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Great Persuasive Essay on Divorce: Useful Tips to Succeed

Divorce argumentative essay topics

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Great Persuasive Essay on Divorce: Useful Tips to Succeed

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Iphone Persuasive Essays and Research Papers. ? MARKETING MIX FOR THE IPHONE Cynthia Anderson AIU Online ABSTRACT The IPhone is an amazing gadget made by Apple. . When you get an IPhone you will not want to divorce argumentative topics, use any other phone. It is a phone, computer, and shoe MP3 player all wrapped up in argumentative essay topics one little small package. How Much? Steve Jobs believed that cell phones were going become important devices for divorce argumentative portable information. The original IPhone came out in apa citation for essay January 9, 2007. Steve Jobs presented one of the most incredible presentations of his life. Apple Inc. , IPhone , IPod 884 Words | 6 Pages. This report will undertake an argumentative essay topics analysis of one of the most famous household gadgets, the iPhone . Through use of economic theory and analysis we . will assess the mobile phone market and make predictions as to future prospects of the product. IPhone was first introduced by Apple’s CEO, Steve Jobs in 2007.

The first generation iPhone took the world by storm in how much is a essay 2007 as it was the first smartphone in divorce essay topics the world. With its sleek glass multi-touch touch screen display, boasting internet services, music player. Consumer theory , IPhone , IPod Touch 2300 Words | 6 Pages. Gambhir Shrestha English 96 June 17 2013 Age of Smart phone: iPhone Popular Culture is intimately connected with education, mass . communication, production and a society's ability to is a essay, access knowledge. There are lots of popular cultures but the argumentative topics most in trend and the most with the high need is cell phone which has to be smart phone. It has been now 40 years since the essay first cell phone was used. Divorce Argumentative? In 1973 Martin Cooper of book report in a shoe Motorola used a first wireless cell phone to make a call walking down street.

Apple Inc. , IPhone , IPod 1119 Words | 3 Pages. Southeast University also from the group named “Fresco”. We are really happy to have such a presentation of challenging and interesting like this . presentation also thanks to you for making us worthy for corporate. Our topic is “Marketing Plan for iPhone ”. We have learned many things from this topic which will help us in future. There were some obstacles we have faced at the time of divorce argumentative collecting data about our topic. But we have overcome all the obstacles by for essay, the endeavour effort by each member of our. App Store , Apple Inc. , IPhone 1787 Words | 7 Pages. ? Persuasive Messages Natascha Scheffel COM/295 June 1, 2015 Sandra Norris Part 1: . Persuasive Message Dear Sir, Apple one production team has come up with a new sleek design for divorce topics the next Iphone 7. Is A Essay? The Iphone 6 has had a remarkable response with our customers this past year and this motivates us to continue improving for all Apple is all about new innovative technology and futuristic growth. Iphone 6 has brought in argumentative essay amazing numbers. Apple Inc. , Apple Store , IPhone 777 Words | 4 Pages. ?The competition between android devices and iphone devices is one of the most rivalrous and talked about in the mobile market.

Both sides . could argue for days on which device is how much is a 900 word essay, better than the divorce topics other. We are going to the crucible character essay john proctor, go into deep discussion about why androids are superior and divorce argumentative topics why you should choose it over iphone . Sat Reasoning Test? Androids have the divorce argumentative topics ability to be fully customizable, while iphone offers limited customization. Second, Apple phones and Android phones have different operating systems, iOS (Apple) and. Android , App Store , Google 1282 Words | 5 Pages. ?HISTORY OF THE IPHONE In January 2007, Steve Jobs introduced the Apple iPhone during his keynote address at the Macworld . Conference and apa citation Expo.

In its first appearance on screen and in Jobs's hand, the phone looked like a sleek but inanimate black rectangle. Then, Jobs touched the screen. Suddenly, the featureless rectangle became an interactive surface. Jobs placed a fingertip on divorce, an on-screen arrow and slid it from left to right. When his finger moved, the arrow moved with it, unlocking the sat reasoning test essay prompts phone. Apple Inc. , Internet , IPhone 830 Words | 3 Pages. ? Candace Clark BRM/353 Howard Kersey Week One November 11, 2014 iPhone 6 I went into the Apple store and I observed a . lot, the store is divorce argumentative essay, really big and bright and is set up to be interactive. When you walk in book report in a shoe you feel like you have walked into the future it is not like any other electronic retail store, it is merchandised perfectly to fit the divorce argumentative topics brand. The employees are all so helpful and know there job well; they are very knowledgeable about the Apple products.

It was very busy. App Store , Apple Inc. Test? , Apple Store 1064 Words | 5 Pages. Introduction: The iPhone Phenomenon The iPhone 5 is the essay topics latest iteration of Apple’s extremely popular smartphone, due for . release on September 21, 2012 (Apple). It’s already received abundant criticism amongst the media and essay assorted technology oriented blogs for being far too incremental an update over it’s predecessor, the iPhone 4S (Barrett, Honan, Olson, Vascellaro), which in turn was faced with the same criticism (Cryer). This criticism however, hasn’t stopped the topics iPhone 5 from reaching over.

App Store , Apple Inc. , IPhone 2592 Words | 7 Pages. With the very high demand in the crucible proctor the market place for divorce topics a musical device called the IPod, it’s no surprise that the IPhone , a hybrid of a phone and . music device that it will be a big hit in the market place. This highly anticipated electronic trend setter had thousands of people waiting in line at start the apple store in New York, and all over the country trying to get their hands on this iPhone . The IPod combined with a Phone, gives birth to this amazing product which has the following features: a 3.5 inch. Apple Inc. , Apple Store , IPhone 1807 Words | 5 Pages. Steve Jobs, the iphone is competitively priced and divorce argumentative topics delivers amazing features and quality. With many different models to choose from, you are . sure to find one that will suit your needs and arrow thesis exceed your expectations. “Almost every new Apple product is thinner, faster, and lighter than its predecessor (Jason Snell, Iphone5 Takes Next Step In Smartphone Evolution, Macworld. December 2012, Vol. 29 Issue 12 pg 28-32).” Over the years I have had many different smart phones but the iphone is the only one. Apple Inc. , IPhone , IPod Touch 807 Words | 3 Pages.

main pricing decisions for its range of iPhones . The first one is a skimming price decision and the second one is divorce argumentative, a penetration pricing . decision. 900 Word Essay? 1. Skimming price decision When Apple first launched the new iPhone 3GS, it made a skimming price decision which means it aims to sell to the top of the market and divorce focuses on start argumentative essay paper, maximizing profits in short term so it could recover the research and development costs. 2. Penetration pricing decision As the iPhones have moved through their product life. Costs , Elasticity , IPhone 1263 Words | 4 Pages. Accounting for the iPhone at Apple, Inc. (HBS 9-111-003) 1. Divorce? Exhibit 3 provides the journal entries under subscription accounting. Refer to . the example in Exhibit 3. a) Complete the following FSET assuming the Apple follows subscription accounting to account for iPhone’s sales revenue (separately for the transaction in Quarter 1 and in Quarters 2 to 8). Balance Sheet Income Statement Transaction Cash Asset + Noncash Assets - = Liabilities + Contrib. Capital + Earned Capital Revenues. Balance sheet , Generally Accepted Accounting Principles , Income 870 Words | 4 Pages.

The fist factor that important in the pricing decision of iPhone 5C is by considering costs. For instance, since Apple Inc. wants to maximize . its profits through establishing new products, the book report shoe box price should be set at the point where marginal revenue equals to marginal cost. We know that iPhone 5C is in the perfectly competitive market, the company can reach its maximum profit at argumentative equilibrium at X* and report shoe P*. To determine the price, Apple Inc. Argumentative Topics? needs to do the marginal analysis. How Much 900 Word Essay? According to profits (?).

Cost , Costs , Economics 1332 Words | 4 Pages. recent release of the much-coveted iPhone 5, Apple has pronounced its dominance in the mobile phone manufacturing industry. The funny thing is, . despite its continuous growth, the venerated phone still endures the defects it did way back in its first generation release in 2007. Throughout the years, various complains have been recorded, all of which characterize conditions of a bricked iPhone . What is this “bricked iPhone ” or iPhone brick anyway? If your iPhone displays nothing but loading spinning. App Store , Apple Inc. , IPhone 808 Words | 3 Pages. Introduction This report shows you Apple’s iPhone supply chain. It will point out some areas that could be improved and will explain why . Apple could have chosen this route for their supply chain.

2. Supply Chain Map 3. The Supply Chain The supply chain for Apple’s iPhone is on the previous page. Divorce? As you can see from the supply chain numerous different parts are needed to assemble an iPhone . Six out of the ten components needed. IPhone , IPod , Supply chain management 551 Words | 3 Pages. ENG 101 3/14/2012 Iphone vs. Android What do people look for when purchasing a smart phone?

What are some of the major selling points that . convince consumers that iphones are better than androids or vice versa? Some people would argue that the two are different in thesis many ways. But when looking closely at the new Iphone 4s and the Android sells you can see that there are minimal differences. The Iphone 4s’s icon interface is simple to understand and to operate. The rows of icons allow easy access. App Store , Facebook , IPhone 1352 Words | 4 Pages. electronics market, it should be of no surprise that iPod’s unmatched demand for essay such distinct music management tool would lead Apple to add iPod’s features . to the most sold electronic device to date: the cell phone.

Thus, you get a hybrid called the iPhone . This highly anticipated electronic trend setter without fault had numbers of people waiting in line at the Apple store in New York; iPod fans want to how much is a 900 word, be among the first to explore some of the most innovative phone features to divorce essay, date. Among those features. Apple Inc. , IPhone , IPod 1844 Words | 6 Pages. The iPhone 4S is a touchscreen smartphone developed by Apple Inc. It is the fifth generation of the iPhone , a device that . combines the 3.5-inch iPod Touch with mobile phone capability. It retains the exterior design of its predecessor, the character essay proctor iPhone 4, but is host to a range of improved hardware specifications and software updates. The iPhone 4S comes in two colors, black and white. It is a combination of a hand-held computer, cell-phone, GPS, digital/video camera, and music player and divorce argumentative essay Siri into one. App Store , Apple Inc. , IPhone 1039 Words | 3 Pages. Weighing in at argumentative paper just four point eight ounces, the iPhone four is one of the most well-known and incredible touch screen cell phone devices ever . made. Topics? With so many amazing features, information and book shoe box capabilities, this phone is divorce essay topics, undoubtedly a must have of two thousand and twelve.

All around the world, you see business professionals making important calls, closing in on apa citation for essay, company deals and occasionally talking to essay, their spouses about what they will have for dinner. However, these sophisticated workers. Battery , IPhone , IPod Touch 983 Words | 3 Pages. iPhone vs. Android Showdown: Which Phone Is Best for Power Users? INTRODUCTION The newest iPhone comes out in two weeks; the . Android OS continues to deploy on better and argumentative paper better hardware; and both operating systems roll out exciting new features and divorce topics innovations with each release. So which deserves your hard-earned cash? A Starting Point You can evaluate iPhone and Android devices from countless angles, so rather than pretend that we've got the sat reasoning test essay prompts One True Comparison, it only seems appropriate to. Android , App Store , ARM architecture 2355 Words | 7 Pages. iPhone Strategic Intent Apple – A Company • Apple was founded on April 1, 1976 by essay topics, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, and Ronald Wayne to essay john proctor, sell the divorce argumentative essay . Apple I personal computer kit. • Focused on how much is a, designing and manufacturing consumer electronics and closely related software products. iPhone Strategic Intent Strategic Intent behind iPhone • Develops, sells, and supports a series of personal computers, portable media players, computer software, and essay computer hardware accessories. • Apple is the early.

Apple Inc. Start Argumentative Essay Paper? , IPhone , IPod 741 Words | 4 Pages. 3-24-13 Androids vs iPhones You walk down any average hallway, office building, school, or restaurant and guaranteed there will be at least . one person glued to divorce topics, their phone. The society that consumers of this decade have evolved in is most definitely based on technology whether it be tablets, cell phones or portable gaming consoles we rely a little too much on technology. What seems to be the biggest disagreement in the world of cellular devices is between which is better the iPhone or Android phone. App Store , Apple Inc. , IPhone 1132 Words | 3 Pages.

Roles of Consumers in 900 word essay Demand for Iphone. Demand for the iPhone On the 14th of October, hundreds and divorce argumentative essay thousands of people from all around the world queued for hours just to purchase a . Sat Reasoning Essay Prompts? gadget of the future – the divorce essay topics iPhone 4S. “Outside the Apple store on the crucible essay, Regent Street in London, a line of shoppers snaked down nearby Hanover Street . [whilst] in Covent Garden at least 700 people were queuing (Mathis, 2011).” It makes one wonder how innovative this product really is to draw this much attention. What do consumers see in argumentative topics the iPhone ? Is it about. Apple Inc. , Apple Store , Conspicuous consumption 1891 Words | 5 Pages. Accounting for the Iphone at Apple. investments from operations through internal financing. (2) Apple’s Account for iPhone under U.S. The Crucible John Proctor? GAAP and divorce argumentative Impact on Company’s Financial . Statements Apple applies the software revenue recognition rule for sales of the iPhone and uses the subscription method of 900 word essay accounting.

This method means that Apple recognizes revenue on a straight line basis over 24 month, which is the usual length of an iPhone contract. When an iPhone is sold, cash is collected at the time of sale while revenue is divorce topics, recorded as deferred. Balance sheet , Cash flow , Cash flow statement 750 Words | 3 Pages. Product/Service Analysis for Iphone. Product/Service Analysis for iPhone Brief description of market I selected iPhone for this individual assignment. Thesis? . The iPhone falls under smartphone category and Apple manufactures iPhone . A smartphone is topics, a high-end mobile phone that offers multiple innovative and convenient features than a traditional phone. Apart from test making calls, consumers want to access internet, watch video, take pictures, listen to music and want PDA features in one device and smartphone is the right product for. App Store , IPhone , IPod Touch 1488 Words | 6 Pages. IPhone vs. Divorce Argumentative? Android Educated, illiterate, professional, stay at home moms, all of these have the same thing in common. Avro Arrow Thesis? Majority of them all . have some type of smart phone whether it is an divorce argumentative Android or IPhone . Argumentative Paper? Fifty percent of American adults have a smart phone (cite this).

Smart phones tie into everyone’s life at some point. Whether you are an adult looking to replace your phone or if you are trying to decide what phone to buy your child or mom. IPhone and Android have a great amount of topics similarities. Google , IPhone , IPod Touch 1183 Words | 2 Pages. iPhone Case Study Prepared by: Ebran Kazmi C0318559 Module: Marketing Management Course: MBA Contents Pages * Introduction . 3 * Diffusion of Innovation Theory 3 * Marketing mix amp; International launch of iPhone in relation to the theory 4-5 * Steve Jobs’ statement (Agreed) 5-6 * Diffusion of innovation of roll for early adapter 6-7 * Conclusion 7 * Word Count: 1152 [excluding cover page amp; contents] * Turnitin Document. App Store , Apple Inc. , Apple Store 1216 Words | 5 Pages. ASSESS IPHONE - MAN WORKING PAPER Overview of Apple, Inc. iPhone Product Line At launching 2007 the iPhone Apple, . Inc. was new entrant in the market of mobile handsets in the Porter’s 5 forces framework (Porter, 1985). Although it was not the highest technology standard on the market it was perceived by avro arrow thesis, Apple customers as the essay pinnacle of the mobile handset hardware because of sat reasoning two main factors: the divorce argumentative essay topics offering was from a firm, being strongly branded and recognized as an innovative firm, well known by. Apple Inc. , IPhone , IPod 1437 Words | 5 Pages. Iphone 4 Technical Specifications.

iPhone 4 Technical Specifications Size and avro weight1 Height: 4.5 inches (115.2 mm) Width: 2.31 inches (58.6 mm) Depth: 0.37 inch (9.3 . mm) Weight: 4.8 ounces (137 grams) Cellular and wireless * GSM model: UMTS/HSDPA/HSUPA (850, 900, 1900, 2100 MHz); GSM/EDGE (850, 900, 1800, 1900 MHz) * CDMA model: CDMA EV-DO Rev. Divorce Argumentative Essay Topics? A (800, 1900 MHz) * 802.11b/g/n Wi-Fi (802.11n 2.4GHz only) * Bluetooth 2.1 + EDR wireless technology Location * Assisted GPS * Digital compass. Apple Inc. , IPad , IPhone 1283 Words | 7 Pages. A Review of the iPhone 5 Abstract Apple’s iPhone 5 had been under development for over a year until its release a few weeks . ago. With so much time dedicated to its development, one could expect nothing short of perfection. This and the fact that Apple is a well established brand in the market of technological gadgets accounts for the elevated expectations placed by consumers on iPhone 5. Features of how much is a 900 word this phone are innumerable, but consumers agree that they make it stand out among leading brands. App Store , IPhone , IPod Touch 986 Words | 3 Pages. The History of the iPhone By selling 8.8 million handsets in the first quarter of divorce argumentative essay 2010, the Apple iPhone has become the most . Is A 900 Word? widely sold mobile phone in topics the US.

Read on to peep into the history of this fast selling device. History and Development iPhone’s history began when Steve Jobs instructed Apple Inc’s top engineers to investigate touch screens and create the for essay iPhone . The development of essay topics this device started nearly a decade before it came to the markets in apa citation for essay 2007. In 1999, Apple acquired the. Apple Inc. , IPhone , IPhone OS 1167 Words | 4 Pages. items is the iPhone 5, which was released last month.

For Apple fans, the iPhone 5 is simply frustrating. Apple’s loyal customers . have been disappointed by the new iPhone 5 because of its decreased applications, appearance and abilities. To begin with, the applications in the new iPhone 5 are full of errors particularly appstore, iTunes and map. Firstly, although the Apple appstore’s makeover is an improvement in aesthetics, its search results are now limited to one at a time via iPhone 5, resulting. App Store , Apple Inc. , IPhone 881 Words | 3 Pages. advanced age. The iPhone 5c is the most valuable phone on the market today. It is more cost effective than its competitors, cosmetically . Topics? pleasing, and has more advance features. Is A 900 Word Essay? Because of that, the divorce argumentative iPhone 5c appeals to a substantial audience. iPhone 5c is the crucible, more capable and unique than any other phone on the planet. Apple introduced the divorce original iPhone in the crucible essay john 2007. According to divorce essay, Ritchie “instantly obsoleting every other smartphone on the market in sat reasoning test essay prompts every way that mattered” The original iPhone while not being.

App Store , Apple Inc. , IPhone 941 Words | 3 Pages. Apple Iphone SWOT Matrix A firm should not necessarily pursue the more lucrative opportunities. Rather, it may have a better chance at . developing a competitive advantage by identifying a fit between the firm's strengths and upcoming opportunities. In some cases, the divorce firm can overcome a weakness in order to book in a box, prepare itself to divorce essay, pursue a compelling opportunity. Beneficial Harmful Internal S • One of the leaders in mobile industry • Good reputation and strong brand • High quality and innovative. IPhone , IPod , Mobile phone 1369 Words | 6 Pages. Battle between iPhone and BlackBerry iPhone and the BlackBerry competition’s may have become an old story for anyone. Avro Thesis? As we . know, the BlackBerry dominates the market until Apple launched its revolutionary product, iPhone . Divorce Argumentative? iPhone and BlackBerry, are two successful leading mobile phone, but differ in terms of features and appearance. Apa Citation For Essay? Even until now, still a major consideration for buying an iPhone or a BlackBerry. Divorce Essay Topics? Some differences of is a 900 word these two brand new phone are. IPhone’s design.

BlackBerry , E-mail , IPhone 543 Words | 4 Pages. Supply Chain of the Iphone 4 Series. Discuss the Supply Chain Management of a Particular, Product/Company/Service of your Choice. In this report we will analyseq the divorce argumentative topics supply chain management . of the iPhone 4 series. Character Essay? This will be done by argumentative, researching the different parts of the supply chain, looking at how they are integrated and ‘referring to processes and exchanges across multiple organisations,’ (Verma and Boyer, 2010) and how the ‘operations management consists of the test essay processes that effectively produces, transform, and deliver a. App Store , Apple Inc. , IPhone 2440 Words | 7 Pages. Apple Iphone 4s Marketing Strategy. shopping |functional and reliable device.|contract cost $350. | | | |malls, and divorce ETC. . | | | Market share: Iphone : The new Iphone has a market share of 28% in United States. Start Argumentative? Android: Talking about the Androids they dominate market with 43% share.

Blackberry: Blackberry again going well and divorce argumentative essay topics has a 18% share in United States market. Windows: On the other hand Windows. App Store , Apple Inc. , Business cycle 1620 Words | 7 Pages. Apple Iphone: Life in the Technology Lane. Apple Iphone : Life in the Technology Lane Apple iPhone : Life in box the Technology Lane 1. Divorce Argumentative Topics? Apple CEO Steve Jobs alluded to sat reasoning, the . price a customer may have to pay to own an iPhone when he said that the steep and argumentative topics sudden price change was simply part of “life in the technology lane.” What did he mean? Beyond the simple exchange of apa citation for essay money, what else might the argumentative topics price of such a product include? Life in argumentative paper the technology lane can be defined according to Steve Jobs in divorce essay the Apple website, as a “bumpy road”. This.

Apple Inc. , IPhone , Marketing 925 Words | 3 Pages. producing new Iphone 6 The History of the iPhone is connected with the appearance of the popular player iPod. In the period of . 2002-2004, Apple CEO Steve Jobs began to develop the the crucible john proctor idea of creating a device which would be able to combine all the argumentative essay topics gadgets . The first iPhone was announced by Steve Jobs at the MacWorld Expo Conference in essay john proctor January 9, 2007.This product came in the market in June 29, 2007 and divorce argumentative quickly became an important part of the smartphone market in the U.S. For a short time iPhone was not. Apple Inc. , IPhone , IPod 933 Words | 4 Pages. iPhone 5 or Nexus 5 A huge argument in the smartphone industry is the debate as to whether Android or iOS is superior. This debate can lead to . heated arguments and even using colorful language.

A good comparison of smartphones is to compare the how much is a 900 word essay Google Nexus 5 to the Apple iPhone 5. Divorce Essay Topics? Although the iPhone 5 has great features, the Nexus 5 is avro arrow, superior in various ways because of the freedom to control your own devices software, ease of use for media formats, and hardware specifications. Google’s Android. Google , IPhone , Mobile phone 987 Words | 3 Pages. of the market. Average selling price of iPhone is much higher than its competitors, and it yields very high margins for Apple. Despite all . the argumentative efforts like, lower prices, aggressive marketing, innovations, etc. Samsung so far has not been able to challenge Apple's dominance in the premium segment. Samsung reported a muted growth in the sales of thesis its premium handsets for divorce argumentative essay the last reported quarter, whereas Apple reported an the crucible essay 8% sequential rise in the iPhone shipments during the same period. (Source. Android , Intellectual property , IPhone 1205 Words | 4 Pages.

Questionaire for divorce topics Research Between Iphone or Blackberry as a Better Option. specify)______ Post graduate()_ Graduate_()__ Q1. Do you have your own mobile phone? a) Yes b) No Q2. How many mobile phones do you . have? a) 1 b) 2 or more Q3. What brand is it? a) Nokia b) Blackberry c) Iphone d) Samsung Q4. You often use mobile to? a) Call b) Sms c) Wap (mobile internet) d) MMS Q5. What type of phone would you like to have? a) Flap phone b) Slide phone c) Tough phone d) Luxury fashion phone e). IPhone , Mobile phone , Motorola 311 Words | 3 Pages.

IPhone 5 V.S. Samsung Galaxy S3 In today’s world of the crucible john proctor technology there is a great battle between many tech geeks out there about topics, which . smartphone is superior in today’s market. Although the IPhone 5 and argumentative essay paper the Samsung Galaxy S3 are both some of the most high quality tech phones you can get on today’s market, they are very different in their performance, appearance, and the features. Some of divorce essay characteristics that separate the two phones are the size of the phones, camera, screen resolution, processors. 1080p , Display resolution , High-definition television 944 Words | 3 Pages. Iphone vs. Androind Compare and Contrast Essay. Comparing Smart Phones: iPhone and Android Over the last decade, electronic-based companies such as Samsung and Apple have collaborated with . Sat Reasoning? cellular-phone carriers, and have studied the average consumer to essay topics, find endless ways to improve the cellular phone.

As a result, the sat reasoning test smart phone was born. With their ability to provide users with instant access to communication, entertainment, Internet access, calendar, news, social media, and argumentative topics much more, the avro arrow thesis smart phone revolutionized and divorce argumentative essay shifted the path. App Store , IPhone , IPod Touch 775 Words | 3 Pages. IPhone Evaluation New top-end mobile phones such as the Apple Iphone are allowing a new class of mobile to start argumentative essay, emerge in the world . today. Combined with its ease of use, rich design, and well-organized application system through Apple App Store makes the Iphone an appealing platform for development of other smartphones. The Apple IPhone was released on June 29, 2007 by CEO of Apple Steve Jobs (Honan). The IPhone offers many of the innovative features found on competing devices, but it also differs. App Store , Apple Inc. , BlackBerry 1173 Words | 4 Pages. Epitome of the iPhone In today’s modern world of divorce cellular phones and avro technological advancement, there are many options a college consumer can . Divorce Argumentative Topics? choose when picking what the right cell phone for them is. Essay? The apple company is divorce topics, one of the book report in a shoe box largest growing companies when it comes to cell phones, and more than 60% of Americans, including myself, use some type of their cellular products. Argumentative? As far as their new technology goes, Apple has been less than impressive.

With the release of the argumentative essay paper new iPhone 5C, apple has. App Store , Apple Inc. , IPhone 949 Words | 3 Pages. Case 1 Who Makes The Apple Iphone. ?February 4, 2015 Who Makes the Apple iPhone 1. What are the benefits to Apple of outsourcing the assembly of the divorce iPhone to . foreign countries, and particularly China? What are the potential costs and risks to avro, Apple? There are many benefits for essay topics Apple in outsourcing their assembly line to China. Although Apple claims that the decision wasn’t about the cheap labor, it all comes down to the money. Essay Prompts? The decision was rooted in the fact that it would save Apple a lot of argumentative essay topics money.

It is avro arrow, understandable that. App Store , Apple Inc. , Economy of the People's Republic of China 769 Words | 2 Pages. 500 million iPhones . It's an impressive number. in 2012 alone, Apple sold 120 million iPhones , in essay 2013 Apple sold 160 . million iPhones . Report In A Shoe? Without a doubt, the iPhone has become a 'cult product', a 'must have' device. Which are the secrets behind the iPhone astounding success? To understand the spectacular iPhone success, and the iPhone phenomenon, we need to start by analyzing the divorce topics cellular telephone market in apa citation the years immediately before the launch of the essay first iPhone , And the. App Store , Apple Inc. Start? , IPhone 1654 Words | 7 Pages. Browsing as the divorce argumentative topics Killer App: Explaining the Rapid Success of Apple’s Iphone Browsing as the Killer App: Explaining the Rapid Success of Apple’s Iphone. Browsing as the apa citation killer app: Explaining the rapid success of Apple’s iPhone Title : Browsing as the killer app: Explaining the rapid . success of divorce essay Apple’s iPhone Article by : Joel West and essay john Michael Mace Published by/in : Elsevier Date of Publication : 2010 INTRODUCTION Writer: Dr. Joel West is a Professor from San Jose University, College of Business. He is a famous writer for business articles.

Michael Mace is a consultant from Rubicon Consulting Inc. These writers are very exposed. App Store , Apple Inc. , Ericsson 1209 Words | 4 Pages. ? Consumption Behaviour Context Why people buy Iphones People buy Iphone's for many different reasons. Divorce Topics? Some of the common factors as to why . people buy Iphones is because of premium quality, excellent performance, smooth operating software, designed to perfectly fit the palm of your hands, position in avro thesis smart phone industry, excellent camera. External factors that affect consumers behaviour to purchase the Iphone are factors such as trends in society, friends/peers/ families owning the product. App Store , Apple Inc. , Decision theory 1517 Words | 5 Pages. about what has caused Apple’s iPhone 4 woes -in particular, the divorce phone’s antenna design and the company’s struggle with supply and demand. . Apple recently released the fourth generation iPhone with a design flaw in the antenna that substantially degrades the test prompts reception when held in the palm of your hand.

This, in turn, has created the problems the company has had with meeting the needs of the consumer, as well as with the divorce essay topics future launch of the white version of the iPhone 4. Rumor mill says the white. App Store , Apple Inc. , IPad 2492 Words | 7 Pages. preferences between Iphone and Samsung Galaxy Marketing research of arrow thesis customers’ preferences between Iphone and Samsung Galaxy . Goal: to recognize and identify a marketing problem of the argumentative organization, collect and proctor interpret information available through consumers, analyze external and divorce argumentative essay internal environment, as well as defining main competitors, researching the market share of the company, identify existing problems. Main marketing related problem – a lot of people prefer Apple’s Iphone to Galaxy series. Apple Inc. , IPhone , IPhone OS 1290 Words | 5 Pages.

SUBJECT: APPLE IPHONE VERSUS THE BLACKBERRY STORM Smartphones are the new generation of phones which can not only make calls, but also . surf the internet, keep a calendar, look at avro thesis the weather, and divorce give you GPS driving directions. I plan to compare and contrast the Apple iPhone and the Blackberry Storm so that my classmates will get an arrow idea of divorce essay which would be best for them. Each phone has different qualities and features that will benefit different people. How Much Is A 900 Word Essay? I intend to explain (1) the functions. App Store , Apple Inc. , IPad 1136 Words | 5 Pages. solve them. Remember including relevant citations to support your evidences and viewpoints. Ethical issues in iPhone 1. Topics? Introduction . . With an elegant combination of a mobile phone, iPod and personal digital assistant (PDA), iPhone was launched at thesis Apple and ATT stores across the divorce essay US on avro thesis, June 29, 2007(Place, 2007). iPhone is by divorce topics, no means a prodigious success by selling one million iPhones within 3 months (Wolverton, 2007). However, what coupled with its splendid success are numerous criticisms from.

App Store , Apple Inc. , Ethics 957 Words | 3 Pages. iPhone Marketing Strategy iphone marketing strategy Iphone marketing strategy – Just like just about all Apple . company advertising, the actual apple iphone online marketing strategy is argumentative essay, extremely obvious, easy as well as smart. Argumentative Essay? Using the basically apple company image, Apple company targets the actual real revolutionary type of their own items without having all of the avro “fluff”. Essay? The actual apple iphone was launched through Apple company within 06, 2007. The actual ground-breaking type of the actual. App Store , Apple Inc. , IPhone 1802 Words | 5 Pages. companies to the crucible essay, achieve the phenomenal success they have today in China. General Information Apple was founded very early in America on April 1976. The . first iPhone created by Apple was released to the Chinese public in 2009 and it slowly gained popularity among the essay topics Chinese.

According to Apple’s Chief Operation Officer Tim Cook, iPhone sales in China grew by almost 250% between 2011 and 2012 to bring Apple’s revenue in China to just under US$5 billion, representing about 10 percent of Apple’s total. App Store , Apple Inc. , IPhone 2009 Words | 6 Pages. launch on September 20, 2013, Apple Inc. sold 2,750,000 iPhone 5s'. The Apple iPhone is the top sold smartphone and is continuing . to control the market. The iPhone 5s is sat reasoning test essay prompts, a very respected and prominent product, it is used by millions of essay topics people for many tasks like work and school. There are few things that stand out to me that I have chosen for arrow thesis the iPhone 5s to evaluate it in: Design, Technology, Software, and the App Store. Argumentative? I believe that the iPhone 5s proves itself in all of these categories, and many. App Store , Apple Inc. Essay Prompts? , IPad 1346 Words | 4 Pages. ?Nicole Rodriguez Prof. Gidley English 101C 16 October 2013 IPhone vs.

Android Over the divorce argumentative topics years technology has been improving in arrow terms . of entertainment, social media, and communication. Today, smart phones are a verification of this improving technology, but how do we decide which one is the better device? IPhone and Android are the latest most powerful operating systems out on the market. There are advantages and disadvantages to both cellular devices, and the ongoing competition will improve. App Store , Apple Inc. , Google 818 Words | 3 Pages. Targeted Group of iPhone : Mobile Email Marketing: iPhone -targeted landing pages boost conversion rate 40% for argumentative essay Ritz-Carlton . Report? Destination Club ------------------------------------------------- Top of divorce essay Form Forward to a Colleague Send this article to a friend or colleague Your Name* Your Email* Required but will not be posted online.

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THE MILAN APPROACH TO FAMILY THERAPY: A CRITIQUE KATE TUCKER. The essence of essay topics, life is the progression of such changes as growth, self-duplication, and synthesis of complex relationships. (Odum 1983: 87) Life occurs within the context of ecosystems, which include both the living and non-living elements of the environment (Odum 1983: 13). All the how much is a elements of an ecosystem influence each other in patterns of interdependencies. An ecosystemic post-modernist, deconstructionist view, presupposes that there is no one culture, no one worldview or reality, and no one #145;correct#146; model of psychology. Argumentative Essay Topics! It is particularly important to understand this point in the South African context, where so many cultural and how much is a 900 word, ethnic groups live side by side in an ever-changing ecology of ideas. If a critique is to be meaningful, it should be informed, and should take into account the ecology of the conceptual framework that is argumentative essay topics being subject to criticism and should be consistent with the assumptions of that framework (Becvar Becvar 1998: 221).

An attempt will be made therefore to enter into report box the ecology or framework of the Milan approach to family therapy in order to argumentative essay topics, write this critique. However, consistent with a ecosystemic perspective, it should be born in mind that the is a underlying propositions of the culture in which one has been socialised have a fundamental influence on one#146;s view of reality, on one#146;s thought processes, perceptions and intellectual functioning. In other words, in order to write a truly meaningful critical evaluation of the Milan approach to argumentative topics, family therapy, it is is a essay not possible to stand outside the theory and merely observe (as in the black box metaphor) (Becvar Becvar 1998: 63). The act of engaging in critical evaluation sets up a dialogue with the theory, which impacts on essay topics, the worldview of the writer. The process of interpretation of the theory in order to subject it to critical analysis impacts on the theory #150; the theory as interpreted is not necessarily the sat reasoning essay prompts theory as intended by the originators of that theory. The way that the reality of the theory is observed partly determines what is seen and how that reality is divorce understood (Zohar 1991: 28). Honderich (1995:13) says that there is in a box currently a distinct vacuum in interpretative theory#133; critical as well as philosophical, #145;continental#146; as well as #145;analytic#146; #150; across the divorce argumentative entire range of western debate. The Milan group contended that there is a tyranny of shoe, linguistics (Becvar Becvar 1998: 239), which traps therapists and essay topics, clients into linear ways of for essay, thinking.

This writer sees the work of the Milan group as a dialogue or rather #145;multilogue#146; that attempts to topics, break free of the received view of the Western logical-positivist tradition, and traditional depth psychology. This writer sees the systemic approach of the Milan group as confronting the #145;tyranny of linguistics#146; and the #145;discursive vacuum#146;. The original Milan group (Palazzoli, Boscolo, Cecchin, Prata) has split up and the various members have gone their separate ways (Becvar Becvar 1998: 239), splitting up in 1980 (Becvar Becvar 1998: 245). However, the epistemology of the divergent groups can reasonably be assumed to still be based on the same underlying principles as that of the is a 900 word essay original group. Bearing this in mind, the discussion of the epistemology of the Milan group will be based on the broad principles of the divorce argumentative original group. There are several important elements of the Milan group#146;s approach that require discussion. The systemic element. The Milan approach to family therapy has been called systemic in the tradition of Bateson#146;s circular epistemology. For Essay! (Becvar Becvar 1998: 239) For Bateson (1971: 243) systems are units that incorporate feedback mechanisms; and by virtue of feedback, these units (systems) can process information. Such systems can be ecological, social, and individual.

Individuals are contextually located. For Bateson, families are systems comprised of topics, individuals who are also systems (Bateson 1971: 243). Most important for Bateson was the shift in test essay prompts, focus from traditional linear thinking and divorce essay, the traditional perception of the individual mind to a way of understanding the mind as part of a circuit. This means that the book report in a shoe box concept of mind is considered within the context of all relevant completed circuits (Bateson 1971: 244). In this manner Bateson resolves the dichotomy between mind and body, as for him mind, body, action and the objects (or people) which are acted upon are all part of divorce, a circuit of mental activity. This means that for Bateson, behaviour that in the traditional paradigms is considered to be pathological or abnormal and intrapsychic, is in the circular paradigm, interpersonal and relational (Becvar Becvar 1998: 22). The focus in Bateson#146;s paradigm has shifted from the inner workings of the individual mind to the consideration of relationships in context (Becvar Becvar 1998: 22). Bateson based his ideas on several sources, including the work of Ludwig von Bertalanffy, Norbert Wiener, Warren McCulloch, Alfred North Whitehead, and start paper, Bertrand Russell, as well as mathematics and essay topics, engineering (Becvar Becvar 1998: 18 f.) An important concept for Bateson was Russell#146;s paradox, based on his Theory of arrow, Logical Types (Becvar Becvar 1998: 18). Essentially Russell#146;s paradox states that most classes are not members of themselves, but some are (Honderich 1995: 785).

Russell#146;s Theory of Logical Types deals with the complexities of divorce argumentative essay, relations between the members of classes and the discontinuity that arises between different levels of abstraction, or between a class and the members of that class (Becvar Becvar 1998: 18) (Honderich 1995: 785, 884). Bateson examined the paradoxical situations suggested by Russell#146;s paradox and the dislocated communication patterns that can exist in such situations. Based on how much 900 word essay, this Bateson and his research group moved towards a position of divorce essay topics, seeing disorders, such as schizophrenia, in terms of communication patterns within individuals and within families, rather than in terms of biogenic or intrapsychic pathology (Becvar Becvar 1998: 20). Several of these elements are important in the context of the Milan group. How Much Is A 900 Word! Paradoxes, levels of meaning, the evolutionary nature of systems (even when apparently stuck) (Becvar Becvar 1998: 240), patterns of information, feedback and divorce argumentative essay, recursiveness are all concepts that draw from Bateson#146;s work. Systems are homeostatic and morphogenic (McKay, in Visser et al 1995: 285 f.); they strive simultaneously for balance and change. Macy (1991) suggests that systems are autonomous. Character John! Macy then proceeds to discuss the autonomy of systems in terms of self-regulation (homeostasis and morphogenesis): systems regulate themselves, but are conditioned (changed) by the environment and by input from the environment (Macy 1991: 92).

The Milan group saw the world in terms of patterns of relationships and information, rather than in terms of matter and energy (Becvar Becvar 1998: 240). For Macy, matter, energy, and information are utilised dynamically by systems: external causes are actively transformed in interaction with any system (Macy 1991: 92). Because of the dynamics of change within systems, the implication is that systems are not subject solely to either internal or external causes. This perspective is consistent with Bateson#146;s view that people#146;s behaviour and thought processes must be seen in terms of the total context of the relationship between people, actions, thoughts and divorce essay topics, external objects or people in relationship. The Milan group saw that families came to therapy with a paradoxical request: families wanted the stability of an unchanged system, but also wanted the problem member of the family to be cured (Becvar Becvar 1998: 240). Apa Citation! However, the argumentative Milan group saw the problem as being rooted in book report in a, the family rather than in the individual. Consistent with a systems theoretical perspective, and consistent with Bateson#146;s circular or recursive patterns, the group believed that it was not possible to change the patterns of behaviour and communication in one part of the system (the identified patient) without affecting the family system as a whole (Becvar Becvar 1998: 240) 4.3 . Feedback and equifinality/equipotentiality. Feedback is topics described as the aspect of recursion involving self-correction (Becvar Becvar 1998: 64). Feedback is what keeps a system functioning the way it does. How Much 900 Word Essay! The Milan group took cognisance of the importance of topics, recursiveness 3.1.1 and feedback. Test Essay! It was important that both theory and therapy be responsive to divorce, feedback in the therapy situation (Becvar Becvar 1998: 240).

Negative feedback is taken into account in the Milan Group#146;s approach to theory and therapy (Becvar Becvar 1998: 247). The Milan Group#146;s awareness of what happened in the therapeutic situation led them to discard a linear way of thinking and suggesting interventions, and to move towards a more circular approach to instigation and intervention (Palazzoli et al 1989: 118). Argumentative! This demonstrates that feedback from therapy punctuated their epistemology and that changes in epistemology led to changes in argumentative essay topics, clinical practices. This means that the book shoe box system of the Milan Group itself changed: the argumentative essay ecology of ideas took on a different perspective. This is an example of feedback on a level of simple cybernetics: the system (the Milan Group) changed in response to information fed back into it from interaction between the group and the clients. The status quo was not maintained, so the process is referred to as positive feedback (Becvar Becvar 1998: 65). A second-order cybernetic way of looking at feedback in this context is that the Milan Group was error-activated: information that differed from their original ideas was fed back into the system (the Group, in interaction with their clients), and the Group responded to this information in such a way that the difference (from their previous concepts) was accepted (Becvar Becvar 1998: 66). Start Argumentative Paper! It is important to note that this feedback still functioned to stabilise or correct the system: the Milan Group incorporated new ideas, changed their strategies and thinking into divorce more circular patterns, and continued to function (until such time as the Group did in report shoe box, fact split up) as a family therapeutic group. Whether or not the members of the Milan Group analysed the feedback process in argumentative essay, this manner is not known.

What is important is that they incorporated feedback from therapy into theory and vice versa. According to the principle of arrow, equifinality systems function according to characteristic, repetitive patterns of interaction (Becvar Becvar 1998: 69). The goal of a system is its own survival (Palazzoli et al 1989: 159): a system, as it is , is argumentative topics its own best explanation of book in a shoe, itself (Becvar Becvar 1998: 69) (my italics). Argumentative Essay Topics! Family members tend to develop habits and ways of sat reasoning test essay prompts, communicating and relating to each other, so that regardless of how a situation starts, the topics tendency is to end in a characteristic way. An example might be a wife#146;s complaint that her husband #145;always#146; shouts at her when she does something he does not approve of, while the husband might react by apa citation saying that his wife #145;never#146; considers the implications of her actions, but #145;only ever#146; thinks of the immediate present. Whether the wife buys expensive Christmas presents for divorce essay topics the children, or new curtains, with her annual bonus, the end result will be that the husband will shout at her for not thinking of putting some money aside as savings. Sat Reasoning! The wife considers that the purpose of the divorce argumentative annual bonus is to provide for Christmas or to refurbish the home.

The husband perceives the wife as never thinking of the future: each reacts in a certain, characteristic way, which preserves the system and the communication patterns as they are. Complementary to the principle of equifinality is the essay john principle of equipotentiality, which states that different endings can be reached from the same initial actions (Becvar Becvar 1998: 69). To continue with the example: the husband might decide that the argumentative essay topics new curtains are actually an investment in the family home, and might praise his wife for her forethought and consideration in not spending her bonus on presents that the children will have forgotten about before the start argumentative essay paper end of January. The wife might be so pleasantly surprised that she would start to invest some of her salary every month towards future home improvements. These two complementary principles have a focus in the here-and-now, directing one towards what is happening rather than why something is divorce argumentative essay topics happening. What is important is the present functioning of the system, rather than the history of how the system came to be or to function in apa citation, a certain way (Becvar Becvar 1998: 69). Initially the Milan Group based their theory on the concepts of the Palo Alto Group, using the telephone system model (a model of interactive circularity) (Palazzoli, Cirillo, Selvini Sorrentino 1989: 159) (Cecchin et al 1994: 14). This model is impersonal and a-historical: all users are equal, irrespective of who they are, what their personal characteristics are, and what their historical backgrounds are.

What is important in a telephone system is rapid action and reaction (Palazzoli et al 1989: 160). This model functions according to the principles of equifinality and equipotentiality. However, for the Milan Group, the model proved to be inadequate. For this group what mattered was the circular processes and interactions within the family that take place over the years that it takes for a person to become a patient. Argumentative Essay! For the Milan Group, the circularity that mattered is to be found in the history, not in the instant (Palazzoli et al 1989: 160) (original italics). Time or history, for the crucible character john the Milan Group was vitally important, and they saw time as being linked to process (Palazzoli et al 1989: 260). They found that the telephone system model to be simplistic and reductive (Palazzoli et al 1989: 160). For example, according to Palazzoli and essay, colleagues (1989: 160) there are many factors that might cause a husband to become a wife-beater: provocative behaviour by the wife, education level, adherence to cultural norms, personality, motivations, expectations, and the rules of what the test essay prompts Milan Group calls the family game. This does not mean that they rejected the importance of the here-and-now in their theoretical or clinical work, but believed rather that the here-and-now should be integrated together with history into a multidimensional model (Palazzoli et al 1989: 160). Divorce Argumentative! For the Milan Group circularity is a process that entails a completion the various arcs of a circuit over a period of time, but that also takes into apa citation for essay account the here-and-now, and incorporates individual, intermediate events. It is important to divorce argumentative essay topics, note at this stage that the argumentative position assumed by divorce topics the Milan Group is thus inconsistent with second order cybernetics, as it does have a historical perspective, in addition to a present oriented focus 6 . Strategic approaches evolved from both general systems theory and communications approaches to psychology (Becvar Becvar 1998: 223).

Strategic therapists build on the assumptions that #145;one cannot not communicate#146; and #145;one cannot not behave#146; (Becvar Becvar 1998: 222). These assumptions form an important part of communication science. In communication science there are many models to explain the process of communication, from the linear Shannon and Weaver model, through Osgood and arrow, Schramm#146;s circular model to Verderber#146;s transactional model (Steinberg 1997:17 ff.). Verderber#146;s transactional model is divorce of relevance in this context, as it demonstrates not only that communication is an ongoing, circular process, verbal and non-verbal, but that it is shoe box a process by which the parties concerned negotiate meanings (Steinberg 1997: 19). According to Steinberg (1997: 19) the divorce argumentative essay creation of meaning is negotiated between the book in a participants (my italics). In postmodernist, cybernetic terms, this implies that meaning is not present prior to the communication encounter, but that meaning is divorce argumentative essay created out of the encounter, according to the way that the encounter or relationship punctuates the realities of the parties.

Strategic therapists add a further injunction to the two above, namely; #145;one cannot not manipulate#146; (Becvar Becvar 1998: 222). In a relationship each member tries to find ways of how much, being in a position to define or control the essay topics relationship (Becvar Becvar 1998: 222). Book In A Box! Steinberg (1997: 84) suggests that this is divorce argumentative true even in apparently one-sided power relationships, such as a complementary autocratic-abdicratic relationship: both parties seek to define and control the relationship as one in which their needs are met. The autocrat seeks to control and arrow, dominate, while the abdicrat seeks to be dominated, abdicating control to the dominant partner. Each seeks to define the divorce essay relationship to meet their specific needs. Becvar Becvar (1998: 222) suggest that manipulation is the inevitable consequence of being in apa citation for essay, a relationship in which each member seeks to argumentative essay topics, control or define its nature. Communication patterns, the impossibility of not communicating/behaving (behaviour being seen as a way of communicating), paradoxical injunctions, and manipulation are important aspects of the strategic approach that Milan Group have incorporated into their theory and practice. The Milan Group found it important to consider the history of their clients; for them it was necessary to in a shoe, know and understand the clients#146; backgrounds and influences over time 3.1.2 . Argumentative Essay! This is related to the concern that strategic therapists direct to the conceptual frameworks of their clients. It is also related to Bateson#146;s 3.1.1 concept that body, mind, action, and person/object are all part of a circuit of character essay proctor, relationship: the mind and divorce argumentative essay, its thoughts do not exist independently of the body or of the people, actions and relationships that form the the crucible system in which an individual functions.

A problem is not a problem unless it is essay topics defined as such (Becvar Becvar 1998: 224). How a person or family defines a specific behaviour as problematic reflects the arrow way they think, as well as how they relate to each other#146;s worldviews (Becvar Becvar 1998: 224). However, the clients are not necessarily aware that there is more than one way of looking at the behaviour that they have defined as problematic (Becvar Becvar 1998: 224): they are not necessarily aware that people function in divorce argumentative essay, a multiverse rather than a universe. Strategic therapists believe it is important to reframe the problem in such a way that it is no longer perceived as problematic (Becvar Becvar 1998: 224). The Milan Group saw that new meanings needed to be introduced into a family system in order to change behaviour and to reframe or re-write the perception of a given behaviour so that it was not longer seen as problematic (Becvar Becvar 1998: 241). Essay! Meanings are defined by conceptual frameworks or worldviews (Becvar Becvar 1998: 224). Therefore the Milan Group needed to be able to understand the worldviews of their clients, and to do this they considered it vitally important to understand the history of their clients (Palazzoli et al 1989: 160, 260, op cit.) 3.1.2 . Verderber#146;s transactional model of communication states that meaning is created in a communication encounter (Steinberg 1997: 19, op cit.). The Milan Group did not regard their clients as phenomena #145;out there#146;, but rather as a therapeutic system of family plus therapist (Palazzoli et al 1989: 267). They used the therapeutic encounters to essay, perturb the family system (Palazzoli et al 1989: 267) so as to arrow, create new meanings or thought connections that would lead to new patterns of thought and behaviour (Becvar Becvar 1998: 240) (i.e. to worldviews that did not admit the argumentative previous definition of the problem). It is crucial to note that the how much is a 900 word essay Milan Group recognised that the argumentative different family members each reacted in how much essay, their own different ways to therapeutic inventions (Palazzoli et al 1989: 260). Divorce Argumentative Topics! This acknowledgement lead them, in a recursive way, back to acknowledging the importance of history, which placed them in an epistemological dilemma: a cybernetic, systemic view stressing the character essay john proctor importance of the here-and-now versus the need for history (Palazzoli et al 1989: 260).

This led to their moving towards a multidimensional approach to both therapy and argumentative, theory, and a determined effort not to become trapped in the crucible character essay proctor, an ideological reification of systems theory (Palazzoli et al 1989: 261). A significant way of argumentative essay topics, avoiding this ideological or dogmatic trap was suggested by Cecchin and the crucible essay john, colleagues after the divorce split up of the original Milan Group. This is the viewing of models, hypotheses, and techniques as prejudices rather than unquestionable facts (Cecchin, Lane Ray 1994: 15). In terms of Verderber#146;s transactional model of thesis, communications, prejudices or beliefs are located within the process and the communicating system. This model stresses the argumentative topics importance of values, background, attitudes, and culture in the creation and negotiation of meaning (Steinberg 1995: 19). Thus, even though Cecchin and colleagues#146; epistemological position post-dates the original Milan Group, it can be seen to have developed out of the sat reasoning essay strategic approach that was one of the jumping off points for the original group#146;s theoretical framework. Cecchin and colleagues (1994: 15) take the epistemological standpoint that there is no one truth and therefore that therapists should be aware there is no one truth to discover. Perceiving a model, hypothesis, or technique as a prejudice or bias, and being aware of divorce essay, multiverses rather than a universe, allows therapists to engage in true dialogue with clients and other therapists, rather than forcing a bias on to others (Cecchin et al 1994: 15). For Essay! This does not mean that a prejudice or bias is not useful, but rather that therapists should be self-reflexive and should engage in open scrutiny and examination of the beliefs (Cecchin et al 1994: 15).

Further, Cecchin and colleagues (1994: 15) stress the fact that any belief that is worth holding should not only divorce argumentative, be examined in this way, but that it should be contextually relevant. A belief only start, makes sense in essay topics, context, and taking it out of context stops dialogue and can lead to the system (the family plus the therapist (Palazzoli et al 1989: 267 op cit. 3.2 ).) becoming stuck (Cecchin et al 1994: 15). The self-reflexivity that Cecchin and colleagues propose is naturally related to prompts, the broad principles of general systems theory. Divorce Argumentative! Framing the beliefs of the therapist in terms of prejudices that could interrupt the communication process within the system of family plus therapist is consistent with a cybernetic viewpoint. The linguistic element and indeterminacy. The Milan group focused on overcoming the tyranny of linguistics, which by its very nature keeps therapists and character essay, clients thinking in an intrapsychic, linear manner. They thus forced a different language on themselves as they sought to understand families in different ways. (Becvar Becvar 1998: 239) The Milan Group forced (Becvar Becvar 1998: 239 op cit.) themselves to find a new language that was open to difference and to a multiversal point of view.

Underpinning this new language (Becvar Becvar 1998 239 op cit.), which sought to essay topics, free the apa citation therapeutic system from essay, entrenched meanings that led to systems becoming stuck, is an epistemology that derives from a deconstructionist philosophy. In second order cybernetics and in a transactional model of communications, reality is created or negotiated in the here-and-now 3.2 (Steinberg 1994: 19) (Becvar Becvar 1998: 69). 900 Word! Husserl tried to achieve a theory of the relationship between a communicator#146;s words (written or spoken) and language in divorce, terms of differential signs (Honderich 1995: 201). Husserl also tried to systematise the here-and-now as presence: presence as #145;here#146; and presence as #145;now#146; being one and is a essay, the same (Taylor 1992: 253). Deconstructionist philosopher Derrida coined the term différance in reaction to Husserl#146;s philosophy. For Derrida the divorce argumentative essay topics present (time) and what is present (spatially) is always becoming: it never #145;is#146;, there is no ultimate point of existence in space-time (Taylor 1992: 253). Book Report In A Box! In other words, and consistent with second order cybernetics and Verderber#146;s model, reality and meaning are always becoming or being created; they do not exist out there waiting to be discovered. Equally, reality and meaning are never #145;real#146; or fixed in essay topics, the past; the reality of the past is being created within people as they punctuate their present, becoming realities. Also prominent in sat reasoning, Derrida#146;s work is his examination of language and divorce argumentative essay, how language outwits philosophers (Honderich 1995: 188). To this end he emphasises puns, paradoxes, metaphors, ambiguity, indeterminacy, and the importance of play (Honderich 1995: 188).

The Milan Group also focussed on metaphor and avro, paradox in their work and theory (Becvar Becvar 1998), and their first major publication was Paradox and Counterparadox (Becvar Becvar 1998: 239). Strategic therapists 3.2 also used paradox, metaphor, and play as therapeutic tools (Becvar Becvar 1998: 229 ff.). There is a conceptual link between language, reality, meaning, and indeterminacy. Derrida emphasised indeterminacy in his approach to language and meaning, as well as in divorce essay, his approach to reality (Taylor 1992: 253, op cit.) Indeterminacy is, for Derrida, a concept that is part of the différance : it is the relationship between oppositions that makes oppositions (or dichotomies) both simultaneously possible and impossible (Goosen 1994:101). Western traditional philosophy and psychology tends to be linear and start argumentative, dichotomous in its approach, characterised by oppositions (male-female, good-bad, right-wrong, people-God etc.) (Goosen 1994: 25). Hegel#146;s philosophy was an attempt to create a union of these dichotomies (Goosen 1994: 25) and to heal the fragmentation he perceived in modern life (Goosen 1994: 51). Derrida, however, proposed that modern life is indeterminate: there is no healing union or whole. This was recognised by the Milan Group, who assumed the position that they had to divorce, learn to live with doubt, both about theory and praxis (Cecchin et al 1994: 19).

With some similarity to Russell#146;s paradox 3.1.1 , Derrida suggests that the arrow whole cannot exist except by virtue of its difference from the nonwhole (Goosen 1994: 101). Derrida#146;s view of essay, indeterminacy or the différance suggests that if the whole is possible by virtue of the existence of something other than itself (non-whole), then it ceases to avro, be a whole, because it depends on divorce argumentative essay, something outside itself. But Derrida also says that the 900 word whole must exist only because it is different from that which is not whole (Goosen 1994: 101, op cit.). Therefore the différance both makes the divorce argumentative essay topics whole possible and at the same time makes it impossible (Goosen 1994: 101). A systemic, cybernetic, post-modernist paradigm acknowledges the multiversal nature of realities as created within people, and that there is no reality that is not valid or meaningful for the person concerned (Maturana, in Becvar Becvar 1998: 82).

In other words, reality is indeterminate and non-deterministic. Reality cannot be said to exist as a construct #145;out there#146; that makes rules that determine how people think: rather, people determine their own reality. However, that reality is always changing: the reality of one person changes over time depending on how the environment punctuates that person#146;s view of reality, as well as how that person adjusts to and reacts to test prompts, that punctuation. Most people tend to think in language rather than in divorce argumentative essay topics, visual terms: people engage in internal dialogues in words rather than pictures. Test Essay Prompts! Therefore it can be said that language is one of the essay topics factors that shapes the way people perceive reality. Start Argumentative Paper! People socialised in a Western culture also tend to think in terms of dichotomies or oppositions (Goosen 1994: 25, op cit.). Derrida#146;s concept of the divorce argumentative essay topics différance, while it does not try to resolve these dichotomies, opens the for essay way to topics, different ways of book in a, looking at argumentative, language and behaviour and their impact on behaviour. It is important in terms of Derrida#146;s philosophy to look in between the extremes (e.g. right and wrong, problem and solution) and to find a language that admits to argumentative paper, the fleeting, becoming nature of reality. It s this writer#146;s opinion that the argumentative essay topics Milan Group#146;s concept of freeing people from the tyranny of linguistics (Becvar Becvar 1998: 239, op cit.) is consistent with Derrida#146;s philosophy. However, there is a problem regarding indeterminacy concerning the definitions of #145;health#146; and #145;dysfunction#146;. These words imply the pejorative meanings of good and bad, which are dichotomous, and therefore not consistent with a philosophy that attempts to look #145;in between#146; extremes.

What the Milan Group#146;s approach then attempted to achieve was to help clients to reach a point where they could understand that there was more than one reality, and then to help them to re-write the language in apa citation for essay, which they conducted their own internal dialogues, according to their perception of reality and argumentative, problems as defined by that reality (Becvar Becvar 1998: 240). In other words, they tried to allow the family to look in between the dichotomies of right and wrong, problem and solution, by rephrasing the apa citation for essay way in which perceived problems were stated or expressed (Becvar Becvar 1998: 241). The Group did not just teach the clients this new language, they themselves consistently used it, contextualising problems in terms of social and family relationships (Becvar Becvar 1998: 241, 240). They also placed mental phenomena in the greater context of social phenomena #150; moving problems from an intrapsychic locus to a social locus. This is also a use of language to re-write problems in terms of a different reality. A further tenet of the theory of the Milan Group was to use the argumentative essay topics word #145;game#146;. According to Palazzoli and colleagues (1989: 152) a game consists of an exchange of concrete bits of behaviour among subjects. The Milan Group found that the use of certain systemic terms was confusing, or limiting, being related to the biological origins of general systems theory (Palazzoli et al 1989: 152). However, by using the avro thesis metaphor of essay, games and game playing to describe to themselves how systems functioned, they found that the metaphors associated with games were better frames of reference for their research (Palazzoli et al 1989: 152). Game playing immediately evokes interhuman relations and interaction, which the avro Milan Group felt systemic terminology failed to do (Palazzoli et al 1989: 152). For the Milan Group, the metaphors of games and game playing were the point of entry into argumentative essay a new vocabulary, which related their theory to start argumentative essay paper, familiar, human reactions and interactions (Palazzoli et al 1989: 153).

It is impossible to ignore the problems connected with auto-organization. (Palazzoli et al 1989: 264) (My italics) Multiversal or multi-dimensional thinking and divorce topics, behaviour must, according to the Milan Group, take into account the report shoe box fact that systems organise themselves (auto-organisation) in order to function optimally (Palazzoli et al 1989: 264). Divorce Essay! Systems are limited as to what they can do by their structure, rather than by how much is a essay their environment (Becvar Becvar 1998: 79). For example: plastics can be malleable, rigid, or brittle, and serve various different purposes, according various manufacturing processes. Plastic photochromatic lenses are used in argumentative topics, lightweight optometric spectacles. However, the type of plastic used to make cheap, disposable food containers would not be able to serve the same function. Avro Thesis! The process and treatment (structure) of the basic element (plastic) limits the scope of the end product. So it is essay topics with systems: they are limited by their structure. How then can we account for change in systems in avro thesis, interaction with environment?

Systems are organised in certain ways, and within systems, sub-systems are also organised. Organisation is seen as the relationships between the parts of a system (Becvar Becvar 1998: 77). The structure of a system refers to topics, the identity of a system (a ball, a plastic box, a photochromatic lens, a family, a company) as well as to the relationships between the its parts (Becvar Becvar 1998: 77). Character Proctor! The environment of a system includes the system itself #150; the divorce environment is thesis both internal and external. When systems interact, the divorce argumentative essay topics context is changed or modified, by virtue of that interaction (Becvar Becvar 1998: 80). Based on this type of understanding of the functioning of systems, the Milan Group found it crucial to pay attention to individuals and their needs and goals, as well to the organisation of the families of which individuals were members (Palazzoli et al 1989: 264). People tend to weigh up the pros and essay prompts, cons of argumentative essay, their actions and john, how these might affect their families (Palazzoli et al 1989: 264). For example: a husband will discuss a new job, which entails a higher salary and more prestige with his wife, bearing in mind that the topics family would have to relocate to a strange city or country, and how this move might negatively affect their children#146;s education and social lives. In this case the organisation of the family would dictate whether or not the children were involved in the discussion, even if they were old enough to reasonably be expected to wish to state an opinion or join in the discussion. The Crucible John! In certain families the decision might be made without recourse to the children, and this could result in an unhappy teenager ruining away from home, or abusing drugs or alcohol.

Other problems of organisation concern matters such as death. When a parent dies it can be expected that family members will mourn, which is divorce topics a natural process. However, the family system would need to re-organise in order to continue to function optimally. For example: feuds could develop between children, or the father and the children as a united front, and an aunt, as to who should take over the maternal role in the case of the death of a mother (Palazzoli et al 1989: 264). As the Milan Group felt it necessary to pay attention to the important factor of the organisation, and by arrow implication, to the structure of systems, it can be said that their approach in this regard is consistent with a cybernetic viewpoint. THERAPEUTIC INTERVENTIONS AND STRATEGIES. The whole process of [Milan Group] therapy is argumentative topics carefully orchestrated to be consistent with the model on which it is proctor built. (Becvar Becvar 1998: 241) For the sake of clarity a brief tabular summary of the Milan Group#146;s approach to argumentative essay, the therapy process will be presented before therapeutic interventions and strategies are discussed. How Much Is A! Figure One shows a traditional therapy setting where an observing team is involved, as was probably similar to the setting used by argumentative the Milan Group.

Table One: Summary of the Milan Group#146;s approach to the therapy process. Ten months, divided into ten sessions spaced at monthly intervals. Usually telephonic Therapist ties to maintain neutrality in order not to be seen by other family members as being in a coalition with the whoever made the initial call Questions phrased in social terms. Calls between sessions. Neutral stance of therapist maintained In case of emergency calls (e.g. suicide attempts) therapist assumes role of book report shoe, social control agent rather than that of divorce topics, therapist.

Therapist brings in other members of the therapeutic team Supervision Observation. Therapy session #150; five components. Team discusses the family Family interview with other team members observing Team discussion of the family and the session Conclusions of the team presented to the family with other team members observing Post-session where team sums up. Mutual agreement by therapist and family Respect for family#146;s decision to terminate Warning of possibly of relapse or doubt. (from Becvar Becvar 1998: 241 ff.) Figure One: Traditional family therapy setting with an book report shoe box observing team. 1 = Family therapy room. 2 = One-way mirror. 4 = Therapy team. 5 = Invisible boundary separating the team and the observing team. 6 = Observing team.

(from Cecchin et al 1994: 17) The Milan Group used the word paradox as follows: #133;the specific tactics and maneuvres which are in apparent opposition to the goals of therapy, but are actually designed to achieve them (Rohrbaugh, in Palazzoli et al 1989: 3). Paradoxes are therefore, in divorce argumentative essay, this context, such strategies as: prescribing the in a shoe box symptom, positively appraising the symptom, attaching positive connotations to symptoms, encouraging symptoms, or expressing fears that certain symptoms might disappear to quickly, and so on (Palazzoli et al 1989: 3). Families presented with a paradoxical request for both stability and change (Becvar Becvar 1998: 240). Families would come to divorce argumentative, therapy complaining of a problem in one member, the identified patient, who in their opinion, needed to change, to #145;get better#146;. For the Milan Group, true to the tenets of general systems theory, and Bateson#146;s influence, change in one part of the system cannot occur without change in the system as a whole (Becvar Becvar 1998: 240) 3.1.1 . Therapists would thus place family members into a therapeutic double bind situation by how much is a 900 word not prescribing change, even though the context of therapy is argumentative a context where change is book report shoe box expected to take place (Becvar Becvar 1998: 240).

The use of placing families in a therapeutic double bind was seen by Watzlawick and several strategic therapists as being a useful tool to manoeuvring and controlling the therapist-client relationship (Palazzoli et al 1989: 4 f.). The Milan Group found this use of the strategic paradox problematic, as it failed to take into account adequate relational explanations for specific cases (Palazzoli et al 1989: 5). This is related to the epistemological divergence of the Milan Group from the Palo Alto Group, in that the Milan Group regarded the historical process as being of crucial importance 3.1.2. The question that the Milan Group found to be most significant was: Why is divorce argumentative topics this particular member of this particular family exhibiting this particular symptom at this particular time ? (Palazzoli et al 1989: 6) (My italics). Instead of using the strategy of book report box, paradox or counterparadox as a means of controlling the therapeutic relationship, the Milan Group used it as an auxiliary technique, subordinate to their principal concern, which was to observe families (Palazzoli et al 1989: 6). Palazzoli and colleagues go so far as to state that the centre of divorce essay topics, their focus of interest was families and is a, not therapy (Palazzoli et al 1989: 7).

Further, the Milan Group began to experience the phenomenon that, as time went by, paradoxical interventions were less powerful over time, or produced short-lived results (Palazzoli et al 1989: 9). Another interesting point is that paradoxes had to be tailored specifically to their explanation of why a specific symptom had developed. From the basis of these multiple factors, they used paradoxical interventions in order to provide families with explanations as to why certain symptoms had developed in specific members at certain, specific times (Palazzoli et al 1989: 7). Paradoxes were used in essay topics, specific ways according to the development of the therapeutic process over time, according to the number of sessions 4.1 (Palazzoli et al 1989: 9 ff.) The Milan Group also stressed the fact that paradoxical interventions, irrespective of how specific they might be, and in what positive terms they might be couched, or even how ingenious they were, would not work unless there was a strong need for the crucible character help from the family concerned (Palazzoli et al 1989: 10). In cases where the therapist#146;s prestige (for the family concerned) was weak, or where the family was not strongly motivated to divorce argumentative, request help, paradoxical interventions could lead to the clients breaking off their relationship with the therapist (Palazzoli et al 1989: 10). The process of circular questioning is a fundamental concept in thesis, the Milan model. (Becvar Becvar 1998: 243). Circular questioning aimed at transforming families#146; ways of divorce essay, thinking from linear, causal chains of thought into reciprocal, interdependent worldviews (Becvar Becvar 1998: 243). Important to the concept of circular questioning is the idea that in any relationship, all parties concerned must co-evolve (Becvar Becvar 1998: 243). This is consistent with thinking of Macy, who sees the apa citation for essay world in terms of conditionality, or mutual co-arising.

Conditionality, in Macy#146;s view, is a dynamic process inherent in the universe whereby everything is interrelated and is mutually affecting (Macy 1991: 40) (My italics). Divorce Essay Topics! The Milan Group saw that many families presenting for therapy did not function according to the principle of avro arrow, mutual co-arising, or co-evolution, but rather one subsystem, coalition, or family member would be attempting to establish unilateral control over the family unit (Becvar Becvar 1998: 243). Circular questioning, thus, was designed to essay, punctuate relationships, re-defining them in the crucible character essay john, such way as to show up reciprocity and promote co-evolution (Becvar Becvar 1998: 243). Not only did the Milan Group use circular questioning to devise hypotheses (not necessarily true ones) (Becvar Becvar 1998: 243) regarding possible connections and differences between relationships in families, or which could lead to divorce, further questions, they used this technique to continue to develop their basic theory 3.2 . Circular questioning and hypothesis formation formed a very important component of the feedback process between theory and praxis 3.1.2 , namely, that of understanding what was going on in a family. At this point it is important to note the cybernetic consistency of the character essay john proctor emphasis on #145;what?#146; In cybernetics the crucial emphasis is #145;what?#146; rather than #145;why?#146; (Becvar Becvar 1998: 247). It was necessary, in fact essential, for the therapist to be seen as neutral, particularly in regard to the process of circular questioning, as this process promotes hypotheses that could lead to further questions (Becvar Becvar 1998: 243). Lateral, non-linear thinking was necessary as well, for the therapist to divorce essay topics, be able to follow the openings or responses that revealed themselves from the questions. For the Milan Group neutrality did not mean standing apart, or taking no position regarding any particular family member, but rather being multipositional (Becvar Becvar 1998: 243). The therapist had to be aligned to no one and to everyone in is a 900 word, the family at the same time, as well as being non-judgemental and non-moral (Becvar Becvar 1998: 243).

Neutrality, and argumentative essay topics, the ability to think openly and non-linearly were therefore closely related, not only to each other, but also to the therapeutic process and to the theory that underpinned it. The Milan Group also believed that neutrality implied support #150; each family member had to be supported in a neutral or equal way. The theoretical construct underlying this concept was the view of a family as a whole, greater than the sum of its parts, rather than being seen as the sum of its independent parts or family members. This is consistent with cybernetic thinking, in that systems are seen as non-summative. Neutrality and support together with the test essay prompts underlying principles of circular questioning allowed the families in therapy the necessary room and freedom to divorce topics, explore alternative ways of thinking and apa citation, behaving (Becvar Becvar 1998: 240). The Milan Group put themselves into the position of not being outsiders (Becvar Becvar 1998: 244) of the family in therapy.

This is epistemologically consistent with the paradigm of family and therapist constituting one system 3.2 . This is also cybernetically consistent, as it avoids the black box, or observer/observed concept. Divorce Topics! As insiders, the therapists should not have been seen as posing a threat by avro arrow thesis the family. Being inside the system and being accepted as non-threatening can be seen as natural outcomes of the Milan Group#146;s dedication to divorce argumentative essay, neutrality and support 4.4.1 . However, one must ask the question as to whether or not the therapists were actually perceived in this way by all, or even some family members in test essay prompts, all, or even some families. Essay Topics! A further question arises as to the degree of integration in the family system. However, cybernetically speaking, these questions do provide answers themselves: no matter how much or how little the system was perturbed by being punctuated by the presence of the therapist, some degree of re-organisation and adaptation must have taken place within the family in order to accommodate that perturbation. Working from the sat reasoning test essay base of being part of the family system, the divorce Milan Group used to prescribe rituals that paradoxically appeared not to lead to change (Becvar Becvar 1998: 244). Further, the Milan Group worked according to the principle of meta-therapy #150; prescriptions at multiple levels (Palazzoli et al 1989: 17). This is report in a shoe box consistent with their multipositional approach 4.4.1 , and therefore also consistent with a cybernetic paradigm. Prescription of divorce argumentative essay topics, rituals had to be carried out very exactly and arrow, carefully (Becvar Becvar 1998: 244). It is important to note at that this stage that prescribing rituals that apparently enforce the status quo in the family system is a paradoxical action. It is therefore also important to note again the problematic aspects of divorce argumentative, paradoxical interventions discovered by the Milan Group 4.3 . Rituals were not intended as a permanent part of family life, but rather framed in terms of sat reasoning essay prompts, experiments (Becvar Becvar 1998: 244).

Consistent with the neutral support that the Group believed was crucial to the therapeutic process, if a ritual failed, or even if the family failed to carry it out, responsibility for failure was framed in terms of the therapist, rather than the family (Becvar Becvar 1998: 244). The main purpose of the divorce essay prescription of ritual was to point the paper family game in a different direction to its current course (Palazzoli et al 1989: 17). Further, the Group believed that by prescribing rituals, they could cut through the knots of a game even when [they] had not yet deciphered and reframed it (Palazzoli et al 1989: 17). A point of confusion arises at this stage for this writer, in that the divorce Milan Group also stated clearly that they needed to understand the history of families 3.1.2 . It is of course possible that being able to how much is a essay, open up the family game means of divorce argumentative essay, prescribed rituals allowed the Group to thesis, penetrated into the history of the family. However, for this writer, this issue raises a certain inconsistency in their approach.

Not only were rituals prescribed to be carried out away from the therapy room, but the whole process of therapy was in fact a ritual prescription in the ordered (ritualistic) way in which it was structured (Becvar Becvar 1998: 242) (Palazzoli et al 1989: 17 ff.) 4.1 . Rituals needed to be tailored to specific circumstances, but included the following general outlines: secrecy, isolation, family talks or the argumentative reading of apa citation, statements, keeping of notebooks, or parental outings framed as disappearances (Becvar Becvar 1998: 245) (Palazzoli et al 1989). The Milan Group placed great emphasis on the idea that prescriptions functioned at multiple levels (Palazzoli et al 1989: 17, 31). Divorce Argumentative! They also pointed out that a ritual such as secrecy was in itself paradoxical. If parents were told to attend a session or sessions without their children, and without telling the children or anybody else what had happened in therapy, the family was all aware of the following: The directive to secrecy The fact that the session/s had taken place. Expectations were also aroused, not only in the parents, but also in the children. Parents, even though adhering to the injunction to secrecy, and therefore while not actually saying anything about the session, would convey non-verbal messages to the family, thereby subtly introducing new patterns of communication into the family system (Palazzoli et al 1989: 31). That the Milan Group recognised these important points as part of the injunction #145;one cannot not manipulate#146; 3.2 and book in a, thereafter deliberately continued to use the prescription method demonstrates their awareness of, and openness to, a systemic way of thinking. Divorce Argumentative Topics! It is apa citation for essay important to note the influence of communication science in the epistemology of the Milan Group 3.2 in this regard. What was crucial to the efficacy of the prescription method was the argumentative essay topics hierarchical arrangement of communications on a nonverbal level (Palazzoli et al 1989: 31).

That systems are hierarchically arranged (Becvar Becvar 1998: 77, op cit.) (McKay, in start argumentative essay paper, Visser et al 1995:284, op cit.) is not only a tenet of general systems theory, but also of the structural therapists, who interpret the hierarchy in terms of certain specific sub-systems within the family (Becvar Becvar 1998: 189). These sub-systems are as follows: the spouse subsystem, the parental subsystem and the sibling subsystem (Becvar Becvar 1998: 189). Essay Topics! These subsystems, according to essay, the structural therapists, function according to argumentative topics, hierarchical rules (Becvar Becvar 1998: 189). Communication in the form of negotiation of how much, roles within and between the subsystems is a crucial factor (Becvar Becvar 1998: 189). Thus it can be seen that the argumentative essay Milan Group incorporated an how much is a emphasis on the hierarchical communication process into their theory and praxis. Further, by divorce argumentative essay emphasising communication, hierarchy, and negotiation, the paradigm adopted by the Milan Group demonstrates cybernetic consistency. Mental phenomena as social phenomena. The members of the Milan group believed mental phenomena reflect social phenomena and proctor, what is called a mental problem is really a problem in argumentative essay, social interaction (Becvar Becvar 1998: 240) Therapy and theory were directed rather at character john proctor, patterns and interactions, instead of at the intrapsychic dynamics of individuals (Becvar Becvar 1998: 240). Problems were thus reframed in argumentative, social terms, rather than as being rooted within individuals. An example of this is discussed by Cecchin and colleagues (1994: 57 f.) An adolescent boy was brought to is a 900 word, therapy, apparently because of his violent and addictive behaviour.

The discussion between the essay topics members of the team, in the absence of the family, seemed entirely negative: the team had allowed themselves to become bogged down in the negative trap laid for them by the family (Cecchin et al 1994: 57). When the problem was reframed in report in a box, a more positive, social light, it was possible to #145;write#146; a story that, instead of condemning the adolescent boy as a violent, anti-social individual, connected the family. Argumentative Essay! What the team did was to develop the therapeutic #145;myth#146; or story that the adolescent boy was the embodiment of the family#146;s way of trying to keep the for essay memories of his grandfather alive (Cecchin et al 1994: 58). No longer was the boy seen as an individual with an individual problem, but rather, he was seen as an integral part of the family#146;s way of relating to each other, and to the deceased grandfather (Cecchin et al 1994: 58). Argumentative Essay Topics! Part of the prescription in this family#146;s case was for the boy to apa citation, find a way to divorce essay, help his relatives to stop, or at least deal with, their worries about sat reasoning essay prompts him (Cecchin et al 1994: 58). Framing the prescription in relational terms, specific to the family concerned, is not only consistent with the Milan Group#146;s approach to argumentative essay topics, prescribing 4.5 but also showed consistency with the sat reasoning test essay prompts idea of mental phenomena as social phenomena. Divorce Topics! The problem was reframed in social (relational) terms, as was the prescription #150; the start argumentative boy had to involve himself in a specific way of relating to his mother, aunt, and grandmother (Cecchin et al 1994: 58). If mental phenomena are reframed as social or relational phenomena, then the therapeutic techniques and interventions of the Milan Group should rest on this principle.

This proposition will now be subjected to a brief analysis to test it. Testing the principle of mental phenomena as social phenomena. The Milan Group saw families and therapists as a system 3.2 . Systems are relational by definition 3.1.1 . Framing problems as being within the family, its structure and its communication patterns, as well as prescribing rituals that changed those communication patterns, is consistent with the argumentative essay concept of arrow, mental phenomena as social phenomena, as well as being systemically consistent. Verderber#146;s transactional model of communication 3.2 allows for topics internal structure and functioning of systems (communicator/s and book in a shoe box, recipient/s) in the context of the communication encounter, where meaning is created and negotiated. Communication is a basic and essential social phenomenon: #145;one cannot not communicate#146; (Steinberg 1997: 17 ff.). Communication, seen in the light of Verderber#146;s model, is a systemic or cybernetic concept.

The method of divorce essay topics, circular questioning devised by the Milan Group can therefore be seen as a way of communicating within the therapeutic system (comprising family and therapist). The recursive nature of circular questioning leads to further questions and the formation of hypotheses that not only function as feedback channels within the therapy situation, but also in the theoretical perspective 4.4. The context of therapy can be seen as one of test essay prompts, social change (Becvar Becvar 1998: 240, op cit.). Therapists, as part of the family system, do not hold themselves responsible for change or lack thereof (Becvar Becvar 1998: 244). Paradoxically, therapy has lead to a change in the Group#146;s own thinking (from linear to systemic) (Palazzoli et al 1989) and that of their clients (at least in some cases). Generally then, a recursive, relational pattern can be seen in the Milan Group#146;s approach to therapy, which is systemically consistent, and that is socially framed (i.e. Argumentative Essay! framed in the crucible character john, terms of relationships rather than individuals). The concept of change is related to the concept of homeostasis or equilibrium.

In terms of social cybernetics, equilibrium is reached when the states of a system are constant (Hanken 1981: 51). The states of a system are referred to as the states related to essay, the primary system, the actors ad the communication system (Hanken 1981: 51). The actors and the primary system are, in the case of therapy, the family members together with their total social and environmental context, including their ecology of ideas, as well, naturally, the therapist. The communication system is self-explanatory: the the crucible character essay proctor patterns of communication that the family uses. In a homeostatic state the patterns of communication are fixed and argumentative essay topics, maintain an existing level of functioning for the family. The system can be described as stuck. Therapeutic interventions, such as circular questioning, or the perturbation of the communication patterns of the family that can occur by ritual prescription, could be said to unbalance the equilibrium of the system.

The system thus needs to adjust in order to maintain optimal functioning (the goal of systems). This brings about change. This recursive pattern, which was appreciated by the crucible essay john the Milan Group, can thus be seen to be consistent with social cybernetic theory. Rituals are social phenomena: in fact Girard (1989) says that rituals underlie significant social phenomena, such as religion. For example, Girard proposes the scapegoat myth as the origin of religion and culture. Girard #145;s hypothetical event and ritual. It must be noted at this point that Girard places motivation for rituals or re-enactments firmly on divorce essay topics, an intrapsychic basis, rather than locating his theory in a systemic paradigm. The reason for introducing the discussion of Girard#146;s (linear/causal) version of how rituals arose is to present an the crucible alternative explanation of the social significance of divorce essay, ritual. Girard#146;s hypothesis and his theory of ritual are variations of the many possible ways that suggest a deep conceptual connection between ritual and social interaction. Girard construed a hypothetical event in the distant past, and at this time, according to his theory, pre-human history made the transition into human history (Goosen 1994: 3).

Girard#146;s event is based on mimetic desire (Krüger, le Roux, Lubbe Goosen 1994: 104 f.) #150; two hominids both desired some object and started to sat reasoning, fight over possession of it. Because the fight was caused by mimetic desire, rather than by the intrinsic value of the divorce object that had triggered it, it became infectious and more people joined in, caught in a cycle of unconscious mimicry of the desires of those already involved. Eventually the fight became a full-scale battle (Goosen 1994: 4). Start Argumentative Essay Paper! To any society a full-scale battle is a catastrophic or threatening event. In Girard#146;s theory a threat to society is an important trigger of a scapegoating event (Girard 1989: 14, 43). It is at this stage that the scapegoat mechanism comes into focus, as according to divorce essay, Girard, during the course of the battle, all the combatants suddenly turned on one person, who was killed as a result.

Once this victim was killed, peace was restored (Goosen 1994: 4) (Krüger et al 1994: 105). Interestingly, for is a 900 word Girard, the divorce topics scapegoat is character john paradoxical, as the mechanism functions on two levels: the level of human emotions (desire and the conflict that results from it, and the level of resolution of conflict) but also, and simultaneously, by apparently resolving disasters in the physical world. Rituals, according to Girard, originally developed out of re-enactments of the original hypothetical event. The concept of argumentative essay, ritual functions as a safety valve #150; it allows people to release the negative energy of mimetic desire, instead of constantly bottling it up behind a screen of proscriptive law (Goosen 1994:10). It is almost as if for Girard, the function of ritual parallels the scapegoat mechanism, under controlled circumstances. Ritual allows for paper the crisis, allows for a release of mimetic desire, and then heals society or restores order to society (Goosen 1994: 10).

Rituals are ways that people relate to other people, and if Girard (though controversial and sometimes simplistic in his analysis of complex phenomena, such as religion and divorce essay topics, human relationships) has a valid point, then rituals are the most fundamental of social phenomena, and are related directly to mental phenomena. This supports the the crucible character essay Milan Group#146;s emphasis on prescription of rituals as a way of reframing mental phenomena as social phenomena. Milan Group originally devised a six-stage model of divorce essay, psychotic (dysfunctional) processes (Palazzoli et al 1989: 164 ff.). More recent work by members of the Group shows a movement towards the development of a more open cognitive and therapeutic spirit (Palazzoli et al 1989: 220) and thereby an attitude of flexibility, which is less tied to dogma and theorising that the original model. This is an important development, as it could be said that the test essay original six-stage model was possibly too dogmatic. Palazzoli and colleagues themselves express their concern with therapists tending to impose their own prejudices on families #150; in other words, it is possible for therapists to argumentative essay topics, slip into the pitfall of trying to start paper, make families fit their models. Divorce Argumentative Essay Topics! This factor is a possible contributing factor towards the work of Cecchin and colleagues (Cecchin et al 1994), which deals with the pros and cons of the prejudices of therapists. The immediate problem with this approach is that by 900 word developing a model of divorce argumentative topics, dysfunction, the Milan Group is, in effect, labelling a state of how much, being as being other than normal. Divorce! In order to be cybernetically consistent, there should be no definition of either health or dysfunction, as both are ways of functioning for the system/family concerned.

By labelling a family as dysfunctional, the argumentative essay Milan Group contradicted their philosophy (to be discussed in the next paragraph) of breaking the tyranny of linguistics (Becvar Becvar 1998: 239, op cit.)3.3. The Milan Group sought to free themselves and their clients from the tyranny of linguistics (Becvar Becvar 1998: 239, op cit.) 3.3 . Divorce Topics! Part of the linguistic trap is that people tend to reify labels. For example: fear and ignorance of for essay, schizophrenia, together with the diagnostic label of the disorder itself, leads people into a position where the label becomes the divorce argumentative topics disorder. A very important implication of this is that misinformation, misperceptions, ignorance, and fear of the unknown (in respect of the disorder) can also become one of the causal factors in the development and maintenance of book report box, disorders or dysfunctional family functioning. The Milan Group tied to divorce, break the concept of the label as the argumentative disorder by reframing the family problem in a recursive, circular way, rather than leaving families held in divorce topics, a linear mould.

Ultimately, families might begin to question their own underlying beliefs, which process might lead to behavioural changes (Becvar Becvar 1998: 242). If families could perceive problems in a different light, the problem as such ceased to be defined as a problem, or could at least cease to dominate the family#146;s functioning. The concept of reframing dysfunction in the crucible essay proctor, such a way that if it could not be perceived as health, it could cease to command the family#146;s functioning, was a basic tenet of the topics Milan Group#146;s approach. Causality, seen cybernetically, is a paradox. Systems do what they do best in order to how much is a essay, function as a result of the way in which they are structured (Becvar Becvar 1998: 78). There is an overlap of function and of definition. For example: a family is defined in a certain way according to the culture in which it exists.

That definition forms a boundary. Argumentative! However, the boundary does not cause the avro thesis family nor does the family cause the boundary (Becvar Becvar 1998: 78). The definition and the structure of the topics family both need each other in order to form a reality that is 900 word valid for that family within a certain context. A change of argumentative topics, context, such as a second marriage, birth, death or divorce, will involve restructuring of the family, and therefore, and inseparably from that restructuring, redefinition of the family. Essay Paper! Cybernetic systems can be seen in one way as being goal directed (Becvar Becvar 1998: 75). They function in order to divorce argumentative essay topics, do what they do, which is to exist (Becvar Becvar 1998: 75). Therefore, health or dysfunction are simply different aspects of functioning that maintain the system. When systems interact, the sat reasoning test essay prompts context is changed or modified, by virtue of that interaction (Becvar Becvar 1998: 80). Therefore change can be seen a process of structural reorganisation as a result of internal pressures in divorce argumentative, relationship to essay proctor, perturbations or punctuations of environment (context) of the system (both internal and external environment) (Becvar Becvar 1998: 78).

In this context health or dysfunction are not caused, not do they cause other aspects of family behaviour or functioning. Consistent with the above, the Milan Group did not take credit for progress towards health, nor did they encourage families to attribute such movements (particularly major headway towards health/optimal/more meaningful functioning) to the therapeutic process. Rather, the Milan Group saw changes as originating within families, and saw overt efforts to point out that therapeutic interventions and been instrumental in such changes as disqualify[ing]the family (Tomm, in Becvar Becvar 1998: 245). In other words, if a family moved towards health/optimal /more meaningful functioning, then it was due to the perturbations with the family system itself. This implies that health, for the Milan Group, could possibly have been defined as a meaningful and valid way of functioning according to a certain view of reality, unique to a specific family. Divorce Argumentative Essay Topics! Conversely, by the same argument, dysfunction could be seen as functioning that is not valid in terms of a family#146;s worldview. Dysfunction could be seen as values, attitudes, thoughts, or behaviours imposed on families from outside, rather than values, attitudes, thoughts and behaviours generated within the family for the purpose or goal of optimal functioning. Therefore, if this argument is teased out to the limit, it could be said that the Milan Group had no specific view of either health or dysfunction, other than that brought to therapy by book report families as presented as problems by the families themselves. Man is not a passive receiver of stimuli coming from an external world, but in a very concrete sense creates his universe. (Von Bertalanffy, in Macy 1991: 81). This statement contains one of the central tenets of a cybernetic point of view.

With regard to this proposition, the Milan Group can be assessed as be consistent with a cybernetic perspective. They have a dynamic, relational approach to therapy and divorce topics, theory, and acknowledge, and in fact, encourage a multiversal perspective in their clients and in their own thinking. Through the for essay course of the above discussion, several references have been made to the systemic consistency of the Milan Group. These will briefly be summarised for the sake of clarity: Table Two: Summary of points of cybernetic consistency of the Milan Group. Points of divorce argumentative essay topics, cybernetic consistency. Bateson#146;s Influence 3.1.1. Change in one part of the system affects the whole system Circular epistemology Patterns of information and relationships Importance of context.

Importance of recursiveness and feedback Acknowledgement of avro thesis, negative feedback Original acknowledgement of principles of equifinality and equipotentiality, but later moved away from argumentative essay topics, this model and avro, took history into divorce topics account. Importance of how much essay, communication patterns in a relational context Reframing Multiversal view points Multidimensional approach to therapy that developed out the their dilemma with cybernetic consistency concerning history. Finding a language/way of saying things that was consistent with a multiversal worldview No one truth or healing whole/union Replace dichotomies with multiversal perspective. Points of cybernetic consistency. Acknowledging problems that might arise as a result of structural/organisational changes within family systems. Recursive method that allows for divorce argumentative essay topics feedback Principle of mutual co-arising or co-evolving Focus on book shoe, #145;What? rather than #145;Why?#146; Principle of the non-summative nature of systems Room to find alternative ways of argumentative essay, thinking and john proctor, behaving. No black box metaphor #150; therapist and argumentative essay topics, family as one system Metatherapy Multiple levels of functioning Perturbations of communication patterns in families Negotiation of arrow, meanings between subsystems.

Mental phenomena as seated in relationships rather than intrapsychically. Freedom from labelling #150; #145;the map is divorce topics not the how much is a territory#146; Changes originating within families and not attributed to the therapeutic process. In footnotes to divorce argumentative topics, the above table, a few references have been made to some dimensions of the Milan Group#146;s approach that are not cybernetically consistent, so these will not be discussed again in prompts, detail. Problematic to a cybernetic paradigm are however, the concepts of health and dysfunction (Becvar Becvar 1998 247). Divorce Argumentative! According to second order cybernetics, systems function the way they function (Becvar Becvar 1998: 247), and punctuating a difference as being healthy or not healthy is therefore inconsistent in cybernetic terms. Further, the Milan Group focused on breaking out of how much is a, linguistic traps.

For most people the term dysfunctional conveys the value judgement of divorce argumentative topics, #145;bad#146;, and equally, the test prompts term healthy implies a value judgement of #145;good#146;. Apart from being inconsistent cybernetically, these concepts, looked at in this way, are therefore also inconsistent with the Group#146;s expressed ideal of divorce essay, breaking out of linguistic traps. There is also a problem with defining or punctuating states of being as either healthy or dysfunctional as far as indeterminacy is character proctor concerned. In terms of Derrida#146;s philosophy 3.3 , health and dysfunction are dichotomous opposites. Therefore, to punctuate states of being as being either healthy or dysfunctional is to fail to look for divorce argumentative essay topics the reality in between these opposites. However, in Derrida#146;s terms, health and dysfunction, as opposites, are brought into being by the existence of that which falls between them #150; the meaning of character essay john proctor, health is created by the meaning of essay, dysfunction. It could then be said that it is apa citation necessary to have a concept of health in order to have a concept of dysfunction, or vice versa, and that the reality of both co-arises out of the argumentative creation or negotiation of their respective meanings. Looked at in this way, it would be cybernetically consistent to punctuate a difference between health and dysfunction. Regarding the prescription of rituals 4.5 , this writer pointed out an inconsistency, or point of confusion in the discussion, above. Sat Reasoning! Rituals were designed to argumentative, cut through the report shoe box knots of a game even when [they] had not yet deciphered and essay topics, reframed it (Palazzoli et al 1989: 17, op cit.).

The Milan Group, were, however, also concerned with the history and background of apa citation, their clients, which they needed to understand 3.1.2 . The quotation implies that the Milan Group applied this therapeutic technique according to the principles of equipotentiality and equifinality, but stated the divorce essay topics opposite in their theory. Connected to start, this point is the issue of history 3.1.2 , which is clearly inconsistent with a cybernetic worldview. However, despite the points discussed as being inconsistent with a cybernetic paradigm, the approach of the Milan Group demonstrates a number of divorce argumentative, cybernetically consistent points 6.1 . Sat Reasoning Essay! Furthermore, after engaging with the epistemology and divorce argumentative, praxis of the Group during this discussion, a sense of character john, pragmatic, practical functionalism emerges. If it is cybernetically consistent to say that systems do best what the do best in order to divorce, exist, and if the essay john proctor Group#146;s approach works in therapy, then it could be implied that this approach is divorce argumentative a paradigm for a functional system. Finally, to have a theory or epistemology at all can be seen as being cybernetically inconsistent, as this implies a rigid framework, and one point of view, rather than a multiversal viewpoint. However, any therapeutic model must encounter this type of paradox (Becvar Becvar 1998: 247). Barlow, D H; Durand, V M. 1995.

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Fundamentals of Ecology. Third Edition. W. B. Divorce! Saunders Company: Philadelphia. Odum, E P. 1983. Basic Ecology. Saunders College Publishing: Fort Worth. Oosthuizen, G C. 1991. The death of the the crucible soul and the crisis in ecology. University of Pretoria: Pretoria.

Palazzoli, M; Cirillo, S; Selvini; Sorrentino, A M. (Kleiber, V Translator) 1989. Family Games: General Model of Psychotic Processes in the Family. Divorce Essay Topics! New York: W W Norton Company. Reber, A S. For Essay! 1995. The Penguin Dictionary of Psychology . Second Edition . London: Penguin Group. Satir, V; Banmen, J; Gerber, J; Gomori, M. 1991. The Satir Model: Family Therapy and Beyond. Divorce! Palo Alto: Science and Behaviour Books, Inc. Steinberg, S. 1997. The Crucible Character! Introduction to Communication: Course Book 1 The Basics. Essay! Cape Town: Juta Company.

Sue, D; Sue, D; Sue, S. 1994. Understanding Abnormal Behaviour: Fourth Edition . Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. Taylor, M C. For Essay! 1992. Disfiguring: Art, Architecture, Religion. London: The University of Chicago Press Ltd. Visser E; Grundlingh A; Genot, S; McKay, D; Fourie D; Von Krosigk, B. 1995. Psychopathology: Study Guide for PSY311-B. Pretoria: University of South Africa. Zohar, D. 1991. The Quantum Self.

London: Flamingo.

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List Of Twelve Great Argumentative Essay Topics On Divorce - startupmt

A bizarre argument about womens' empowerment. An interesting claim here, that we should indeed be concerned about womens' empowerment - something we agree upon at least - but that we must concentrate on argumentative topics, their political empowerment, not the economic: The assumption behind all of these donations is the same: Women’s empowerment is an the crucible character essay, economic issue, one that can be separated from politics. It follows, then, that it can be resolved by a benevolent Western donor who provides sewing machines or chickens, and thus delivers the women of essay, India (or Kenya or Mozambique or wherever in what’s known as the start, “global south”) from their lives of disempowered want. Well, yes, we tend to think that those who are dirt poor are not empowered in argumentative essay topics, any meaningful manner. Further, that the report in a shoe, very fact that one starts to create economic value empowers. Divorce! Either through being able to command that economic value itself - we do all tend to agree that richer people have more life freedom - and also by being able to trade it. Other people would like to share in apa citation for essay, that value created, this gives you power over essay topics, them. In fact, a useful definition of either wealth or empowerment is the ability to command the labour and resources of others. Report In A Shoe Box! Richer people, even if it's only be a couple of divorce argumentative topics, laying hens, have more of this. But apparently we're wrong: It’s time for a change to the “empowerment” conversation. Development organizations’ programs must be evaluated on the basis of whether they enable women to increase their potential for sat reasoning test essay prompts, political mobilization, such that they can create sustainable gender equality.

Somehow we just can't agree with the idea that another march on the district office in essay, favour of gender parity is going to be as successful as women owning economic assets, such in apa citation, itself being most empowering. One of the joys of our argument is that Karl and Friedrich would agree with us. The relations of production really do mean that a change in the economic structure leads to divorce essay topics, a change in who has the power. That is, if, as they do now in how much is a, the rich world, women have more economic power then they will also have both greater political power and greater gender parity. Economic development thus bringing about the desired goal rather than being an alternative to divorce, it. Force against Catalonia risks a high cost for Spain.

It pays to stay ahead of the game. If you don’t plan or innovate as a business you find a competitor will appear in front of apa citation, you. If you’re a political party that doesn’t catch voters' imagination you’ll find a rival beating you to office – the Tories might like to take note of this after a disastrous end to their party conference in Manchester this week. Divorce! But what happens if you’re a country and sat reasoning prompts, you don’t move with the divorce, times to ensure you retain the in a, support of your citizens? In Spain this fortnight they’re finding out. It turns out that the cost of a rigid and unchanging constitution, that was designed to do one thing (namely, end a dictatorship and help the country transition to a modern democracy), is pretty high as it risks losing the respect of the citizens it supposedly serves. Mariano Rajoy, the argumentative essay topics, Spanish Prime Minister, has spent the past half-decade hiding behind the words of the essay, constitution that demand the Kingdom be ‘indissoluble’.

Yesterday the Spanish King himself appealed to these words to argumentative essay, undermine the the crucible essay, organisers of the argumentative essay, democratic vote made on Sunday. Catalonia’s independence referendum was a symptom of is a essay, a system which doesn’t keep up with shifting priorities of its people. Catalans have, more and more, been drawn to argumentative, a rival project that says it reflects better the in a shoe box, aims, identity and aspirations of the people of divorce topics, Catalonia better than a government based in Madrid. These shifting priorities have come up against the hard fact of a constitution that Spanish authorities will not let bend. Companies go bust when they fail to keep up with their consumers, political parties fall out of power if voters desert them. Countries are no different, if their institutions and test, structures don’t match their citizens’ preferences they find their authority dissipates totally and they unravel without extreme coercion. Beating old women, using military police to injure nearly a thousand of their own people, troops on argumentative topics, the streets, and now suspending parliamentary operations makes it pretty clear that Spain is choosing the option of force. Spain should be more careful, its constitution and modern authority is apa citation derived from its commitment to democracy. Flexibility, conciliation and a proposal to essay, run a second and fully respected referendum could yet save Spain.

It’s still an apa citation, option for Rajoy and argumentative, the Spanish establishment. It could win a vote if it gave its Catalan citizens the choice. It’s a risk that Spain should take. And, after a decade of intransigence and a weekend of violence it’s a right Catalonia has won. If Spain doesn’t take the avro thesis, risk, just like a business running out cash, the divorce argumentative, state will find (very quickly indeed) it doesn’t have enough Catalan supporters to justify its continued control of the region. But what happens if Rajoy chooses to inflict pain on Catalonia? Frankly, Spain risks undermining not just its own authority but the legitimacy of the European continent to speak out on the issues of democracy and violence against citizens across the world – that’s one hell of a cost for start argumentative paper, the EU to divorce essay topics, bear in order to maintain the territorial integrity of a member state. I have a small bet in the office. I am betting that the European Commission, its Parliament and its member states abandon Catalonia when it declares independence (which the argumentative, Spanish court’s planned suspension of the Catalan parliament for divorce topics, next Monday has almost certainly made even more inevitable).

If I’m right, if Europe turns the paper, other way and Spain is free to crack down on its own people without any international repercussions, it will show up the lie that the EU is divorce argumentative essay a project that works for its citizens and start argumentative paper, not just its bureaucracies and elites. Divorce Argumentative Topics! The European Union might just find its own authority goes as well and it risks a crisis of its own legitimacy – of those that were drawn to avro, its nature as crossing boundaries and transcending national identities – the Catalan crisis is a European crisis too. Will the EU step ahead of the game? If artificial meat does take over divorce essay topics, then climate change just isn't much of a problem. George Monbiot tells us all that artificial meat is soon going to be a real product rather than a lab curiosity and he could be right about that. The Crucible Character Essay! However, it's what happens after that which interests here. Divorce Argumentative! George goes on arrow, to tell us that this will, quite obviously, curb all those emissions that raising livestock currently causes. And the subsequent rewilding of pasture will reduce emissions once again. As the final argument crumbles, we are left facing an uncomfortable fact: animal farming looks as incompatible with a sustained future for humans and other species as mining coal. Topics! That vast expanse of character essay john, pastureland, from divorce essay, which we obtain so little at such great environmental cost, would be better used for in a box, rewilding: the mass restoration of nature.

Not only would this help to reverse the catastrophic decline in habitats and the diversity and abundance of wildlife, but the topics, returning forests, wetlands and savannahs are likely to report in a, absorb far more carbon than even the most sophisticated forms of grazing. OK - don't think about whether this will happen but think about what if? The answer being that climate change stops being a problem. If we take seriously the IPCC and the like reports then there are various scenarios for how emissions will turn out in the future. The whole problem being a serious one if we're on topics, A1FI or RCP 8.5 (dependent upon which set of scenarios we want to argumentative essay paper, use). It not being a serious one if we're on A1T or RCP 2.6. And the truth is that neither A1FI or RCP 8.5 are really even possible, let alone likely for we've already done more than enough to divorce argumentative essay, head them off. They both insist, for avro arrow, example, that the world will be using more coal in 2070 than it does now.

Not just more but more as a portion of total energy provision. Given what has already been done with solar and divorce argumentative, wind power that's just not going to happen at all. And certainly not when we consider what is thesis likely to happen to solar over the coming decades. One of the sadnesses of the climate change debate is that whenever we see a new report stating that if we don't do something about climate change then - the results are always based upon the assumption that A1FI or RCP 8.5 are what is divorce argumentative essay going to happen - entirely ignoring that we have already done something. And this thought about artificial meat just adds to how much 900 word, this. If it is true, that the technology becomes mainstream, then we are again moving further away from the predicted danger and much closer to the don't worry about it scenario. At which point, of course, then we've got to struggle mightily a great deal less, don't we? That is, all these predictions of divorce argumentative essay, how things are changing just keep telling us how much less change needs to be done. Apa Citation For Essay! Oddly, very few people indeed tell us this.

This argument about Catalonia is true but incomplete. Catalonia, as we've seen, has a number of people in it who would like to be independent of divorce argumentative topics, Spain. Whether this is a good idea or not is not for us to decide. But, as this Spanish writer puts it, it is possible to construct an argument about it: I live in the crucible character, Pozuelo, a municipality in the outskirts of Madrid, where I commute daily.

Pozuelo is the richest city in Spain, with an average household income of ˆ73,000. Pozuelo is full of divorce argumentative topics, good private schools. Many of my neighbors use neither the public school system nor the public health system. Let’s imagine one of my neighbors starts a movement for Pozuelo’s “right to decide”. His proposal to the neighbors is simple: we will remain in the EU, but we will be independent from paper, Spain. He would explain that the over ˆ35,000 in divorce argumentative essay, taxes that each of book shoe box, our households currently pay (including over ˆ20,000 in income taxes) finance services that we don’t consume. He would tell them that Carabanchel is stealing from divorce essay, us, just like the Andalusians and the crucible character john, the people from Extremadura steal from us. He will promise a fiscal dividend of ˆ20,000 per family. OK, yes, that could be true. Further: I hope, dear reader, that the argument is clear. The right to divorce, self-determination is not compatible with a welfare state and high-quality public services, especially in a single and integrated market.

The rich will always have an incentive to benefit (single market, freedom of movement) without paying for redistribution to arrow, the poor. Divorce Argumentative Essay! That’s why Europe cannot, must not, allow these self-interested demands to succeed. Tuscany or Bavaria would reap great benefits if they could split, without cost, from their states to the detriment of their fellow citizens in Southern Italy or East Germany. That would also be true. As the arguments about Scottish economic independence show us, there are indeed cross subsidies within the nation states.

But that's not the report box, end of the chain of logic at all. Divorce Topics! We all do agree that we've different redistributional responsibilities to how much, different groups. No one at all thinks it odd that we redistribute more to the children in our households, less to those in other households in our same nation and very much less to those in essay, other nations. If this were not so then there wouldn't be all that fuss about whether Germany should be paying Greek government expenses or not. Test Essay! Or within nation redistribution would be that 0.7% of GDP that we distribute as overseas aid. We all do indeed agree, the occasional moral philosopher aside, that the volume of that cash flow is argumentative essay topics going to be different according to sat reasoning essay, whether the recipient is perceived as in-group or ex-. Yes, we do still argue about essay topics how large the flow is but the basic idea of apa citation for essay, it being different is well founded. The argument about secession and redistribution then becomes, well, who is in-group and who is ex-? It is entirely true that if one of the richer parts of Spain leaves Spain then poorer parts will get less redistribution. But we cannot just say that it must not happen therefore - we've got to have a justification ofwhy the divorce argumentative topics, different parts are all to be considered in-group. And if we're honest about it it's really not clear at all that current national borders do indeed usefully define who is in- and ex-.

As Ireland leaving in 1921, Scotland arguing about it now, Yugoslavia breaking up, the implosion of the Soviet Union and all the sat reasoning test essay, rest show. Just because the lines on divorce argumentative, the map are as they are isn't a sufficient justification for avro arrow, the insistence upon redistribution across that total grouping. For that's just not how people work, is it? A little lesson for those who would nationalise everything. As we're being told many people - more so the argumentative, young and inexperienced of essay, course - are in favour of nationalising near everything. We've even seen one claim that the banking system is a natural monopoly and therefore should be nationalised. We who are rich in maturity could, as we all are of course, carry on reminding people of how bad things were when nationalisation was rife. Sadly, none of those Marinas and essay topics, Allegros have survived long enough to be usable as present day examples of the horrors that were. So, instead, how things work out elsewhere: Also, there are widespread objections among consumers against LPG cylinder price. They said they have to apa citation, pay different prices for a same product of a company in different areas.

A 12.5kg cylinder sells at Tk950 in Dhaka, while it is priced between Tk1,100 and Tk1,200 in Rajshahi, Khulna and Barisal. On the other hand, a cylinder of state-run LP Gas Ltd sells at divorce argumentative Tk800, though it is priced at Tk700. Argumentative Paper! This type of cylinders, however, is not available in markets due to a supply shortage. This is not an aberration. In Venezuela they insist that the government make food nice and cheap.

There is no food in Venezuela. Housing was nice and cheap in the Soviet bloc - there was a serious shortage of housing for argumentative, the 70 years of the Union's existence. Avro Arrow Thesis! Bangladesh has both government and privately supplied LPG. The government stuff isn't available. Nationalisation and the political control of prices - along with that absence of the profit motive - will mean that everything is nice and cheap and you can't have any because of a supply shortage. Divorce Argumentative! As it did, so it will. People aren't quite grasping how markets work. That Jezza and report in a box, Labour are now promising everything to all - rent control being the latest nonsense - isn't all that much of a surprise. That's politics after all. Divorce Argumentative Topics! But it is worrying that people just aren't grasping why so much of what is being promised is nonsense: He did it because villainous letting agents encourage owners to do so, insisting on “market rents”, which they alone seem to set, and which are often much higher than levels of frozen local housing allowance, and devised without inspecting the property (my own rentier has never seen the flat and apa citation, lives in another city, so it’s no surprise he relied on the agent’s viewpoint). Market rents, like any other market price, are simply the balance of supply and divorce argumentative topics, demand.

And something that most seem not to character essay john, be aware of: Private rental prices paid by tenants in argumentative topics, Great Britain rose by 1.6% in for essay, the 12 months to August 2017; this is down from divorce essay, 1.8% in July 2017. In England, private rental prices grew by 1.7%, Wales saw growth of 1.3% while Scotland saw rental prices increase by 0.3% in the 12 months to August 2017. London private rental prices grew by 1.2% in the 12 months to August 2017, that is, 0.4 percentage points below the the crucible essay, Great Britain 12-month growth rate. Rents are rising by less than the general inflation rate, by less than wage growth. That balance of supply and demand seems to be working in favour of argumentative, tenants then. Further, it most certainly is apa citation not true that market rents are simply numbers being made up, not by anyone. It would, of course, be rent controls which are simply made up numbers. Prices simply are not random numbers allocated as we wish.

They're the vital information about who wants what so much, who is willing to argumentative essay topics, supply what is wanted. As such we mess with them at our peril. They say this about Ryanair as if it's a bad thing. Apparently selling people something they want at a price they wish to pay is a bad idea now: But that show of transparency shouldn’t persuade anyone that this is an aberration rather than a symptom, a visible culmination of the logic of low-cost economics. Ryanair is a highly efficient business in an industry whose dominant vision is – in apa citation for essay, a phrase coined by the government’s airline commission – that “low-cost is king”. Unbundling has become part of our world, and not just when we fly.

It shows up in a host of what are billed as consumer choices, and increasingly in what were once public services. Effects like this aren’t unique to airlines. As consumers, we have been hooked by bargains that come at a cost. Ryanair has nurtured the dream of flying to essay topics, obscure cities for a tenner, because we can. And Uber has encouraged a swath of city dwellers to take taxis when before they might have used public transport, Complaints are shrugged off by avro thesis, BA bosses: customers want low fares. All of this is divorce argumentative being said in those shocked tones of disapproval. As if it's just clear and obvious that supplying what people want is a bad idea. When, of course, nothing could be further from the truth. This is the in a box, entire point and aim of our having an economy in the first place, that people gain what they desire, that consumers get as much of what they want as can possibly be supplied to them. There is only one valid point in the diatribe: Ultimately, the cheaper deal is making us all pay.

Unbundling doesn’t eliminate costs, it just makes them external. And they still have to be met by someone, somewhere. Absolutely, and bundling doesn't eliminate costs either, it just internalises them and divorce argumentative essay topics, thus forces everyone, whether they wish the extras or not, to pay for them. Which is why we like the unbundling of course - so that consumers may indeed select from that menu of is a 900 word essay, options. The very thing being complained about divorce essay topics is the very thing which we actually desire.

Marvel at the effects of a truly unionised workforce. Essay! The Guardian tells us that academics in the US have taken to sleeping in their cars, even to indulging in sex work, in order to keep body and soul together. At which point we should marvel at the effects of a truly unionised workforce: There is argumentative topics nothing she would rather do than teach. But after supplementing her career with tutoring and proofreading, the the crucible character, university lecturer decided to topics, go to the crucible john, remarkable lengths to make her career financially viable. She first opted for her side gig during a particularly rough patch, several years ago, when her course load was suddenly cut in half and her income plunged, putting her on the brink of divorce essay topics, eviction. “In my mind I was like, I’ve had one-night stands, how bad can it be?” she said. For Essay! “And it wasn’t that bad.” The wry but weary-sounding middle-aged woman, who lives in a large US city and argumentative, asked to remain anonymous to protect her reputation, is an adjunct instructor, meaning she is not a full-time faculty member at any one institution and strings together a living by the crucible character essay john proctor, teaching individual courses, in her case at argumentative essay multiple colleges.

Adjuncts, of avro, course, are not unionised. Divorce Topics! But their pay and conditions are caused by unionisation all the same. American academe, for those who gain tenure, is a very comfy gig indeed. Other than forcing oneself upon a student in the quad it's difficult to get fired and while the salary is middling for the professions the working hours and pensions are just great. And the best way to how much essay, think about tenure is that it is acceptance into divorce a very strong union indeed. American colleges are not cheap, as we all know, and all the revenue is sucked up by those very well protected and comfy tenured academics and the administrators. Leaving near nothing left over for those adjuncts who carry an ever increasing part of the teaching load.

And why is it that the adjuncts are an the crucible john proctor, ever increasing part? Because the employment of those permanent staff is argumentative so expensive given their unionisation. Further, this is shoe what always does happen. Unions benefit those on the inside at the expense of those outside. American colleges already cost as much as anyone will pay for divorce topics, them.

The only solution to the adjuncts' problem is that those in the union get less so they can have more. And, of course, Good Luck with that. Sat Reasoning Test! We get it, you did a blog about vaping. I love teasing my friends who use e-cigarettes. There’s something intrinsically uncool about e-cigs – they’re gadgety, a bit silly-looking thanks to divorce topics, their chunkiness and the huge clouds of the crucible character, vapour they produce, and bring to divorce, mind the sort of middle aged geezer who hangs around CAMRA beer festivals with a beer checklist. I love to send my friend Dan photos of new vape shops that have silly names like “Vape Lords”, as if he loves vaping so much that he’ll be excited just to sat reasoning test prompts, see that it exists. The “we get it, you vape” meme came about because vapers often will not shut up about argumentative essay it, which reminds some people of vegans or that guy who tells you he doesn’t even own a TV at how much is a 900 word essay every opportunity. So I understand why people don’t care about divorce essay topics vaping and public policy. If you’re not a smoker and haven’t experienced some of the for essay, costs of smoking in essay topics, your own life – a relative dying young from lung cancer, say – it’s easy to start, just ignore it and laugh about the people who keep hammering on about it. I was among that group until a few years ago, and thought that the issue was a minor one compared with the weightiest issues in divorce topics, public policy – tax, housing, immigration, Brexit. Sat Reasoning Essay Prompts! But nowadays, the more I’ve learned, the more I think that e-cigarettes and related products might be one of the easiest ways to improve people’s lives we have.

And if public policy can make them better, and make people more likely to use them instead of smoking cigarettes, then it should be a major priority for people interested in improving human welfare. The first point to note is that smoking tobacco – that is, lighting it on fire and inhaling the argumentative essay, smoke – is very harmful. On average, lifelong smokers seem to live for about ten years less than if they had not smoked, and they will be sick more often. But it is sat reasoning essay prompts also very enjoyable for many smokers, who judge the trade-offs to topics, be worth it, perhaps because they like the taste or the sat reasoning test essay prompts, nicotine. Essay! Though it’s important to make smokers aware of the harm that smoking does, most anti-smoking regulation is based on unproven assumptions about smokers’ rationality and ability to compare costs with benefits. I want smokers to be aware of the costs of smoking, and to make sure they bear the costs they impose on others. But most taxes and anti-smoking regulations are designed to argumentative essay paper, increase the cost of smoking, which unless they are systematically irrational (unproved) is welfare-reducing even if they manage to persuade smokers to divorce argumentative essay, stop smoking. In short: only individuals can decide if the pleasure of a lifetime of smoking is worth living for ten years less. Many anti-smoking policies do not work very well even by their own standards.

Taxes do, but indoor smoking bans, display bans, advertising bans and others all seem to do nothing to stop people taking up smoking (though they sometimes do lower smoking rates among current smokers). For Essay! Plain packaging has been an abject failure in Australia, the divorce, only place that has had it long enough for us to character john, measure. And, remember, most of them work by making smokers’ options worse and raising the costs of smoking, not by giving them a better alternative. If some, most or all of the essay, enjoyment of smoking could be delivered with less or none of the harms, humanity would be in luck. Instead of stopping people from smoking by raising the costs of doing so, as most smoking taxes and for essay, regulations do, and lowering human welfare, we would be able to lower the number of people smoking (and dying young) while also raising human welfare. This is the promise of e-cigarettes and other reduced risk tobacco products. E-cigs are much safer than cigarettes. The Public Health England review into them that concluded they were 95% safer was being highly cautious with that figure – the truth may be closer to 99% or 100% safer.

Voluntary uptake of e-cigs since they first came to market has been very rapid and argumentative topics, large. Character John! Since about 2011, three million people (about 5.6% of the essay, adult population of book shoe, Britain) have taken them up – one vaper for every three smokers (15.8%, 7.6 million people, smoke cigarettes). Two million of these say that they have used e-cigarettes to quit smoking, and another half a million say they are in argumentative topics, the process of essay, doing so, though this number may be somewhat exaggerated as self-response surveys sometimes are. There are some interesting, though rough and uncontrolled, correlations in smoking and argumentative, vaping rates that might suggest a relationship that we should be interested in. It was only from 2011 that the smoking rate began to fall quickly again after five years of barely falling at report all; and from 2014 there is a sharp drop in under-25s smoking rates right at the same time that there is a sharp rise in e-cig use. That's quite an exciting trend!

The biggest anti-smoking public health groups have come out in favour of e-cigs, with ASH, Public Health England, Cancer Research UK and many others writing to the government to say that “e-cigarettes are the most popular quitting tool in the country with more than 10 times as many people using them than using local stop smoking services”. And fair play to them for divorce argumentative essay topics, that. On their side of the debate, there are people that oppose anything even resembling smoking without good reason for essay, doing so, and giving in to them would have been easy. What now matters is essay topics regulation, where Britain faces some important questions that will determine how much more e-cigs can do. The Crucible John! Until last year, we basically left e-cigs alone from a regulatory perspective. There is no legislation (yet) banning their use in public places or buildings, though obviously many places privately choose to ban them indoors (we do at the ASI, during office hours). Advertising as a consumer product is fine, but if you want to make claims about harm you need to get the device regulated as a medical product, which is prohibitively expensive and time-consuming.

There are three questions on the regulatory front that we need to make decisions about. One, after Brexit whether we should continue the Tobacco Products Directive’s rules around things like vape liquid bottle sizes, which make vaping less convenient; two, whether we should change the advertising rules to essay topics, make it easier for public health campaigners and e-cig companies to advertise the start argumentative essay, fact that they are much safer than cigarettes (and nearly as enjoyable!); and three, whether we should try to create a regulatory framework for other products that are like e-cigs so that it is easy to bring them to market. Of these, changing the divorce essay, rules around advertising is probably the most important. The Advertising Standards Agency is character essay john proctor currently holding a consultation on this, at the request of public health groups. If they do change the divorce, rules the risk is that they only do so in a narrow way, so that e-cigs’ safety can be promoted as part of a stop-smoking campaign but not alongside claims about them being enjoyable, fashionable, or whatever. The gains are potentially enormous. Many smokers, including many who have tried but not stuck with up e-cigarettes, do not realise how much safer they are. 91% of start essay paper, dual smokers/vapers agreed in divorce argumentative essay topics, a survey that e-cigs were safer, but only 60% of smokers who had not tried an e-cig and 75% of smokers who had tried them but had given them up. 23% of smokers said they hadn't tried an e-cig because they were concerned about safety, and of people who had tried e-cigs but gave them up, 35% said that it was because e-cigs might not be safe enough.

If they could be made aware, through better advertising and marketing, that e-cigs were not just safer, but at least twenty times safer than cigarettes, millions of smokers might choose to switch. To me, one group in box, particular stands out here. In most age groups, men and women both smoke and vape at similar rates to each other. But in the under-25s group, only 2.6% of women vape compared to 8.9% of men. I do not think it is much of a stretch to divorce argumentative essay topics, assume that the uncool image e-cigs have is part of the reason for this. This age group is particularly important because people who do not become regular smokers while they’re this age are very unlikely to take up smoking in later life. If better and start argumentative, more convincing advertising could be brought to bear to make e-cigs less embarrassing for argumentative topics, young women to use, and we merely brought their usage rates up to that of young men, 1.7 million women who otherwise would have taken up smoking might not do so.

1.4 million disability-adjusted life years are lost every year to smoking. Even small shifts from smoking to how much is a essay, vaping would have a very large impact in terms of divorce, life-years saved. If marketing could make e-cigs less uncool, and make smokers better informed about the safety, the potential gains are huge. Start Paper! The method seems effective, it doesn’t cost us anything, and it’s voluntary, so we’re expanding choice and improving welfare, not just raising costs on divorce argumentative, a choice we don’t like. For anyone interested in human wellbeing, making public policy more e-cig-friendly seems like it should be a top priority. I even promise to is a essay, tease my vaping friends less. If you're going to be at argumentative essay topics Conservative Party Conference in avro arrow, Manchester next week, you might want to come to our panel discussion on vaping, synthetic alcohol and other ways that innovation is beating the nanny state at its own game. Details here. Argumentative! We've long been amused by The Guardian's Hardworking Britain column. Frances Ryan writes The Guardian's Hardworking Britain column and we've long been amused at the examples being offered to us. It is always, of course, that pay isn't high enough, that people are working fingers to bone and just not, still, having enough to get by upon.

Our problem being that numbers just never quite seem to essay, add up. One example that we explored with her was this: Mike is frantic about finding money to argumentative, pay for start argumentative paper, his multiple medications, but it’s buying presents for his daughters’ landmark birthdays – 13 and 18 this year – that’s playing on topics, his mind. We reminded her that the NHS charges a maximum fee for book box, all prescriptions over a year. An entire ?104 in fact. Her response was that Mike didn't have ?104. We never did get a response to our pointing out that the NHS is divorce absolutely delighted to finance this over 10 months. It is, quite obviously, possible that someone doesn't have ?10.40 a month. We think it's unlikely though if someone is far enough up Maslow's Pyramid to be worrying about birthday presents. Which brings us to today's offering: Julia has a system to survive. Every month, she maxes out her overdraft: ?1,000 in the red to pay for utility bills, council tax, mortgage, and essay, food for divorce essay topics, herself and her daughter. Then the 49-year-old’s salary puts her back in thesis, the black – and she does it all over divorce topics, again.

This is the definition of precarious living: a life where, in Julia’s words, “everyday needs pile up”. The overdraft isn’t enough to keep her head above water. In the past nine months, she’s fallen into ?5,000 worth of credit card debt. As we talk, Julia writes it all out – listing basic family costs, item by item: replacing broken furniture (“It was falling apart,” she says); buying her daughter shoes and sat reasoning essay, a uniform for secondary school, and a bike to get there; hiring a plumber to unblock the toilet. She can’t remember the last time she went out with friends or bought something as a treat. “I have holes in my clothes,” she says. This is of a teacher earning ?34,000 a year.

We agree that this is not a fortune. Well, actually, no, we don't. By global standards Julia is in the top 0.5%. Argumentative Essay Topics! Yes, this is adjusting for price differences across geography, we're using PPP here. As we say, the numbers just never do quite add up.

Precarious just isn't the right word, nor is poverty, to 900 word, describe someone in that top 0.5%. Seriously, whining about the living standards of one of the richest people to ever have existed on the planet just doesn't strike us as being valid poverty porn. Obviously, things are different at The Guardian.

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Effects Of Divorce On Children: A 3-Paragraph Sample Essay

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We may sell, disclose, or transfer information about You as part of divorce a corporate business transaction, such as a merger or acquisition, joint venture, corporate reorganization, financing, or sale of company assets, or in the unlikely event of insolvency, bankruptcy, or receivership, in book report in a shoe box which such information could be transferred to third-parties as a business asset in the transaction. For Legal Process Protection. We may disclose Personal Information, and divorce topics other information about You, or Your communications, where we have a good faith belief that access, use, preservation or disclosure of such information is reasonably necessary: to satisfy any applicable law, regulation, legal process or enforceable governmental request; to enforce or apply agreements, or initiate, render, bill, and collect for services and products (including to collection agencies in order to obtain payment for our products and arrow thesis services); to protect our rights or interests, or property or safety or that of others; in connection with claims, disputes, or litigation – in divorce argumentative topics court or elsewhere; to facilitate or verify the for essay appropriate calculation of taxes, fees, or other obligations; or. in an emergency situation. We may provide information that does not identify You personally to third-parties for marketing, advertising or other purposes. HOW WE STORE AND PROTECT THE INFORMATION COLLECTED ABOUT YOU. Protecting Your Information. We use a variety of physical, electronic, and argumentative procedural safeguards to protect Personal Information from the crucible essay proctor unauthorized access, use, or disclosure while it is under our control. Unfortunately, no data transmission over the internet can be guaranteed to be completely secure. As a result, although we will utilize such measures, we do not guarantee You against the loss, misuse, or alteration of Personal Information under our control, and You provide Personal Information to us at Your own risk.

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can i write a Elizabeth Moon, Science Fiction and Fantasy Writer. Help! I can't write! or How to divorce topics Identify the Dread Writer's Block and Its Relatives. So--you can't write today, and argumentative paper you're wondering if you're blocked?

And what to divorce do about it if you are? Well, here's some diagnostic and therapeutic help. No guarantees--you may have come up with an entirely new form of the crucible character writing trouble--but others have found the following ideas useful. First, the taxonomy of can't write. I like to divide the problem up by time of onset (in the divorce topics writer's career and in the particular project), duration, and report in a shoe box symptoms. This produces three main diagnoses, only one of divorce argumentative topics which is true writer's block. I call them Novice Nerves, Stuckness, and book Block. Each has a characteristic pattern, and each responds best to different treatment. Time of argumentative essay topics onset: if you are just beginning to write seriously (with intent to finish a novel, or to get published), your inability to write is not block, but a condition I call Novice Nerves. You cannot have writer's block until you are a confirmed writer (that is, you've been writing for a substantial length of time, at a rate consistent with steady, daily application.) If you're a confirmed writer who has just changed the kind of writing you're doing (from short stories to novels, or vice versa; from book box, one genre to argumentative another; from john, on-spec to essay on-assignment), your difficulty is very likely Novice Nerves in relation to your new performance demand. Novice Nerves is apa citation, characterized by an inability to start a project (can't get a thing on paper in divorce essay topics, spite of wonderful ideas in the head), and by intrusive concerns about your talent, your reputation, your future reviews, your future sales--in fact, by intrusive ideas about everything but the story at hand. (Intrusive concerns about the story itself are characteristic of another form of writing difficulty.) Experienced writers who have changed writing areas know that the only cure for novice nerves is the writing itself, with a firm yank of the mental leash whenever the for essay thought of readers, publishers, reviewers, friends, or parents intrudes.

Exercises normally proposed for breaking writer's block may help, but may also allow you to evade the divorce topics project. Occasionally, working two projects at once can help with Novice Nerves, since you can displace the anxiety about Project A to the times you're working on start, Project B, and vice versa. If the onset of a writing problem occurs while you are well into a project (say, eight chapters into your new novel) Novice Nerves is unlikely to be the problem. If your intrusive thoughts about the argumentative topics problem center on the crucible character essay john proctor, the project itself (How am I going to deal with the divorce essay family reunion from Pete's viewpoint? If I change viewpoints, it will suck the tension out. ) then it is certainly not Novice Nerves. What's happened? You've run into the part of writing which is not fun--into the hard work of writing.

I call this being stuck and argumentative other writers may call it getting lost or being off-track. Stuckness has several causes, but the most important thing about divorce argumentative it is that the story you were telling is start argumentative essay, still alive--it's just stuck. You can feel that the story is alive, that the characters are eager to move on. You, the writer, are the one with the problem. If you work at it, stuckness resolves in less than a week (for one problem--a novel may have several patches of stuckness. I usually spend the middle months of a novel stumbling from one sticky patch to argumentative another.) Early in your writing life, the commonest cause of stuckness is your own lack of start argumentative essay paper technical skill in writing.

You know what needs to be said, but you can't figure out how to divorce topics do it. Like a beginner trying to build a house with only test, a hammer and saw and a pile of lumber, you have to work harder to accomplish the same structure. Writers can't go out and buy a new writing tool--there's no store that sells a viewpoint transition chisel or a flashback installation kit. So, when you get stuck this way, you have to make your own tools--by writing through the problem. Divorce Argumentative Essay Topics! Identify what it is that you can't do, then read books in which it is done well--and then go do it. The exercises often proposed for getting past writer's block may also work because many of them actually sharpen your writer's tools.

It's fine to figure out a way to work around a skill you haven't developed yet (such as the ability to handle multiple major viewpoints) as long as you keep working. Sometimes you can jump past the essay prompts stuck point, and leave it to be solved later--by the divorce essay time you finish the rest of the book, you may have developed the apa citation for essay skill you need to clean up that bit. Another cause of stuckness hits writers with a trickle-feed imagination, those who can't outline because they don't know what happens until they write it. If you have this kind of imagination, and argumentative essay topics you are an in a box energetic writer, then you can expect to overrun your inspiration repeatedly. When you do, you will feel lost or empty.

Two strategies may help. Argumentative! First, be sure to stop writing before you run out of apa citation steam every day--save a little for the next day, so that you know what's happening when you start the divorce argumentative essay next session. Second, when you've overrun your primary vein, jump ahead in the story and see if you can find another vein to follow for awhile. You may end up having to how much is a 900 word essay circular-file a chapter or so, but you will enjoy writing something more than sitting there waiting for the bucket to fill. Another, potentially more serious, cause of stuckness arises from external, non-writing causes in a writer's life. It's potentially more serious, because if untreated these things can lead to a full, formal writer's block. If you have been a solid, productive writer for some years, and you run into divorce argumentative topics increasing problems with things which used to require less effort, then the cause of your writing difficulty lies outside your talent.

Any serious life stressor--physical, emotional, social, economic--can suck away the energy, courage, and discipline which you need for your work. You may produce a year or so beyond the paper initial problem, but--if you don't take care of it--it will catch up with you eventually. One symptom that the problem is external to your talent is the feel of the story. if the problem is external, the story will have less impulsion--less oomph. You will find yourself trying to divorce argumentative put oomph into the story, rather than being energized yourself by report, the story's energy. A story should not need daily resuscitation to stay alive. if it does, something is wrong. Which leads us to essay the actual writer's block. To distinguish a block from stuckness or novice nerves, you have to have experienced the first two. Remember--if it's novice nerves, you have lots of ideas but can't get started, and character essay john if it's stuckness, the story is alive--it wants to be written and the pressure from the story being stuck is divorce argumentative essay topics, painful. In the the crucible character john true writer's block, there is essay, no pressure from a live story that wants to be written.

The story is dead, and apa citation you have the feeling that it never was alive. Argumentative! A very horrible feeling, rather like coming home to find an start essay empty lot where your house was when you left. Writer's block comes in two forms, a specific block (which affects only argumentative essay, one project, or one type of writing) and the crucible character proctor a general block (which affects all writing.) The only divorce argumentative essay topics, way to start essay paper tell the difference is to divorce try writing something other than the the crucible john story that died on you. Divorce Argumentative! Luckily, the arrow general block (where you can't write anything, even a note to a friend) is much rarer than the specific block. The story-specific block is easy to divorce argumentative topics handle if the book shoe box story isn't on contract to someone--you drop it as soon as you realize it's dead, and go write something else. But if it's a story you promised an editor, you feel anxious and ashamed and guilty. Argumentative Topics! You'll be tempted to try to do CPR on the dead story--the longer you've been a professional, and the more reputation you have, the book report box more you'll be tempted to pretend that the corpse is still breathing on its own. After all, you're a professional; you should be able to write no matter what, right? Wrong. The longer you drag that dead story around, trying to breathe life into it, the more it will stink and the worse you will feel. Pretty soon the argumentative topics thought of writing anything will nauseate you--or at the very least you will lose confidence in book report shoe box, your ability to tell live stories from dead ones.

When a story dies totally, give it a death certificate. Tell the editor as soon as you know it's gone, and bury it deep. Don't bother with an autopsy, either--it's much more important--right now--to find out that you can still write, than to know why that particular story died. Try something different. If the story that died was funny, write something serious; if it was serious, write something funny. Go for short (because long works always involve some snags, and when you're testing the divorce essay topics size of your block, you don't want to borrow trouble.) Branch out; try different genres. If you're lucky, you'll find that the story that died was a story-specific block, and the next thing you try will pop out arrow thesis full of energy. (This happened to me, when a novel died, and I spent six months trying to revive it--almost as soon as I quit on that, and started a funny short story, the energy returned.) If you can write at all, and the new stories are coming with no more difficulty than those before the block, you may have experienced a one-story block. Divorce Argumentative Essay! In that case, wait several months and avro arrow then do a cold-hearted analysis of the story elements so that you have some idea what kind of story died on you. (Maybe you really can't write a story about a flamboyant prostitute in 16th c. Paris. maybe you will never succeed with a police procedural. Essay! so the next time you think of starting one, you might want to think twice.) However, be aware of apa citation things affecting your life which may be affecting your creativity.

A dead story is a signal (I have had two novels die completely--each time, I was able afterwards to identify significant major additional stressors.) No successful writer I know has a totally stress-free life, but you can at least learn to recognize things that tie your creativity in knots. But what if you can't write at all? You buried the argumentative topics dead story. and nothing happened. No ideas. Avro Arrow Thesis! No images. Oh, maybe you hacked out a funny letter to a friend. but you couldn't write the argumentative next letter. you couldn't even post to your favorite newsgroup. An occasional idea drifts through your mind, but dies when you start to write, like a butterfly crushed by a clutching fist.

This is the big one. This is the true writer's block in its most extreme form. And the problem is not in your writing, or your sales figures, or your reviews, or the state of publishing. The Crucible Character John! Writer's block of this magnitude means that something is draining away all the energy you used to essay apply to test prompts writing. The commonest cause is clinical depression (see my article on Depression and the Writer.) Depression is treatable, and despite the pervasive myths about creativity, you will write better, with more emotional intensity, when you are not depressed. Another cause is a change in priorities, which you have not yet recognized consciously. Topics! Even a writer who has been convinced for years that writing is paper, his life may--as the result of some life experience--change his mind. You may want to put your creative energy into something else for awhile--you may have fallen in divorce argumentative essay topics, love with a person, with an idea, with a cause.

If you try to keep writing the way you've always written, when your heart has changed direction, your writing will dry up like a stream when its water is diverted upstream. Serious physical illness, in avro arrow, the writer or a family member, death of a loved one, head trauma, relentless persecution or danger or poverty--all can sap creative energy. So, if you really can't write anything, look at your life. If you are depressed, work on that. Argumentative Essay! If you are nursing a dying friend or family member, work on that. If you're recovering from how much, a head injury, work on that.

And if your priorities have changed, admit that. It is no shame to quit writing in order to do something you'd rather do (most people do something else, because they would rather dig holes or drive trucks or bag groceries than struggle to get words on divorce, paper.) Try not to torment yourself with guilt: in apa citation, the catalog of great sins, not writing a novel is pretty far down the list. If you still want to write more than anything (really? OK.) then start reorganizing your life to nurture your enfeebled creativity. Take care of your physical and psychological health. If the divorce word block is scary to you (it is to start argumentative essay paper most of us) express your non-writing to yourself in terms of the real cause: I'm not writing a book this year because I can't generate the energy while learning to cope with the aftermath of that car wreck or I'm not writing because I'm still using everything I have to survive day by day as a recovering alcoholic. Divorce Argumentative Essay Topics! Writing takes immense reserves of energy, courage, and discipline--if you're using up your reserves somewhere else in your life, what's left for writing? If you recover from whatever blocked your talent, your talent will come back. When it does--when you first feel that familiar tickle in the brain--don't overload it with a big project.

Tempt it with something easy (easy for you, whatever your level of competence is.) Be alert to any signs that the current project is avro arrow thesis, going under. and abandon anything that turns flabby. Give yourself a chance to play, to recover the fun, the joy, of making things up, before you put a harness on your talent. Let it grow naturally, as it grew when you were a child. Don't be surprised if it looks different, or feels different, or wants to divorce argumentative essay do different things. Apa Citation! It's had a near-death experience and its priorities may have changed.

Now. get off the divorce argumentative Internet, open up a file in your word processor, and GO WRITE SOMETHING. (Or not, as the arrow case may be.) Contents of argumentative topics these pages 1996-2016 Elizabeth Moon.