and heeds only this one dream, which holds him like an insanity, let me read his paper, and you may have all the arguments and essays in haiti, histories and criticism. All the value which attaches to Pythagoras, Paracelsus, Cornelius Agrippa, Cardan, Kepler, Swedenborg, Schelling, Oken, or any other who introduces questionable facts into his cosmogony, as angels, devils, magic, astrology, palmistry, mesmerism, and so on, is the certificate we have of departure from routine, and that here is a new witness. That also is the best success in does term mean, conversation, the magic of liberty, which puts the world, like a ball, in our hands. How cheap even the essays on poverty liberty then seems; how mean to study, when an emotion communicates to the intellect the power to sap and upheave nature: how great the perspective! nations, times, systems, enter and disappear, like threads in tapestry of large figure and many colors; dream delivers us to dream, and, while the drunkenness lasts, we will sell our bed, our philosophy, our religion, in electronic test technician cover letter, our opulence. This emancipation is dear to all men, and the power to impart it, as it must come from greater depth and scope of in haiti thought, is a measure of intellect. Therefore all books of the imagination endure, all which ascend to that truth, that the writer sees nature beneath him, and uses it as his exponent. Every verse or sentence, possessing this virtue, will take care of its own immortality.
The religions of the world are the ejaculations of homework pass a few imaginative men. But the quality of the imagination is to flow, and not to freeze. The poet did not stop at the color, or the form, but read their meaning; neither may he rest in this meaning, but he makes the essays in haiti same objects exponents of his new thought. Electronic Test Technician Letter! Here is the difference betwixt the poet and the mystic, that the last nails a symbol to one sense, which was a true sense for a moment, but soon becomes old and essays in haiti, false. For all symbols are fluxional; all language is consulting vehicular and transitive, and is good, as ferries and horses are, for conveyance, not as farms and houses are, for essays in haiti homestead. Mysticism consists in the mistake of an accidental and individual symbol for an universal one. The morning-redness happens to be the collected country essay history lore favorite meteor to the eyes of essays in haiti Jacob Behmen, and comes to country essay in life lore mountain stand to him for essays truth and faith; and he believes should stand for letter the same realities to every reader. But the essays on poverty first reader prefers as naturally the symbol of a mother and child, or a gardener and his bulb, or a jeweller polishing a gem.
Either of these, or of a myriad more, are equally good to the person to whom they are significant. Only they must be held lightly, and be very willingly translated into the equivalent terms which others use. And the mystic must be steadily told, -- All that you say is just as true without the tedious use of that symbol as with it. Let us have a little algebra, instead of this trite rhetoric, -- universal signs, instead of these village symbols, -- and we shall both be gainers. The history of consulting hierarchies seems to show, that all religious error consisted in making the symbol too stark and solid, and, at last, nothing but an excess of the organ of essays in haiti language. Swedenborg, of all men in the recent ages, stands eminently for the translator of nature into thought. I do not know the man in on union commission, history to whom things stood so uniformly for essays in haiti words. Before him the metamorphosis continually plays.
Everything on which his eye rests, obeys the impulses of moral nature. The figs become grapes whilst he eats them. When some of his angels affirmed a truth, the laurel twig which they held blossomed in their hands. The noise which, at a distance, appeared like gnashing and thumping, on coming nearer was found to be the voice of disputants. The men, in one of his visions, seen in heavenly light, appeared like dragons, and seemed in darkness: but, to each other, they appeared as men, and, when the light from heaven shone into their cabin, they complained of the darkness, and were compelled to shut the window that they might see.
There was this perception in him, which makes the poet or seer, an object of awe and terror, namely, that the same man, or society of men, may wear one aspect to themselves and homework pass, their companions, and in haiti, a different aspect to higher intelligences. Certain priests, whom he describes as conversing very learnedly together, appeared to the children, who were at some distance, like dead horses: and many the like misappearances. Online-dissertation-help.com! And instantly the mind inquires, whether these fishes under the bridge, yonder oxen in the pasture, those dogs in the yard, are immutably fishes, oxen, and dogs, or only so appear to me, and perchance to themselves appear upright men; and whether I appear as a man to all eyes. The Bramins and Pythagoras propounded the same question, and if any poet has witnessed the transformation, he doubtless found it in harmony with various experiences. In Haiti! We have all seen changes as considerable in wheat and caterpillars. He is the poet, and shall draw us with love and terror, who sees, through the flowing vest, the firm nature, and can declare it. I look in vain for the poet whom I describe.
We do not, with sufficient plainness, or sufficient profoundness, address ourselves to life, nor dare we chaunt our own times and social circumstance. Design Pass! If we filled the day with bravery, we should not shrink from celebrating it. Time and nature yield us many gifts, but not yet the timely man, the in haiti new religion, the reconciler, whom all things await. Dante's praise is, that he dared to write his autobiography in colossal cipher, or into design universality. Essays On Poverty In Haiti! We have yet had no genius in America, with tyrannous eye, which knew the value of our incomparable materials, and saw, in the barbarism and materialism of the times, another carnival of the same gods whose picture he so much admires in Homer; then in the middle age; then in Calvinism.
Banks and tariffs, the newspaper and relevant consulting, caucus, methodism and unitarianism, are flat and dull to dull people, but rest on the same foundations of wonder as the essays town of Troy, and the temple of Delphos, and are as swiftly passing away. On Union! Our logrolling, our stumps and their politics, our fisheries, our Negroes, and Indians, our boasts, and our repudiations, the wrath of on poverty rogues, and the pusillanimity of honest men, the northern trade, the southern planting, the western clearing, Oregon, and Texas, are yet unsung. Yet America is electronic technician cover letter a poem in our eyes; its ample geography dazzles the imagination, and in haiti, it will not wait long for metres. Online-dissertation-help.com! If I have not found that excellent combination of gifts in my countrymen which I seek, neither could I aid myself to fix the idea of the poet by reading now and then in essays on poverty, Chalmers's collection of five centuries of English poets. Country! These are wits, more than poets, though there have been poets among them. But when we adhere to the ideal of the poet, we have our difficulties even with Milton and Homer. Milton is too literary, and in haiti, Homer too literal and historical.
But I am not wise enough for country essay history in life mountain a national criticism, and on poverty in haiti, must use the essay public service old largeness a little longer, to discharge my errand from the muse to the poet concerning his art. Art is the path of the creator to on poverty in haiti his work. The paths, or methods, are ideal and online-dissertation-help.com, eternal, though few men ever see them, not the artist himself for essays on poverty in haiti years, or for a lifetime, unless he come into design homework pass the conditions. The painter, the sculptor, the composer, the essays epic rhapsodist, the orator, all partake one desire, namely, to design pass express themselves symmetrically and abundantly, not dwarfishly and fragmentarily. They found or put themselves in certain conditions, as, the painter and sculptor before some impressive human figures; the orator, into the assembly of the people; and essays, the others, in relevant, such scenes as each has found exciting to his intellect; and each presently feels the new desire.
He hears a voice, he sees a beckoning. In Haiti! Then he is apprised, with wonder, what herds of daemons hem him in. He can no more rest; he says, with the old painter, By God, it is in me, and must go forth of me. He pursues a beauty, half seen, which flies before him. The poet pours out verses in every solitude. Most of the things he says are conventional, no doubt; but by and by he says something which is original and beautiful. That charms him. He would say nothing else but such things. In our way of catskill collected essay in life lore mountain talking, we say, 'That is yours, this is mine;' but the poet knows well that it is not his; that it is as strange and beautiful to him as to you; he would fain hear the like eloquence at length. Once having tasted this immortal ichor, he cannot have enough of it, and, as an admirable creative power exists in these intellections, it is of the last importance that these things get spoken.
What a little of all we know is said! What drops of all the sea of our science are baled up! and by what accident it is that these are exposed, when so many secrets sleep in nature! Hence the in haiti necessity of speech and song; hence these throbs and heart-beatings in the orator, at the door of the assembly, to the end, namely, that thought may be ejaculated as Logos, or Word. Doubt not, O poet, but persist. Say, 'It is in me, and shall out.' Stand there, baulked and dumb, stuttering and stammering, hissed and hooted, stand and strive, until, at online-dissertation-help.com, last, rage draw out of on poverty in haiti thee that dream-power which every night shows thee is thine own; a power transcending all limit and on union service, privacy, and by virtue of which a man is the conductor of the whole river of electricity. Nothing walks, or creeps, or grows, or exists, which must not in turn arise and on poverty in haiti, walk before him as exponent of his meaning. Comes he to that power, his genius is no longer exhaustible.
All the creatures, by pairs and by tribes, pour into his mind as into a Noah's ark, to online-dissertation-help.com come forth again to people a new world. This is like the stock of air for our respiration, or for the combustion of our fireplace, not a measure of gallons, but the entire atmosphere if wanted. And therefore the rich poets, as Homer, Chaucer, Shakspeare, and Raphael, have obviously no limits to their works, except the limits of essays their lifetime, and catskill collected country history in life mountain, resemble a mirror carried through the street, ready to render an on poverty in haiti image of every created thing. O poet! a new nobility is conferred in groves and pastures, and online-dissertation-help.com, not in essays, castles, or by the sword-blade, any longer. The conditions are hard, but equal. Thou shalt leave the world, and know the muse only.
Thou shalt not know any longer the times, customs, graces, politics, or opinions of men, but shalt take all from the muse. For the time of towns is tolled from the world by funereal chimes, but in nature the universal hours are counted by succeeding tribes of animals and plants, and by growth of joy on joy. God wills also that thou abdicate a manifold and duplex life, and that thou be content that others speak for thee. Electronic Test Cover! Others shall be thy gentlemen, and shall represent all courtesy and worldly life for thee; others shall do the great and resounding actions also. On Poverty In Haiti! Thou shalt lie close hid with nature, and design, canst not be afforded to the Capitol or the Exchange. The world is essays in haiti full of renunciations and apprenticeships, and this is thine: thou must pass for a fool and a churl for a long season. This is the screen and sheath in which Pan has protected his well-beloved flower, and thou shalt be known only to thine own, and they shall console thee with tenderest love. And thou shalt not be able to rehearse the names of thy friends in thy verse, for design pass an old shame before the holy ideal. And this is the reward: that the ideal shall be real to thee, and the impressions of the actual world shall fall like summer rain, copious, but not troublesome, to essays in haiti thy invulnerable essence. Thou shalt have the whole land for thy park and online-dissertation-help.com, manor, the sea for thy bath and navigation, without tax and without envy; the on poverty in haiti woods and the rivers thou shalt own; and thou shalt possess that wherein others are only tenants and boarders.
Thou true land-lord! sea-lord! air-lord! Wherever snow falls, or water flows, or birds fly, wherever day and night meet in twilight, wherever the blue heaven is hung by clouds, or sown with stars, wherever are forms with transparent boundaries, wherever are outlets into celestial space, wherever is danger, and awe, and love, there is Beauty, plenteous as rain, shed for thee, and though thou shouldest walk the world over, thou shalt not be able to essay in life lore mountain find a condition inopportune or ignoble.