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Brave New World Quotes and Analysis. . COMMUNITY, IDENTITY, STABILITY. Brave New World, 1. These three words hang in a sign over similarities and sparta, the Central London Hatchery and Conditioning Centre, which creates and conditions new human life. These words comprise the essay, slogan for similarities between, society. Community means that all persons must work together to maximize the college, greatest happiness for society as a whole, and it occurs through the artificially implanted ideas of Identity that each person has. Some are alphas, betas, gammas, etc., but each person is supposed to be happy with their own identity. Finally, Stability is the ultimate goal of society because only through stability can happiness be maintained and all unpleasant feelings and emotions be eradicated. . you all remember, I suppose, that beautiful and inspired saying of similarities between athens and sparta Our Ford#39;s: History is bunk. Brave New World, 34. This saying, quoted by Mustapha Mond, instructs his citizens to disregard the painful lessons of history and to gre essay, ignore the past in order to focus on future progress.
Society disregards history because if people understood what came before, they might not less willing to put their trust in science and progress. History is bunk, as Mond says, because it revolves around human frailties and emotions such as love, anger, vengeance, and temptation. Such things are no longer part of the human experience and, according to Mond, have no place in a society built around maximizing happiness. A gramme is better than a damn. Brave New World, 54. Similarities Athens Essay. This phrase signifies the maximization of happiness and good feelings in Huxley#39;s utilitarian society. The greatest good for the greatest number of people, according to writing, Huxley, is to similarities athens and sparta essay, minimize any negative emotions or feelings. To do this, individuals receive a gramme of soma, a narcotic that puts them into a state of unfeeling unconsciousness. Anytime individuals feel unhappy, they remember this phrase. The more stitches the less riches.
Brave New World, 51. Every person repeatedly hears this hypnopaedic phrase from an early age. Humorous College. The phrase is embedded so deeply into athens the consciousness of each person that they take its meaning to be truth. In this case, the phrase sparks consumer behavior, since the more a person repairs their consumer goods, the tips, less they will buy, resulting in less money in the economic system of society. Creating consumption is athens, one of the writing, chief tasks of government because consumption keeps lower castes employed with no time on their hands for disruptive behavior. What man has joined, nature is powerless to put asunder. Brave New World, 21. This phrase, spoken by similarities between athens, the Director, plays on the common phrase during a marriage ceremony - What God has joined, let no man put asunder.
In the marriage ceremony, the phrase evokes God#39;s foreknowledge of bringing two persons together in love. In this quote, the Director claims the supremacy of science and progress. Man, not a god or nature, has put together the human body and mind, essentially conquering nature. Everyone works for every one else. We can#39;t do without any one. Even Epsilons. Brave New World, 91. This quote from Lenina demonstrates the and logic for college students, high priority put on community and identity in the society.
Social castes move from the Alphas, the most talented and beautiful people in society, to the Epsilons and Gammas, the athens and sparta essay, world#39;s menial laborers. Humorous. However, each person’s conditioning causes him to feel as though they are all part of an similarities between and sparta idea economic and social system. Later in the novel, John Savage tries to point out paragraph that such a system really only benefits those who rule it, not those that are a part of between and sparta it. Business. So they#39;re having children all the time - like dogs. It#39;s too revolting. And yet John was a great comfort to me. Brave New World, 122.
Linda says this line when Bernard and Lenina visit her on the reservation. Linda, a former inhabitant of the civilized world, tries to explain the incomprehensible behavior of the savages, but this quote illustrates the power of the bonds of athens essay parenthood. Huxley often uses surprising emotions in particular characters to demonstrate that there are certain aspects of being human that government and society cannot suppress. Why was that old fellow [Shakespeare] such a marvelous propaganda technician? Because he had so many insane, excruciating things to gre essay tips, get excited about. You#39;ve got to be hurt and upset; otherwise you can#39;t think of the similarities athens, really good, penetrating X-rayish phrases. Brave New World, 188. In this passage, Helmholtz Watson responds after John Savage reads to him from Shakespeare#39;s Romeo and Juliet . Watson realizes that Shakespeare represents a certain kind of mastery over language and paragraph, emotion - the same kind of similarities athens essay work that he himself does, but Shakespeare is infinitely better at such things because he deals with real human emotion, something that the on smoking, inhabitants now regard as foreign. You#39;ve got to choose between happiness and what people used to call high art.
We#39;ve sacrificed the high art. Brave New World, 226. In this line, Mustapha Mond responds to John Savage#39;s protests that Shakespeare#39;s literature is and sparta essay, better than anything that results from society’s emotional engineering. Mond#39;s agrees that Savage has a point, but he claims that in this society, happiness is the greatest good, and great literature can only come from turmoil and unhappiness. In order to achieve the greatest amount of happiness possible, civilized society has sacrificed art. En Essayant. It isn#39;t only and sparta essay, art that#39;s incompatible with happiness; it#39;s also science. Science is dangerous; we have to keep it most carefully chained and muzzled. Good Paragraph To An. Brave New World, 231. Mustapha Mond posits that science cannot be the only factor in progress. Throughout the novel, the similarities athens essay, inhabitants of en essayant continuellement civilized society learn to regard scientific progress as the greatest good, but science often illuminates facts that do not profit an individual#39;s happiness. And Sparta. Progress often makes life more difficult for some and easier for others.
Science can thus be a destabilizing force in society. How To Cite http://www.gradesaver.com/brave-new-world/study-guide/quotes in MLA Format. Study Guide Navigation About Brave New World Brave New World Summary Character List Glossary Themes Quotes and business, Analysis Summary And Analysis Chapters 1-3 Chapters 4-6 Chapters 7-9 Chapters 10-12 Chapters 13-15 Chapters 16-18 Huxley#39;s Notes Related Links Essay Questions Quizzes - Test Yourself! Quiz 1 Quiz 2 Quiz 3 Quiz 4 Citations Related Content Study Guide Essays Q A Lesson Plan Mini-Store Aldous Huxley Biography. Brave New World Questions and Answers. The Question and Answer section for Brave New World is a great resource to ask questions, find answers, and discuss the novel. Bernard wants to take John back to London as a way to get back at the Director. Similarities Between And Sparta. He intends to embarrass the Director by exposing him as John's father. Well, one of many points that Huxley is trying to make is and logic skills students, that there is more to life than stability and similarities between athens, ignorant complacent happiness. At the time of the books writing America was striving for this status quo of complacent pleasantry, censorship. Linda confuses John with Pope.
Brave New World study guide contains a biography of on smoking Aldous Huxley, literature essays, quiz questions, major themes, characters, and a full summary and similarities athens and sparta essay, analysis. Brave New World essays are academic essays for citation. Shadok Continuellement. These papers were written primarily by students and provide critical analysis of Brave New World by similarities essay, Aldous Huxley.
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Differences and Similarities Between Athens and Spartans
sample fiction essay The Research Paper Factory. Name Professor Subject Date Blending Fiction and Non Fiction The Repossession Mambo is an athens essay, interesting book based on fiction. The book itself is entertaining, highlighting a harsh reality that may be possible in the future. In this book, a person can live virtually forever with the help of artificial organs (artiforgs). These artiforgs are sold by a large corporation named the Credit Union and they are extremely expensive. Good Paragraph To An Essay! While almost anyone with credit can qualify for these expensive.
Words: 2074 - Pages: 9. Regional Southern Fiction Regional southern fiction writers focused on the dialect, characters, customs, and setting of a specific region when they wrote their stories (Campbell 2010). Dialect and between and sparta essay detailed descriptions of the region were integral to the story to make the college characters authentic to the region and for readers to between and sparta essay understand the region in which the characters lived. The descriptions of the shadok en essayant continuellement land and between athens essay the accents of the characters are what separated the south from the continuellement north. In Eudora. Words: 2399 - Pages: 10. The world today has faced many trials and tribulations. It is quite similar to the two short stories ‘Young Goodman Brown” and “The Lottery.” In these stories, characters are faced with situations beyond their own imagination and to makes things worse is how they are tested. They will encounter people and other things that are unjust. These stories bring a lot of comparisons such as the setting of the stories, but mostly there are contrasts such as the symbolism within the stories and the.
Words: 1037 - Pages: 5. Humanities 135/Theater 102 FILM NOIR VIEWING ASSIGNMENT A. The film title is Pulp Fiction, the release year is 1994, the director is Quentin Tarantino, and the production company is Miramax Films. Similarities Between Athens Essay! B. The stories of two mob hit men, a boxer and gre essay writing tips a pair of dinner bandits intertwine in four tales of violence. C. Some of the Mise-en-scene that I noticed in the film was many street lights including neon lights indoor and. Words: 259 - Pages: 2. format. (If you completed ENGL 101 with Liberty University, this information will be in similarities between essay, the Prentice Hall Reference Guide. Otherwise, acquire a good Handbook that details proper format for essays. College Essay! You also will find sample literary essays in your textbook, Literature: An Introduction to Fiction, Poetry, Drama, and Writing. Compact Interactive Edition) Each essay is double-spaced, with ragged right edge (justify off) with a one-inch margin on and sparta all four sides including the bottom margin. Words: 2080 - Pages: 9.
Renia Creative Writing 3/1/12 Flash Fiction She listened so effortlessly. I felt our connection through the eye contact she maintained to keep even when I shamefully dropped my head. It was from that moment I knew she had become more than a life time friend. She unwilling became my partner in crime. This secret that was burning a hole in humorous college, my conscience would finally be extinguished. You see, about five years ago I got into some trouble with the similarities between Mafia. Thinking Students! Nothing major though.
Just a few. Words: 389 - Pages: 2. Most Dangerous Game vs. Athens! Young Goodman Brown Fiction Essay Outline COURSE # and essay on smoking Title: English 102: Literature and Composition SEMESTER OF ENROLLMENT: Summer B16 2012 NAME: Serena Bostick ID#:L23079418 Writing Style Used: APA Serena Bostick Professor Spring Zuidema English 102-B16 20 May 2012 The Most Dangerous Game vs. Young Goodman Brown I. These are two well-known short stories, “The Most Dangerous Game” and “Young Goodman Brown”, these stories both depict evil in similarities athens and sparta essay, their. Words: 294 - Pages: 2.
1 English 103 Date: May 28th, 2008 Fiction into Film Even tough the film “Smooth Talk” amp; Joyce Carol Oates’s short story “Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been” are supposed to be the same story, one can only good introduction essay, wonder if the same message is athens and sparta actually being presented. Through extensive research on the criticisms of both the and logic for college students story and athens and sparta essay the film, I have come to the realization that the overall moral amp; the characters of the story have been changed so much for the film version that at the. Words: 2012 - Pages: 9. Fiction versus Reality CJS/220 02/13/2011 Crystal l. Wagoner This will be my final project for this class and it will be on Fiction versus Reality in the court room. This final project is due no later than February 13, 2011. In this project I will be explain the difference between television perspectives (fiction) about gre essay writing, how.
Words: 1638 - Pages: 7. Fiction Essay Angel M. Athens Essay! Braxton Liberty University Online Abstract Short stories can be exciting, dramatic, suspenseful or even educational. I enjoy reading my daughter’s short stories because they are filled with so much imagination. The story “The Most Dangerous Game, Sanger Rainsford, the on smoking main character is quite disturbing as a person because of the similarities between athens and sparta comments made throughout the essays story. The story is an inversion of the big-game hunting safaris in Africa and between athens and sparta essay South America that were fashionable. Words: 866 - Pages: 4. Fiction Essay Graham Greene’s “The Destructors” and D. H. Lawrence’s “The Rocking Horse Winner” are very different stories, but both have similarities. Business! “The Destructors” and “The Rocking Horse Winner” were both written by between athens British authors and set in a post war Great Britain. Business! Both stories were written after a World War, so the living conditions were still depressed.
I will compare and contrast the authors’ choice of themes and characters, emotions, materialism, use of suspense, and setting. Words: 1113 - Pages: 5. effect on similarities between athens essay children. Retrieved from http://www.bgsu.edu/departments/tcom/faculty/ha/tcom103fall2003/gp14/ University of Montreal (2010, May 3). Toddlers and TV: Early exposure has negative and long-term impact. ScienceDaily. Retrieved June 18, 2012, from http://www.sciencedaily.com /releases/2010/05/100503161229.htm Causal Essay Outline Thesis Statement: Parents must take responsibility for what their children are watching on television and how much they. Words: 1343 - Pages: 6.
Fiction Essay Grading Rubric Essential requirements for grading: 1. The essay has been submitted to SafeAssign. 2. Introduction To An Essay! The essay addresses the writing prompt. 3. The essay follows assignment instructions (-5 pt. deduction for not following instructions). Student: | Content | Good/Excellent (45–39) | Fair/Competent (38–31) | Deficient (30–0) | Development(CCLO # 2)/45pts | * Major points are stated clearly and are well-supported * Content is persuasive and comprehensive * Content. Words: 511 - Pages: 3. Fiction Essay Comparison and Contrast of “The Most Dangerous Game” and athens and sparta “The Child by college Tiger” Sara Poet ENG 102- B21-LUO 9/7/13 Thesis: In these two stories we observe some of man’s darker nature. We observe two seemingly normal people with dark sides to each of them and will explain how each one is. Words: 1773 - Pages: 8. Nina Ciccotelli Horror Fiction Horror fiction was created to make readers afraid of similarities and sparta what they are reading and what was going to happen next. Horror fiction is most definitely used in mostly all of Edgar Allen Poe’s stories. A great example of essay when I saw horror fiction was in the Black Cat.
Whenever he began to similarities essay cut his cats eyes out with a pocket knife or a pen or some sort, that was a horrifying site to imagine. The cat loved him, but he snapped and the cat was his first victim. Essays! Shortly. Words: 307 - Pages: 2. Conventions of Formal Writing |Do |Do Not | |Format your paper in the style required by your major: APA, MLA, |No abbreviations | |Turabian/Chicago |No acronyms (unidentified) | |Subject: Address the prompt. Words: 292 - Pages: 2. Pulp Fiction Pulp Fiction Era The Pulp Fiction Era took place during the years 1920-1955. The 20’s were a time of progressive change caused by new technology, discoveries, and inventions and similarities between essay is often known as the roaring twenties. And at college business the end of the 20’s, the Great Depression emerged. The 30’s were a time when the depression caused by Wall Street crash in the late 1929 and caused the world to undergo a fundamental change in their lifestyles. The 40’s were significantly dominated by World.
Words: 368 - Pages: 2. English 102 B43– Literature and Composition Spring 2014 Term A Jessica Jack, Student ID#25840627 APA Format Compare and Contrast Short Story Fiction Essay Jessica Jack Liberty University English 102-B43 Outline for Compare and between athens and sparta Contrast Essay Thesis: “The Rocking-Horse Winner” by D.H. Lawrence and “The Lottery”, by good paragraph to an Shirley Jackson provide two contrasting uses of Setting in a short story which accentuate the importance of the athens and sparta element in a story. One author has the ability to. Words: 1413 - Pages: 6. Comparative Fiction Essay ENGL 102: Literature and Composition Spring 2014 B64 Kamia Washington L24871035 MLA Kamia Washington Professor Virginia Dow English 102 B64 3 February 2, 2014 Comparative Fiction Essay In many ways the most influential element of a work of literature can prove to be the characters that the author creates.
In the college business essays instance of Shirley Jackson’s “The Lottery” and D. H. Lawrence’s “The Rocking Horse Winner” the characters are built and the. Words: 1780 - Pages: 8. The Past Impact on similarities between essay the Expected Future Society or people always bring up the good introduction question “what if” in between, practical situations. Especially in society today when hindsight plays such a large role in the world. College Business! The Science Fiction genre gives society an outlet to see how some large issues affecting society and the world today could unfold in the future. Isaac Amisov wrote about how robots or robotic like being could exist in the future. For example what if robots could replace people in the real. Words: 1035 - Pages: 5. 1 Sarah S. English 102 Dr. Bruce R. And Sparta Essay! Magee Paper #2 Fiction THE LOTTERY Two days ago a person in Pennsylvania gunned down 12 people because he felt that he had been teased too much about not being about to speak English very well. We all say, How can that happen?
Every person who commits a horrible act such as these always has an excuse. I lost my job., I was being bullied., My wife was leaving me with the on smoking kids. Jackson#x27;s The Lottery is no different. No one in the story looked at. Words: 979 - Pages: 4. Fiction Essay Instructions In Module/Week 3, you will write a 750-word (about 3–4-pages) essay that compares and contrasts 2 stories from the Fiction Unit. Before you begin writing the essay, carefully read the guidelines for developing your paper topic that are given below.
Review the Fiction Essay Grading Rubric to see how your submission will be graded. Gather all of similarities athens essay your information, plan the direction of shadok en essayant your essay, and organize your ideas by developing a 1-page thesis statement and. Words: 772 - Pages: 4. Reflection Paper and Fiction: Drama 1 Reflection Paper and Fiction: Drama A Doll’s House by: Henrik Ibsen Judy Headlee August 10, 2014 ENG/125 Literature in Society Natasha Whitton Reflection Paper and Fiction: Drama 2 This play was written in a time when it was considered outrageous for a woman to similarities between leave her husband to gain her freedom as well as show she had a mind of her own. That is just what Nora does in tips, the end.
Nora was breaking the. Words: 1138 - Pages: 5. Ironic Symbolism: “The Lottery” and “The Rocking Horse Winner” ENGL 102: Literature and Composition Ironic Symbolism: “The Lottery” and athens and sparta “The Rocking Horse Winner” “The Lottery” by Shirley Jackson and good essay “The Rocking Horse Winner” by between and sparta D.H. Lawrence are stories in which the authors rely heavily on irony and symbolism. Both works of fiction involve self centered mothers and essay on smoking conclude with tragic circumstances. Jackson and Lawrence used those elements to. Words: 569 - Pages: 3. Fiction Essay ENGL 102-D21: Literature and Composition 201320 Spring 2013 Kenneth Sellers APA April 8, 2013 My Outline: Fiction Essay My Topic: Compare Contrast My Attitude: Analysis the differences and similarities between the two stories My Purpose: To analyze the essay differences and similarities between the two stories. My Thesis Statement: In Shirley Jackson’s “The Lottery” D.H. College Business Essays! Lawrence’s “ the and sparta essay Rocking-Horse Winner the reader can look into the. Words: 1367 - Pages: 6.
Abstract Rainsford in essay on smoking, “The Most Dangerous Game” by Connell, 2014, and T from “The Destructors” Greene, 2014, feel the need to morally adjust their beliefs for a greater purpose. Connell and Greene, showed that when a person is faced to live with an outcome of a situation, it can shake and alter a person’s principles. The key points that the authors reveal in their work is for Rainsford; although he was in similarities athens, disbelief and shocked at the game General Zaroff created, he felt that he was forced to. Words: 2046 - Pages: 9. Ng Man Tsun Jeff Professor Boyle ENG-112-08 May 5, 2014 Reading Fiction To read a fiction there were seven major things we need to get attention of. They are Tone, Plot, Characterization, Setting, Point of View, Irony and business Theme.
It helped you a lot in understanding what does the author try to talk about. First of all “Tone” is the very first element that would give readers impression and similarities essay mood of the reading. Thinking And Logic For College! Readers can read where does the similarities and sparta Author and shadok continuellement character’s altitude toward. It. Words: 367 - Pages: 2. Fiction Essay - Young Goodman Brown and the Lottery. FICTION ESSAY WRITING STYLE USED: APA OUTLINE I. THESIS: A thorough analysis of Jackson’s “The Lottery” and Hawthorne’s “Young Goodman Brown” reveals that different literary elements, such as tone and setting, are used to convey the characters’ arrival at between athens and sparta dark, sinister places.
II. INTRODUCTION III. SHIRLEY JACKSON’S “THE LOTTERY” A. Setting the tone: Peaceful and relaxing B. Irony: Even though the mood is relaxing, there is a premonition of something bad. Words: 1051 - Pages: 5. happen when humans lose sight of what is important, and blindly follow their passions. Good Essay! It is clear from these stories that tragedy will soon follow those pursuits. Works Cited Lawrence, D.H. “The Rocking-Horse Winner.” 1933.
Literature: An Introduction to between athens and sparta Fiction, Poetry, Drama, and Writing. 7th ed. Ed. X.J. Kennedy and college business essays Dana Gioia. San Francisco: Pearson 2013. 234-245 Jackson, Shirley “The Lottery.” 1948.
Literature: An Introduction to Fiction, Poetry, Drama, and between athens Writing. Humorous Essay! 7th ed. Between Athens! Ed. X.J. Kennedy and Dana Gioia. San Francisco: Pearson 2013. 250-256. Words: 1116 - Pages: 5. Importance of Fiction in thinking and logic skills students, Our Lives; Fact or Fiction Why?
Why read fiction? What impact does reading fiction have on our lives? Many people read and enjoy fiction as they find that fiction creates a simulation of another person’s life. Many read fiction as an escape from their own lives. Many read to and sparta learn valuable life lessons. Many read simply to relax. In a recent study performed by Emory University in Atlanta researchers found that reading a fiction novel heightened connectivity in the. Words: 950 - Pages: 4.
Fiction Essay ENGL 102 Literature and Composition Fall D 2014 Summer Martin L25637775 APA Formatting Running head: USE OF SYMBOLS TO CONVEY THEME OF STORY Use of Symbols by Authors to essay Help Readers Understand the athens and sparta Theme of essays Short Stories Summer Martin Liberty University Online Use of between essay Symbols by Authors to Help Readers Understand the on smoking Theme of Short Stories Thesis: The two short stories, “The Lottery” by Shirley Jackson and “The Rocking Horse Winner” by D. H. Lawrence both use. Words: 1448 - Pages: 6. The Lottery vs. The Rocking-Horse Winner Dashua Murphy Liberty University Online Fiction Essay Thesis Statement: While “The Rocking-Horse Winner” and “The Lottery” differs on some levels, both stories carry the theme of athens essay death as a sacrifice for greater gain. 1) Need a. “The Lottery”: the village needs to uphold a cruel tradition to ensure a bountiful harvest b. “The Rocking-Horse Winner”: Paul needs to get “lucky” to writing satisfy the never ending needs of his mothers “unluckiness. Words: 1573 - Pages: 7. Fiction Essay ENGL 102: Literature and Composition THESIS In today’s world we are surrounded by great people everyday, however, unfortunately there are just as many bad people as good.
This is a world where people sin everyday repeatedly like there is nothing that should stop them. Where people take advantage and prey on the innocent. Similarities Between Essay! A world in to an essay, which it grows harder and harder to trust because there are so many people with cold hearts that don’t have the first clue what it means to be. Words: 1473 - Pages: 6. The American culture in PULP FICTION “The path of the righteous man is beset on all sides by the inequities of the tyranny of evil man. blessed is similarities between athens and sparta essay he who, in the name of shadok en essayant charity and good will, shepherds the weak through the valley of darkness, for and sparta essay, he is truly his brother#x27;s keeper and college essay the finder of athens lost children. And i will strike down upon thee with great vengeance and furious anger those who attempt to poison and destroy my brothers.
And you will know my. Words: 1283 - Pages: 6. Luis Rodriguez Historical Fiction HIST 1301-2H2 For my 14th birthday my grandmother gave me a diary. Thinking For College! I never used it until now. Athens Essay! It was just pieces of strings that connected sheets of paper together.
It was nothing special or anything that looked fancy. She wanted me to practice my writing since it “imitated a peasant’s work”. How considerate of her to shadok en essayant continuellement be so kind about helping me with something so utterly useless to me. It was a miracle for athens and sparta essay, her to shadok even give me anything since she is so blinded. Words: 6461 - Pages: 26. Brooklynn Stilwell Dr. Redfield English 112- 20 November 2014 MLA Annotated Bibliography: Rhetorical Analysis; the Story of an between essay, Hour by Kate Chopin Chopin, Kate. “The Story of an Hour, Kate Chopin, characters, setting. “KateChopinorg. Kate Chopin International Society.
N.d. web. 20 Nov. 2014. http://www.katechopin.org/the-story-of-an-hour/ This website is from the Author herself. There are many beneficially things from this website. She has a list of characters, the time and place, the.
Words: 664 - Pages: 3. “the Destructors” and and logic skills for college “the Lottery” Fiction Essay. “The Destructors” and similarities between athens essay “The Lottery” Fiction Essay Introduction Some may say that we are, as human beings, a violent people by nature. We see it in skills for college, our own history of wars and genocide that the violence in us can grow to extreme proportions. These two stories, “The Destructors” by Graham Greene, and “The Lottery” by Shirley Jackson, show us that some of the violence can be brought on by people simply following blindly. Whether we look at the past or the present, these two short stories. Words: 997 - Pages: 4.
Crime fiction - essay Basically crime fiction is the literary genre that fictionalizes crimes including a possible detection, a number of between and sparta criminals and naturally their motives. Thinking Students! Often there is a certain structure which crime fiction stories follow. First there is essay a crime which usually is humorous essay a murder. Afterwards there is the investigation of the crime and to end with an outcome of the happening which often is the criminals’ arrest or in some scenarios their death. Between And Sparta Essay! In many cases there is shadok continuellement a puzzle. Words: 1180 - Pages: 5. Fiction Essay Instructions In Module/Week 3, you will write a 750-word (3–4-pages) essay that compares and contrasts 2 stories from the Fiction Unit. Before you begin writing the athens and sparta essay, carefully read the guidelines for developing your paper topic that are given below.
Review the Fiction Essay Grading Rubric to see how your submission will be graded. Gather all of writing your information, plan the similarities direction of writing your essay, and organize your ideas by developing a 1-page thesis statement and outline for. Words: 777 - Pages: 4. Stranger Than Fiction: Paper II “Anything worth writing comes inexplicably and similarities athens and sparta essay without method”? How is this idea evident in the film, particularly as Emma Thompson and Dustin Hoffman’s characters portray the art of writing/narrative in the film? No one can force something good to happen, nor can they control their fate; it is something manifested from random courses of events. On Smoking! Fate is something inexplicable and is created without a method, therefore, Harold Crick is the and sparta perfect example. Words: 658 - Pages: 3. Teaching 4.1 Approaches to Learning and Teaching 4.1.1 Introductory Comments 4.1.2 Prose Fiction 4.1.3 Poetry i 21 21 23 32 SECOND DRAFT 4.1.4 Drama 4.1.5 Films 4.1.6 Literary Appreciation 4.1.7 Schools of Literary Criticism 4.2 Catering for Learner Diversity 4.3 Meaningful Homework 4.4 Role of Learners Chapter 5 41 45 52 69 71 72 73 74 Assessment 5.1 Guiding Principles 5.2 Internal Assessment 5.2.1 Formative Assessment 5.2.2 Summative Assessment 5.3 Public Assessment 5.3.1 Standards. Words: 41988 - Pages: 168.
http://www.historytoday.com/jerome-de-groot/signposts-historical-fiction These were some of the questions raised at a recent conference at the Institute of Historical Research at which History Today Editor, Paul Lay, hosted a discussion between Hilary Mantel, author of Wolf Hall, and shadok en essayant the Tudor historian David Loades. Between Athens And Sparta Essay! Historians often describe themselves as detectives, seeking out gre essay tips a kind of truth among the conflicting evidence of the past. There is, furthermore, a large and growing subgenre. Words: 5212 - Pages: 21. Liberty University Online Gambling is Risky Business Kelly Bradberry English 102 Instructor Freshwater September 14, 2015 Thesis Statement: Gambling is between athens essay always a risky behavior, and whether it is for life or for shadok continuellement, money, success in never guaranteed. Within the fiction selections, The Lottery by Shirley Jackson and The Rocking-Horse Winner by D. Between Essay! H. College Essay! Lawrence winning a gamble are depicted as luck. Essay! It is clear in college essays, both of these selections that winning is not always a positive thing.
Words: 1193 - Pages: 5. ENGL 102 Fiction Essay Liberty University Online Micheal McIntosh Fiction Essay The first of the two stories I chose to compare and similarities between athens and sparta essay contrast is titled “The Lottery” by Shirley Jackson and critical skills students the second story is titled “The Rocking-Horse Winner” by D.H. Lawrence. I will compare each of their themes, characters, and plot developments in which they are both similar and different. One of the similarities between athens and sparta strongest comparison would be that both stories deal with the subject of. Words: 777 - Pages: 4. Poetry Essay Your Name Writing Style: APA Liberty University Thesis Statement: In the gre essay poem “Batter my heart, three-personed God”, Donne uses paradoxes, metaphors and between essay intimate language to on smoking illustrate the between athens essay urgency of his need and desire to business essays free his mind, body, and similarities between athens essay soul from the essay on smoking bondage of sin. Donne is trying to reach an acceptance of his unworthiness in similarities, God’s unending love. Outline: I. Introduction A. Thesis Statement 1. Romans 3:23 B. Relationship with Christ II. Words: 854 - Pages: 4. Fiction and Non-Fiction Documentary Films.
Fiction and Non-Fiction Documentary Films Name Institutional Affiliation Introduction Non-fiction documentaries often face tight budgets that force them to rely on actors to produce the plot that was intended. Fiction and nonfiction documentaries are anything but just academic and gre essay sensational arguments of the similarities athens and sparta differences, for instance filming of a pack of lion over a year is obviously non-fictional as the main characters are unable to thinking skills students act. However, there are events such as for similarities between and sparta, the movie. Words: 2738 - Pages: 11. PROLOGUE Fortress of the humorous college Light Pedron Niall#x27;s aged gaze wandered about his private audience chamber, but dark eyes hazed with thought saw nothing. Tattered wall hangings, once battle banners of the enemies of his youth, faded into dark wood paneling laid over stone walls, thick even here in between athens, the heart of the Fortress of the essay Light. The single chair in the room heavy, high-backed, and almost a throne - was as invisible to him as the few scattered tables that completed the furnishings.
Even. Words: 244946 - Pages: 980. Thesis: Throughout the short stories The Child by Tiger and similarities and sparta Young Goodman Brown, it is business apparent that each author attempts to prove the similarities between athens and sparta inherent evil nature of essay mankind. Similarities Between Athens Essay! Regardless of the goodhearted nature various characters outwardly portray, they each have a dark side within themselves. This can be seen through the essay on smoking character Dick in The Child by Tiger and in between and sparta, the character Faith in Young Goodman Brown. In the beginning of each respective story, the reader is business led to believe that both Dick and. Words: 261 - Pages: 2. fiction It all started so simple, we were lovers who had it all. Similarities Athens! Sure, like most relationships there were ups and downs but I could have never imagined this is where it would end up. I wake up tied to a bed. ‘Kinky’ I say to myself.
But then the memories of last night all start to flood into my mind. This is not a scene from 50 shades of humorous college essay Grey, but I, in fact am actually being held prisoner by the man I thought I had loved. Instantly my body is over come with fear and between athens and sparta adrenaline. I. Words: 887 - Pages: 4. The Lottery vs. Young Goodman Brown ENG 102. Literature and college Composition Spring 2016 Paola Galan L24700309 MLA Thesis and Outline The Lottery by Shirley Jackson and between essay Young Goodman Brown by Nathaniel Hawthorne reveals that nothing is at seems to be.
Both stories portray the critical skills students evil and between essay good sides of human character. Introduction Thesis statement The Lottery • Peaceful and relaxing environment.
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Differences And Similarities Between The Athens And Spartans
Step1:Configure Package Management System (APT) # sudo apt-key adv --keyserver hkp://keyserver.ubuntu.com:80 --recv 7F0CEB10. [sudo] password for similarities athens and sparta essay root: gpg: requesting key 7F0CEB10 from shadok en essayant, hkp server keyserver.ubuntu.com. gpg: key 7F0CEB10: public key Richard Kreuter imported.
gpg: no ultimately trusted keys found. gpg: Total number processed: 1. gpg: imported: 1 (RSA: 1) # echo 'deb http://downloads-distro.mongodb.org/repo/ubuntu-upstart dist 10gen' | sudo tee /etc/apt/sources.list.d/mongodb.list. deb http://downloads-distro.mongodb.org/repo/ubuntu-upstart dist 10gen.
#sudo apt-get update. Hit http://archive.canonical.com lucid Release.gpg. Ign http://archive.canonical.com/ubuntu/ lucid/partner Translation-en_IN. Hit http://ppa.launchpad.net lucid Release.gpg. Ign http://ppa.launchpad.net/ferramroberto/java/ubuntu/ lucid/main Translation-en_IN. Hit http://archive.canonical.com lucid Release.
Hit http://security.ubuntu.com lucid-security Release.gpg. Ign http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ lucid-security/main Translation-en_IN. Ign http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ lucid-security/restricted Translation-en_IN. Ign http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ lucid-security/universe Translation-en_IN. Ign http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ lucid-security/multiverse Translation-en_IN.
Hit http://ppa.launchpad.net lucid Release. Hit http://in.archive.ubuntu.com lucid Release.gpg. Ign http://in.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ lucid/main Translation-en_IN. Ign http://in.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ lucid/restricted Translation-en_IN. Ign http://in.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ lucid/universe Translation-en_IN. Ign http://in.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ lucid/multiverse Translation-en_IN. Hit http://in.archive.ubuntu.com lucid-updates Release.gpg. Ign http://in.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ lucid-updates/main Translation-en_IN.
Ign http://in.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ lucid-updates/restricted Translation-en_IN. Ign http://in.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ lucid-updates/universe Translation-en_IN. Ign http://in.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ lucid-updates/multiverse Translation-en_IN. Get:1 http://downloads-distro.mongodb.org dist Release.gpg [490B] Hit http://archive.canonical.com lucid/partner Packages.
Hit http://ppa.launchpad.net lucid/main Packages. Hit http://security.ubuntu.com lucid-security Release. Hit http://in.archive.ubuntu.com lucid Release. Hit http://in.archive.ubuntu.com lucid-updates Release. Hit http://security.ubuntu.com lucid-security/main Packages. Ign http://downloads-distro.mongodb.org/repo/ubuntu-upstart/ dist/10gen Translation-en_IN. Hit http://in.archive.ubuntu.com lucid/main Packages. Hit http://in.archive.ubuntu.com lucid/restricted Packages.
Hit http://in.archive.ubuntu.com lucid/main Sources. Hit http://in.archive.ubuntu.com lucid/restricted Sources. Hit http://in.archive.ubuntu.com lucid/universe Packages. Hit http://in.archive.ubuntu.com lucid/universe Sources. Hit http://security.ubuntu.com lucid-security/restricted Packages. Hit http://security.ubuntu.com lucid-security/main Sources. Hit http://security.ubuntu.com lucid-security/restricted Sources. Hit http://security.ubuntu.com lucid-security/universe Packages. Hit http://security.ubuntu.com lucid-security/universe Sources.
Hit http://security.ubuntu.com lucid-security/multiverse Packages. Hit http://security.ubuntu.com lucid-security/multiverse Sources. Hit http://in.archive.ubuntu.com lucid/multiverse Packages. Hit http://in.archive.ubuntu.com lucid/multiverse Sources. Hit http://in.archive.ubuntu.com lucid-updates/main Packages.
Hit http://in.archive.ubuntu.com lucid-updates/restricted Packages. Hit http://in.archive.ubuntu.com lucid-updates/main Sources. Hit http://in.archive.ubuntu.com lucid-updates/restricted Sources. Hit http://in.archive.ubuntu.com lucid-updates/universe Packages. Get:2 http://downloads-distro.mongodb.org dist Release [2,032B] Hit http://in.archive.ubuntu.com lucid-updates/universe Sources. Hit http://in.archive.ubuntu.com lucid-updates/multiverse Packages.
Hit http://in.archive.ubuntu.com lucid-updates/multiverse Sources. Ign http://downloads-distro.mongodb.org dist/10gen Packages. Ign http://downloads-distro.mongodb.org dist/10gen Packages. Get:3 http://downloads-distro.mongodb.org dist/10gen Packages [9,044B] Fetched 11.6kB in between and sparta essay 3s (3,610B/s)
Reading package lists. Done. #sudo apt-get install mongodb-10gen. Reading package lists. Done. Building dependency tree. Reading state information. Done. The following NEW packages will be installed:
0 upgraded, 1 newly installed, 0 to remove and 319 not upgraded. Need to get 87.1MB of archives. After this operation, 221MB of additional disk space will be used. Get:1 http://downloads-distro.mongodb.org/repo/ubuntu-upstart/ dist/10gen mongodb-10gen 2.4.8 [87.1MB] Fetched 87.1MB in 2min 17s (634kB/s)
Selecting previously deselected package mongodb-10gen. (Reading database . 142828 files and humorous, directories currently installed.) Unpacking mongodb-10gen (from . /mongodb-10gen_2.4.8_i386.deb) . Processing triggers for man-db . Processing triggers for ureadahead . ureadahead will be reprofiled on next reboot. Setting up mongodb-10gen (2.4.8) . Adding system user `mongodb' (UID 117) . Adding new user `mongodb' (UID 117) with group `nogroup' . Not creating home directory `/home/mongodb'. Adding group `mongodb' (GID 124) . Adding user `mongodb' to group `mongodb' . Adding user mongodb to group mongodb. mongodb start/running, process 10298. To pin a package, issue the following command at similarities athens and sparta essay the system prompt to pin the version of MongoDB at the currently installed version: #echo mongodb-10gen hold | sudo dpkg –set-selections. #sudo service mongodb start. start: Job is already running: mongodb.
#sudo service mongodb stop. #sudo service mongodb restart. //Go to gre essay writing tips, Mongo Command Promt: MongoDB shell version: 2.4.8. connecting to: test. Welcome to the MongoDB shell. For interactive help, type help. For more comprehensive documentation, see. Questions? Try the support group.
Server has startup warnings: Thu Jan 2 18:47:52.169 [initandlisten] Thu Jan 2 18:47:52.169 [initandlisten] ** NOTE: This is between athens and sparta essay a 32 bit MongoDB binary. Thu Jan 2 18:47:52.169 [initandlisten] ** 32 bit builds are limited to good introduction paragraph essay, less than 2GB of data (or less with --journal). Thu Jan 2 18:47:52.169 [initandlisten] ** Note that journaling defaults to essay, off for 32 bit and is currently off. Thu Jan 2 18:47:52.169 [initandlisten] ** See http://dochub.mongodb.org/core/32bit.
Thu Jan 2 18:47:52.169 [initandlisten] db -To Check Default Db. # sudo service mongodb start - To Start Mongodb. Type it for more. //Here $lt is Matches values that are less than the value specified in essay the query. //Here $lte is Matches values that are less than or equal to between and sparta essay, the value specified in the query. //Here $gt is Matches values that are greater than the value specified in the query.
//Here $ne is on smoking Matches all values that are not equal to the value specified in the query. $gt Matches values that are greater than the similarities and sparta, value specified in humorous college essay the query. $gte Matches values that are equal to or greater than the value specified in the query. $in Matches any of the values that exist in an array specified in the query. $lt Matches values that are less than the value specified in the query. $lte Matches values that are less than or equal to the value specified in the query. $ne Matches all values that are not equal to the value specified in the query.
$nin Matches values that do not exist in an array specified to the query. Use mongorestore to restore the similarities and sparta, dump into college your running mongod. Do this by opening a terminal window (mac) or cmd window (windows) and similarities between and sparta, navigating to the directory so that the humorous college essay, dump directory is directly beneath you. Now type. It requires Maven to be installed correctly, your mongod server to be running, and and sparta, that you have run mongorestore properly. Humorous College Essay. If it's working correctly, there should be two lines towards the bottom that say: Like the previous homework, it requires Maven to be installed correctly, your mongod server to be running, and that you have run mongorestore properly from HW 1.1.
If all is working correctly, there should be two lines towards the bottom that say: use students db.grades.count() Hint/spoiler : If you select homework grade-documents, sort by student and then by score, you can iterate through and find the lowest score for each student by similarities between essay, noticing a change in student id. As you notice that change of student_id, remove the document. To confirm you are on the right track, here are some queries to run after you process the data with the correct answer shown: Let us count the number of shadok grades we have: Now let us find the student who holds the 101st best grade across all grades: Now let us sort the students by similarities between and sparta essay, student_id, score and see what the college business, top five docs are: There are two versions of similarities between athens homework 2.3.
You only need to critical thinking skills for college, do one. This is the similarities between athens and sparta essay, version that previous students have used. For College. It involves running a python validation script on your local machine in order to verify that your blog is working, and so this version will include instructions on installing python. Ok, now it’s time to verify for yourself that you got it all working. go to between athens and sparta, http://localhost:8082/signup create a user It should redirect you to the welcome page and good introduction to an, say: welcome username, where username is the user you signed up with. Now. Go to http://localhost:8082/logout Now go to http://localhost:8082/login.
If everything works, you should see your username when you are redirected to the welcome page. If you got it right, it will provide a validation code for similarities between essay you to writing tips, enter into the box below. Enter just the code, in the answer box below, no spaces. This dataset holds the same type of similarities and sparta data as last week's grade collection, but it's modeled differently. You might want to start by inspecting it in the Mongo shell. Write a program in college the language of your choice that will remove the lowest homework score for each student. Since there is a single document for each student containing an array of scores, you will need to update the scores array and remove the homework. Hint/spoiler: With the new schema, this problem is a lot harder and similarities, that is sort of the good, point. One way is to similarities and sparta essay, find the lowest homework in code and then update the scores array with the low homework pruned. If you are struggling with the essay, Python side of this, look at the remove operator, which can remove stuff from similarities between and sparta essay, a Python list. To confirm you are on the right track, here are some queries to run after you process the data with the correct answer shown:
Let us count the shadok, number of similarities athens essay students we have: Let's see what Demarcus Audette's record looks like: In this homework you will be enhancing the blog project to essay on smoking, insert entries into the posts collection. Similarities And Sparta. After this, the blog will work. Business. It will allow you to add blog posts with a title, body and tags and similarities athens and sparta essay, have it be added to the posts collection properly. In this homework you will add code to your blog so that it accepts comments. You will be using the thinking students, same code as you downloaded for HW 3.2. where post_slug is the permalink. Athens And Sparta Essay. For the shadok en essayant, sake of eliminating doubt, the permalink for the example blog post above is between essay http://localhost:8082/post/martians_to_use_mongodb.
As a reminder, to run your blog you type: In this homework assignment you will be adding some indexes to the post collection to make the blog fast. We have provided the full code for the blog application and you don't need to make any changes, or even run the continuellement, blog. But you can, for fun. We are also providing a patriotic (if you are an American) data set for the blog. There are 1000 entries with lots of comments and tags. You must load this dataset to complete the problem. The blog has been enhanced so that it can also display the top 10 most recent posts by tag. There are hyperlinks from the similarities between, post tags to the page that displays the 10 most recent blog entries for that tag. Critical And Logic Skills Students. (run the blog and it will be obvious)
Your assignment is to make the following blog pages fast: The blog home page The page that displays blog posts by tag (http://localhost:8082/tag/whatever) The page that displays a blog entry by permalink (http://localhost:8082/post/permalink) By fast, we mean that indexes should be in place to satisfy these queries such that we only need to scan the number of similarities between essay documents we are going to return. In this assignment you will use the aggregation framework to find the most frequent author of comments on your blog. We will be using the humorous college, same basic dataset as last week, with posts and comments shortened considerably, and with many fewer documents in the collection in order to streamline the operations of the between athens, Hands On web shell. Please calculate the average population of cities in en essayant continuellement California (abbreviation CA) and New York (NY) (taken together) with populations over similarities between athens and sparta essay, 25,000. Hint: The answer for CT and NJ (using this data set) is 38177. One zip code may cover cities in different states. Introduction Essay. Different states might have the same city name.
A city might have multiple zip codes. A set of grades are loaded into the grades collection. There are documents for each student (student_id) across a variety of classes (class_id). Note that not all students in the same class have the same exact number of assessments. Some students have three homework assignments, etc.
If you imported it correctly, you can go to the test database in similarities between athens essay the mongo shell and conform that. Using the aggregation framework, calculate the sum total of people who are living in a zip code where the city starts with a digit. Choose the answer below. If you ran the query. Which shards would be involved in answering the query? Now start three mongo instances as follows. Note that are three commands. The browser is essay on smoking probably wrapping them visually. Windows users: Omit -p from mkdir . Also omit --fork and similarities and sparta essay, use start mongod with Windows compatible paths (i.e. Writing. backslashes ) for the --dbpath argument (e.g; C:datars1 ).
Now you will create the replica set. Type the similarities and sparta essay, following commands into the mongo shell: At this point, the en essayant, replica set should be coming up. You can type. to see the athens and sparta essay, state of replication. Validate connects to your local replica set and checks that it has three nodes. It has been tested under Pymongo 2.3 and 2.4. Type the validation code below. Plese check your Question and Honor code Carefully Before using this Answer.
Option b. Writing Tips. email@example.com to firstname.lastname@example.org. Option c. email@example.com to between athens, firstname.lastname@example.org. Option d. email@example.com to firstname.lastname@example.org. Option e. College. email@example.com to firstname.lastname@example.org. Option f. email@example.com to between and sparta essay, firstname.lastname@example.org. Click on humorous essay, Enter then right this answer and click on submit. In this problem, you will be enhancing the similarities and sparta essay, blog project to support users liking certain comments and the like counts showing up the in the permalink page. Which of the following indexes could be used by MongoDB to assist in answering the humorous, query. Check all that apply.
Choice 2. a_1_b_1. Choice 3. a_1_c_1. Choice 5. a_1_b_1_c_-1. Choice 2. Similarities Between. a_1_b_1. Choice 3. a_1_c_1. Choice 5. a_1_b_1_c_-1. Choice 2: Set w=0, j=0 on writes. Choice 3: Provide a hint to MongoDB that it should not use an index for the inserts. Choice 4: Remove all indexes from the collection. Choice 5: Build a replica set and insert data into the secondary nodes to free up the primary nodes.
Choice 2: Set w=0, j=0 on writes. Choice 4: Remove all indexes from the collection. When you are done removing the orphan images from the collection, there should be 90,017 documents in tips the images collection. To prove you did it correctly, what are the total number of images with the tag ‘sunrises” after the removal of orphans? As as a sanity check, there are 50,054 images that are tagged ‘sunrises’ before you remove the between and sparta essay, images. Hint: you might consider creating an en essayant, index or two or your program will take a long time to run. Option c. Similarities Between Athens. primary care physican (your principal doctor) Option d. date and time when medical record was created.
Option e. patient first name. Option f. patient last name. Option a. patient_id. and get the following explain output. Choice 2. The query used an index for the sorting phase. Choice 3. The query returned 120,477 documents. Choice 4. The query performed a full collection scan. Choice 1. The query did not utilize an tips, index to figure out which documents match the similarities athens, find criteria. Choice 2. On Smoking. The query used an index for the sorting phase. Choice 4. Between. The query performed a full collection scan.
hi, for HW-2.3 . can u share the humorous essay, java code, u added to make it working.? DO one thing directly download form mongodb site and import into ide then run it. DO one thing directly download form mongodb site and import into ide then run it. Hi. Thank you very much. It really helped me alot. Similarities Athens. :) Hi ,for 6.2, the college, answer is second option, w=majority, j=1. Yes Just Now I have cross check you are correct.
Hi, can u please post the similarities between and sparta, answers for week 7? This is Answer for When i was Completed my Certification.Before Using this Answer Verify your Question and Database code. Thank u so much.It really helped me. hi! i dont have the option to submit any validation code for question number 3. it just asks me to on smoking, enter the query in the shell and between athens essay, submit. However, here you mention about a validation code for question 3. Business Essays. Why is that so? First you have to Write Query then click on enter if query executing successfully then you will get answer and between athens essay, after getting answer click on submit button that's all. Hello, For Ques 3 the email id to shadok en essayant continuellement, be added is “email@example.com” but your query has the email id firstname.lastname@example.org. Similarities Between. Isnt wrong? When i was completed that course that time they given same mail id :email@example.com. its really awesome information provided by you. You can also get complete info on humorous college, MangoDB here.
right now i have only 26% prograss can i submit the athens essay, final exam i will get the certificate or not. u r code is copy and paste like as it is. it will shows like. This comment has been removed by the author. Find M101J Class started Oct 12, 2015 Week 1 Answers At. thanks alot bro fan of yours :) thank u for good introduction paragraph to an given such a valuable information about similarities between essay, mango db.
for more information please follow these links. Nice work! I also can be helpful here :) I've found some decent tutorials on good introduction paragraph to an essay, how to merge files out online here altomerge.com also here http://www.pdffiller.com/ Thank You for between and sparta sharing the information about writing tips, Mongo DB. For More informatin please follow this link.
This is similarities athens essay great Blog here my friend! Very informative, I appreciate all the information that you just shared with me very much and I’ll be back to read more in the future thanks for sharing. College Business Essays. Mongodb Online Training. Nice post.I like the similarities between and sparta essay, way you start and college, then conclude your thoughts. Thanks for this information .I really appreciate your work, keep it up.
post! that is good information, it is useful to me thanks. excellent articles.nice and similarities between and sparta essay, very informative blog.we appreciating all your effort best regards fromsbrtrainings. mongo DB online training. Thanks for sharing such a great information..Its really nice and informative. This comment has been removed by the author. Thank you for essay your excellent information about MongoDB. Very nice posting. Between Athens. Your article us quite informative. Thanks for the same.
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essay on leverage Folks who do systems analysis have a great belief in “leverage points.” These are places within a complex system (a corporation, an between athens and sparta, economy, a living body, a city, an ecosystem) where a small shift in one thing can produce big changes in everything. This idea is not unique to systems analysis — it’s embedded in legend. Shadok Continuellement. The silver bullet, the trimtab, the miracle cure, the secret passage, the magic password, the single hero who turns the tide of history. The nearly effortless way to cut through or leap over similarities, huge obstacles.
We not only want to believe that there are leverage points, we want to know where they are and how to get our hands on them. Leverage points are points of power. The systems analysis community has a lot of lore about leverage points. Those of us who were trained by the great Jay Forrester at MIT have all absorbed one of business essays, his favorite stories. “People know intuitively where leverage points are,” he says. “Time after time I’ve done an analysis of between essay, a company, and I’ve figured out a leverage point — in inventory policy, maybe, or in the relationship between sales force and productive force, or in personnel policy. Good Introduction To An Essay. Then I’ve gone to similarities and sparta essay the company and discovered that there’s already a lot of attention to that point. Everyone is trying very hard to introduction essay push it IN THE WRONG DIRECTION!” The classic example of that backward intuition was my own introduction to systems analysis, the world model. Asked by the Club of similarities athens, Rome to show how major global problems — poverty and hunger, environmental destruction, resource depletion, urban deterioration, unemployment — are related and how they might be solved, Forrester made a computer model and came out shadok en essayant continuellement with a clear leverage point 1 : Growth. Not only population growth, but economic growth.
Growth has costs as well as benefits, and we typically don’t count the costs — among which are poverty and similarities and sparta essay hunger, environmental destruction, etc. — the whole list of problems we are trying to solve with growth! What is needed is much slower growth, much different kinds of growth, and in some cases no growth or negative growth. The world’s leaders are correctly fixated on economic growth as the answer to paragraph to an essay virtually all problems, but they’re pushing with all their might in similarities between athens, the wrong direction. Another of Forrester’s classics was his urban dynamics study, published in 1969, which demonstrated that subsidized low-income housing is a leverage point. Good Introduction Paragraph To An Essay. 2 The less of it there is, the better off the city is — even the low-income folks in the city. This model came out at a time when national policy dictated massive low-income housing projects, and Forrester was derided. Similarities Between And Sparta Essay. Now those projects are being torn down in city after city. Counterintuitive. That’s Forrester’s word to describe complex systems.
Leverage points are not intuitive. Or if they are, we intuitively use them backward, systematically worsening whatever problems we are trying to solve. The systems analysts I know have come up with no quick or easy formulas for college business essays, finding leverage points. Similarities Essay. When we study a system, we usually learn where leverage points are. But a new system we’ve never encountered? Well, our counterintuitions aren’t that well developed. Give us a few months or years and we’ll figure it out. And we know from bitter experience that, because of counterintuitiveness, when we do discover the system’s leverage points, hardly anybody will believe us. Very frustrating, especially for gre essay tips, those of us who yearn not just to understand complex systems, but to make the world work better.
So one day I was sitting in a meeting about how to make the world work better — actually it was a meeting about how the new global trade regime, NAFTA and GATT and the World Trade Organization, is similarities between athens and sparta, likely to make the world work worse. The more I listened, the more I began to simmer inside. “This is a HUGE NEW SYSTEM people are inventing!” I said to myself. “They haven’t the introduction SLIGHTEST IDEA how this complex structure will behave,” myself said back to me. Athens And Sparta. “It’s almost certainly an example of cranking the system in college, the wrong direction — it’s aimed at growth, growth at any price!! And the control measures these nice, liberal folks are talking about to combat it — small parameter adjustments, weak negative feedback loops — are PUNY. ” Suddenly, without quite knowing what was happening, I got up, marched to the flip chart, tossed over to a clean page, and similarities between essay wrote: (in increasing order of effectiveness) 9. Constants, parameters, numbers (subsidies, taxes, standards). 8. Regulating negative feedback loops. 7. Driving positive feedback loops. 6. Material flows and nodes of material intersection. 5. Information flows. 4. The rules of the system (incentives, punishments, constraints). 3. En Essayant. The distribution of between and sparta, power over the rules of the college essays system.
2. The goals of the system. 1. The mindset or paradigm out of which the system — its goals, power structure, rules, its culture — arises. Everyone in the meeting blinked in similarities between, surprise, including me. “That’s brilliant!” someone breathed. “Huh?” said someone else. I realized that I had a lot of explaining to do. I also had a lot of thinking to do. As with most of the stuff that come to me in boil-over mode, this list was not exactly tightly reasoned. As I began to share it with others, especially systems analysts who had their own lists and activists who wanted to put the list to immediate use, questions and comments came back that caused me to rethink, add and college business delete items, change the order, add caveats. In a minute I’ll go through the list I ended up with, explain the jargon, give examples and exceptions. Similarities Between Athens And Sparta. The reason for this introduction is to place the list in a context of humility and to leave room for evolution.
What bubbled up in me that day was distilled from decades of rigorous analysis of many different kinds of systems done by many smart people. But complex systems are, well, complex. It’s dangerous to generalize about them. What you are about to read is a work in progress. It’s not a recipe for finding leverage points. Good Introduction To An. Rather it’s an invitation to similarities and sparta think more broadly about system change. Here, in shadok en essayant continuellement, the light of a cooler dawn, is a revised list: (in increasing order of similarities between athens, effectiveness) 12. Skills Students. Constants, parameters, numbers (such as subsidies, taxes, standards).
11. The sizes of buffers and other stabilizing stocks, relative to their flows. 10. The structure of material stocks and flows (such as transport networks, population age structures). 9. The lengths of similarities athens, delays, relative to the rate of system change.
8. The strength of negative feedback loops, relative to the impacts they are trying to correct against. 7. The gain around driving positive feedback loops. 6. The structure of information flows (who does and does not have access to information). 5. The rules of the system (such as incentives, punishments, constraints). 4. The power to add, change, evolve, or self-organize system structure. 3. The goals of the system.
2. The mindset or paradigm out of which the system — its goals, structure, rules, delays, parameters — arises. 1. The power to transcend paradigms. To explain parameters, stocks, delays, flows, feedback, and so forth, I need to start with a basic diagram. The “state of the system” is whatever standing stock is on smoking, of importance — amount of water behind the dam, amount of harvestable wood in the forest, number of people in the population, amount of money in the bank, whatever. And Sparta. System states are usually physical stocks, but they could be nonmaterial ones as well — self-confidence, degree of trust in public officials, perceived safety of a neighborhood. There are usually inflows that increase the stock and outflows that decrease it. Deposits increase the money in the bank; withdrawals decrease it. Good Paragraph To An. River inflow and athens rain raise the water behind the dam; evaporation and discharge through the en essayant spillway lower it. Between Athens Essay. Births and humorous college essay immigrations increase the population, deaths and emigrations reduce it. Political corruption decreases trust in between essay, public officials; experience of introduction paragraph, a well-functioning government increases it.
Insofar as this part of the system consists of physical stocks and flows — and they are the bedrock of any system — it obeys laws of conservation and accumulation. You can understand its dynamics readily, if you can understand a bathtub with some water in it (the state of the system) and an inflowing faucet and between athens and sparta outflowing drain. On Smoking. If the inflow rate is higher than the and sparta outflow rate, the stock gradually rises. If the outflow rate is higher than the inflow, the stock gradually goes down. The sluggish response of the water level to essays what could be sudden twists in athens and sparta, the input and output valves is thinking and logic for college students, typical — it takes time for flows to between athens accumulate, just as it takes time for water to fill up or drain out of the tub. The rest of the college essay diagram is the information that causes the flows to between essay change, which then cause the stock to change. If you’re about to take a bath, you have a desired water level in mind. You plug the drain, turn on the faucet and watch until the water rises to your chosen level (until the good introduction paragraph essay discrepancy between the desired and the actual state of the system is zero). Then you turn the similarities between and sparta essay water off.
If you start to critical skills for college students get in the bath and discover that you’ve underestimated your volume and are about to similarities athens produce an overflow, you can open the drain for awhile, until the water goes down to your desired level. Those are two negative feedback loops, or correcting loops, one controlling the inflow, one controlling the outflow, either or both of which you can use to bring the water level to your goal. Notice that the goal and the feedback connections are not visible in the system. Introduction Paragraph To An Essay. If you were an similarities and sparta, extraterrestrial trying to figure out why the tub fills and empties, it would take awhile to figure out that there’s an invisible goal and a discrepancy-measuring process going on in the head of the creature manipulating the faucets. But if you watched long enough, you could figure that out. Very simple so far.
Now let’s take into account that you have two taps, a hot and a cold, and that you’re also adjusting for another system state — temperature. Suppose the hot inflow is connected to a boiler way down in good, the basement, four floors below, so it doesn’t respond quickly. And you’re making faces at yourself in the mirror and not paying close attention to the water level. And, of course, the inflow pipe is connected to similarities between athens and sparta essay a reservoir somewhere, which is connected to the whole planetary hydrological cycle. Thinking For College. The system begins to get complex, and realistic, and similarities athens essay interesting. Mentally change the bathtub into your checking account. Write checks, make deposits, add a faucet that keeps dribbling in a little interest and a special drain that sucks your balance even drier if it ever goes dry. Attach your account to a thousand others and let the bank create loans as a function of your combined and essay on smoking fluctuating deposits, link a thousand of similarities and sparta, those banks into a federal reserve system — and good paragraph to an you begin to see how simple stocks and flows, plumbed together, make up systems way too complex to figure out. That’s why leverage points are not intuitive. And that’s enough systems theory to proceed to the list.
12. Constants, parameters, numbers (subsidies, taxes, standards). “Parameters” in systems jargon means the numbers that determine how much of similarities between athens and sparta, a discrepancy turns which faucet how fast. Maybe the on smoking faucet turns hard, so it takes awhile to get the water flowing or to turn it off. Maybe the drain is blocked and can allow only a small flow, no matter how open it is.
Maybe the faucet can deliver with the force of similarities and sparta essay, a fire hose. These considerations are a matter of numbers, some of which are physically locked in and unchangeable, but most of which are popular intervention points. Consider the skills students national debt. It’s a negative bathtub, a money hole. The rate at which it sinks is called the similarities between and sparta annual deficit. Tax income makes it rise, government expenditures make it fall. Congress and the president spend most of on smoking, their time arguing about the many, many parameters that open and close tax faucets and spending drains. Since those faucets and drains are connected to similarities athens essay us, the voters, these are politically charged parameters. Shadok En Essayant Continuellement. But, despite all the fireworks, and similarities athens no matter which party is in charge, the thinking and logic skills for college money hole has been sinking for years now, just at different rates.
To adjust the dirtiness of the air we breathe, the and sparta essay government sets parameters called ambient air quality standards. To assure some standing stock of essay, forest (or some flow of similarities between and sparta essay, money to thinking students logging companies) it sets allowed annual cuts. Between. Corporations adjust parameters such as wage rates and product prices, with an eye on skills students the level in athens and sparta essay, their profit bathtub — the bottom line. The amount of land we set aside for conservation. The minimum wage. How much we spend on AIDS research or Stealth bombers. The service charge the bank extracts from shadok continuellement your account. Similarities Between And Sparta Essay. All these are parameters, adjustments to faucets. So, by the way, is firing people and getting new ones, including politicians. Putting different hands on skills for college students the faucets may change the rate at which the faucets turn, but if they’re the same old faucets, plumbed into the same old system, turned according to the same old information and goals and rules, the system isn’t going to change much. Electing Bill Clinton was definitely different from electing George Bush, but not all that different, given that every president is plugged into the same political system. (Changing the way money flows in athens and sparta, that system would make much more of college, a difference — but I’m getting ahead of athens essay, myself on this list.)
Parameters are dead last on my list of powerful interventions. Diddling with the details, arranging the deck chairs on en essayant the Titanic. Between. Probably 90, no 95, no 99 percent of our attention goes to shadok en essayant continuellement parameters, but there’s not a lot of similarities athens essay, leverage in college business essays, them. Not that parameters aren’t important — they can be, especially in the short term and to the individual who’s standing directly in the flow. People care deeply about parameters and fight fierce battles over them. But they RARELY CHANGE BEHAVIOR. If the system is chronically stagnant, parameter changes rarely kick-start it. If it’s wildly variable, they don’t usually stabilize it.
If it’s growing out of control, they don’t brake it. Whatever cap we put on campaign contributions, it doesn’t clean up politics. The Feds fiddling with the interest rate haven’t made business cycles go away. (We always forget that during upturns, and are shocked, shocked by the downturns.) After decades of the strictest air pollution standards in the world, Los Angeles air is less dirty, but it isn’t clean. Spending more on police doesn’t make crime go away. Since I’m about to get into some examples where parameters ARE leverage points, let me stick in a big caveat here. Parameters become leverage points when they go into ranges that kick off one of the items higher on this list. Interest rates, for similarities between and sparta essay, example, or birth rates, control the gains around positive feedback loops. System goals are parameters that can make big differences. Sometimes a system gets onto a chaotic edge, where the tiniest change in a number can drive it from order to what appears to be wild disorder. These critical numbers are not nearly as common as people seem to think they are.
Most systems have evolved or are designed to good introduction paragraph essay stay far out of critical parameter ranges. Mostly, the between numbers are not worth the sweat put into them. Here’s a story a friend sent me over the Internet to makes that point: 3. When I became a landlord, I spent a lot of time and humorous energy trying to athens essay figure out what would be a “fair” rent to charge. I tried to consider all the variables, including the tips relative incomes of my tenants, my own income and cash flow needs, which expenses were for upkeep and which were capital expenses, the equity versus the between athens interest portion of the mortgage payments, how much my labor on the house was worth, etc.
I got absolutely nowhere. College Essay. Finally I went to someone who specializes in giving money advice. She said: “You’re acting as though there is similarities athens and sparta, a fine line at tips which the rent is fair, and at athens essay any point above that point the tenant is being screwed and at any point below that you are being screwed. In fact there is a large grey area in which both you and the tenant are getting a good, or at least a fair, deal. Stop worrying and get on with your life.” 11. Essay. The sizes of buffers and other stabilizing stocks, relative to their flows. Consider a huge bathtub with slow in similarities, and outflows. Now think about a small one with very fast flows.
That’s the difference between a lake and a river. Paragraph. You hear about catastrophic river floods much more often than catastrophic lake floods, because stocks that are big, relative to their flows, are more stable than small ones. In chemistry and other fields, a big, stabilizing stock is and sparta, known as a buffer. The stabilizing power of buffers is why you keep money in the bank rather than living from the flow of change through your pocket. It’s why stores hold inventory instead of calling for new stock just as customers carry the shadok en essayant old stock out the door. It’s why we need to maintain more than the minimum breeding population of an and sparta essay, endangered species. Soils in the eastern U.S. are more sensitive to acid rain than soils in the west, because they haven’t got big buffers of calcium to neutralize acid. You can often stabilize a system by increasing the capacity of en essayant, a buffer.
4 But if a buffer is too big, the system gets inflexible. It reacts too slowly. And big buffers of some sorts, such as water reservoirs or inventories, cost a lot to build or maintain. Businesses invented just-in-time inventories, because occasional vulnerability to fluctuations or screw-ups is cheaper (for them, anyway) than certain, constant inventory costs — and because small-to-vanishing inventories allow more flexible response to shifting demand. There’s leverage, sometimes magical, in changing the similarities between and sparta essay size of buffers. Critical Thinking And Logic Skills For College. But buffers are usually physical entities, not easy to change. The acid absorption capacity of eastern soils is not a leverage point for alleviating acid rain damage. The storage capacity of a dam is literally cast in concrete. And Sparta Essay. So I haven’t put buffers very high on the list of leverage points.
10. Humorous. The structure of between essay, material stocks and college business flows and similarities essay nodes of humorous college essay, intersection (such as transport networks, population age structures, flow of nitrogen through soil). The plumbing structure, the stocks and flows and their physical arrangement, can have an enormous effect on how the system operates. Similarities Athens. When the Hungarian road system was laid out college business so all traffic from one side of the nation to the other has to between athens and sparta essay pass through central Budapest, that determined a lot about air pollution and commuting delays that are not easily fixed by pollution control devices, traffic lights, or speed limits. The only way to fix a system that is laid out college wrong is to rebuild it, if you can. Amory Lovins does wonders of energy conservation by straightening out bent pipes and enlarging too-small ones. If we let him do energy retrofits on between athens all the buildings of the nation,we could shut down at least half of our electric power plants. But often physical rebuilding is the slowest and most expensive kind of change to tips make in a system.
Some stock-and-flow structures are just plain unchangeable. The baby-boom swell in the U.S. Athens. population first caused pressure on the elementary school system, then high schools, then colleges, then jobs and housing, and college essay now we’re looking forward to supporting its retirement. Not much we can do about it, because five-year-olds become six-year-olds, and sixty-four-year-olds become sixty-five-year-olds predictably and unstoppably. Similarities Athens Essay. The same can be said for the lifetime of destructive CFC molecules in the ozone layer, for the rate at which contaminants get washed out of essay on smoking, aquifers, for the fact that an similarities between athens essay, inefficient car fleet takes 10-20 years to turn over. Physical structure is crucial in a system, but rarely a leverage point, because changing it is rarely quick or simple. Essays. The leverage point is in proper design in the first place. After the structure is built, the leverage is in understanding its limitations and similarities athens essay bottlenecks, using it with maximum efficiency, and refraining from fluctuations or expansions that strain its capacity. 9. Gre Essay Writing Tips. The lengths of delays, relative to the rate of system changes. Remember that bathtub on the fourth floor I mentioned, with the water heater in the basement?
I actually experienced one of those once, in an old hotel in London. It wasn’t even a bathtub, it was a shower — no buffering capacity. Similarities Between Athens. The water temperature took at least a minute to respond to my faucet twists. Humorous College Essay. Guess what my shower was like. Right, oscillations from hot to cold and back to hot, punctuated with expletives. Delays in feedback loops are critical determinants of system behavior. They are common causes of oscillations. If you’re trying to similarities between athens essay adjust a system state to paragraph to an essay your goal, but you only receive delayed information about athens and sparta, what the system state is, you will overshoot and undershoot. Same if your information is timely, but your response isn’t.
For example, it takes several years to business essays build an electric power plant, and and sparta essay then that plant lasts, say, thirty years. Those delays make it impossible to build exactly the essays right number of plants to supply a rapidly changing demand. Even with immense effort at forecasting, almost every electricity industry in the world experiences long oscillations between overcapacity and undercapacity. A system just can’t respond to short-term changes when it has long-term delays. That’s why a massive central-planning system, such as the similarities between athens Soviet Union or General Motors, necessarily functions poorly.
Because we know they’re important, we systems folks see delays wherever we look. Essay On Smoking. The delay between the similarities essay time when a pollutant is dumped on the land and critical for college students when it trickles down to similarities between and sparta essay the groundwater. Good Introduction To An Essay. The delay between the birth of a child and the time when that child is ready to have a child. The delay between the first successful test of a new technology and the time when that technology is installed throughout the between athens essay economy. The time it takes for a price to adjust to a supply-demand imbalance. A delay in a feedback process is critical RELATIVE TO RATES OF CHANGE (growth, fluctuation, decay) IN THE STOCKS THAT THE FEEDBACK LOOP IS TRYING TO CONTROL. Delays that are too short cause overreaction, “chasing your tail,” oscillations amplified by the jumpiness of the response. Delays that are too long cause damped, sustained, or exploding oscillations, depending on how much too long.
At the extreme they cause chaos. Overlong delays in a system with a threshold, a danger point, a range past which irreversible damage can occur, cause overshoot and gre essay writing tips collapse. I would list delay length as a high leverage point, except for the fact that delays are not often easily changeable. Things take as long as they take. You can’t do a lot about the construction time of similarities and sparta, a major piece of capital, or the maturation time of a child, or the growth rate of a forest. It’s usually easier to SLOW DOWN THE CHANGE RATE, so that inevitable feedback delays won’t cause so much trouble.
That’s why growth rates are higher up on humorous college essay the leverage-point list than delay times. And that’s why slowing economic growth is a greater leverage point in similarities between and sparta, Forrester’s world model than faster technological development or freer market prices. Paragraph To An. Those are attempts to athens speed up the rate of adjustment. But the world’s physical capital plant, its factories and boilers, the concrete manifestations of its working technologies, can only change so fast, even in the face of new prices or new ideas — and prices and ideas don’t change instantly either, not through a whole global culture. There’s more leverage in slowing the system down so technologies and good essay prices can keep up with it, than there is in wishing the delays away. But if there is between and sparta essay, a delay in college business, your system that can be changed, changing it can have big effects. And Sparta. Watch out! Be sure you change it in shadok en essayant, the right direction! (For example, the great push to reduce information and money transfer delays in financial markets is just asking for wild gyrations)
8. The strength of negative feedback loops, relative to the impacts they are trying to correct against. Now we’re beginning to move from the similarities between athens and sparta physical part of the system to the information and control parts, where more leverage can be found. Negative feedback loops are ubiquitous in systems. Nature evolves them and humans invent them as controls to keep important system states within safe bounds. A thermostat loop is the and logic skills students classic example. Its purpose is to keep the similarities between essay system state called “room temperature” fairly constant at a desired level.
Any negative feedback loop needs a goal (the thermostat setting), a monitoring and signaling device to essay detect excursions from the goal (the thermostat), and a response mechanism (the furnace and/or air conditioner, fans, heat pipes, fuel, etc.). A complex system usually has numerous negative feedback loops it can bring into play, so it can self-correct under different conditions and impacts. Some of those loops may be inactive much of the time — like the similarities emergency cooling system in college essay, a nuclear power plant, or your ability to sweat or shiver to maintain your body temperature — but their presence is critical to the long-term welfare of the system. One of the big mistakes we make is to strip away these “emergency” response mechanisms because they aren’t often used and they appear to be costly. In the similarities athens essay short term we see no effect from doing this. In the long term, we drastically narrow the range of conditions over which the system can survive. One of the most heartbreaking ways we do this is in encroaching on the habitats of for college, endangered species. Another is in encroaching on our own time for rest, recreation, socialization, and meditation. The “strength” of a negative loop — its ability to keep its appointed stock at or near its goal — depends on the combination of all its parameters and links — the accuracy and rapidity of monitoring, the quickness and power of response, the directness and size of corrective flows.
Sometimes there are leverage points here. Take markets, for example, the negative feedback systems that are all but worshipped by economists — and they can indeed be marvels of self-correction, as prices vary to moderate supply and demand and keep them in balance. The more the price — the between athens and sparta central piece of information signaling both producers and consumers — is kept clear, unambiguous, timely, and truthful, the more smoothly markets will operate. Essay On Smoking. Prices that reflect full costs will tell consumers how much they can actually afford and similarities between will reward efficient producers. Paragraph To An. Companies and similarities between athens and sparta governments are fatally attracted to the price leverage point, of course, all of essay, them determinedly pushing it in the wrong direction with subsidies, fixes, externalities, taxes, and other forms of similarities between and sparta, confusion. These folks are trying to weaken the feedback power of market signals by college essays, twisting information in their favor. The REAL leverage here is to between athens keep them from doing it. Thinking And Logic Skills For College Students. Hence the necessity of anti-trust laws, truth-in-advertising laws, attempts to internalize costs (such as pollution taxes), the removal of perverse subsidies, and similarities between athens and sparta essay other ways of leveling market playing fields. None of which get far these days, because of the weakening of another set of negative feedback loops — those of democracy. On Smoking. This great system was invented to put self-correcting feedback between the people and their government.
The people, informed about what their elected representatives do, respond by voting those representatives in or out of office. The process depends upon the free, full, unbiased flow of essay, information back and forth between electorate and leaders. Billions of dollars are spent to critical thinking for college limit and bias and between athens and sparta dominate that flow. Writing Tips. Give the people who want to distort market price signals the and sparta essay power to pay off government leaders, get the channels of communication to be self-interested corporate partners themselves, and none of the necessary negative feedbacks work well. Both market and on smoking democracy erode. The strength of a negative feedback loop is important RELATIVE TO THE IMPACT IT IS DESIGNED TO CORRECT. If the impact increases in similarities between and sparta essay, strength, the feedbacks have to be strengthened too.
A thermostat system may work fine on a cold winter day — but open all the humorous essay windows and its corrective power will fail. Democracy worked better before the advent of the brainwashing power of similarities and sparta essay, centralized mass communications. Traditional controls on fishing were sufficient until radar spotting and introduction paragraph drift nets and similarities between other technologies made it possible for shadok, a few actors to similarities athens wipe out the fish. The power of big industry calls for the power of big government to hold it in check; a global economy makes necessary a global government and global regulations. Here are some examples of strengthening negative feedback controls to improve a system’s self-correcting abilities: preventive medicine, exercise, and good nutrition to bolster the body’s ability to fight disease, integrated pest management to encourage natural predators of crop pests, the Freedom of Information Act to shadok continuellement reduce government secrecy, monitoring systems to between and sparta report on environmental damage, protection for whistleblowers, impact fees, pollution taxes, and performance bonds to recapture the externalized public costs of private benefits. 7. The gain around driving positive feedback loops. A negative feedback loop is self-correcting; a positive feedback loop is self-reinforcing. The more it works, the more it gains power to work some more. The more people catch the flu, the more they infect other people. The more babies are born, the more people grow up to have babies.
The more money you have in the bank, the more interest you earn, the more money you have in the bank. College. The more the soil erodes, the less vegetation it can support, the fewer roots and athens leaves to soften rain and runoff, the more soil erodes. Paragraph To An. The more high-energy neutrons in the critical mass, the more they knock into nuclei and generate more. Positive feedback loops are sources of and sparta essay, growth, explosion, erosion, and collapse in humorous college essay, systems. A system with an unchecked positive loop ultimately will destroy itself.
That’s why there are so few of them. Between. Usually a negative loop will kick in critical and logic skills students, sooner or later. The epidemic will run out of infectable people — or people will take increasingly strong steps to avoid being infected. The death rate will rise to equal the birth rate — or people will see the consequences of unchecked population growth and have fewer babies. The soil will erode away to bedrock, and after a million years the bedrock will crumble into new soil — or people will stop overgrazing, put up checkdams, plant trees, and similarities between and sparta stop the continuellement erosion.
In all those examples, the similarities between and sparta first outcome is what will happen if the positive loop runs its course, the second is what will happen if there’s an intervention to reduce its self-multiplying power. Reducing the gain around a positive loop — slowing the growth — is usually a more powerful leverage point in systems than strengthening negative loops, and much preferable to essay letting the positive loop run. Population and economic growth rates in the world model are leverage points, because slowing them gives the many negative loops, through technology and markets and other forms of adaptation, all of which have limits and delays, time to function. Athens Essay. It’s the essay same as slowing the car when you’re driving too fast, rather than calling for more responsive brakes or technical advances in steering. Another example: there are many positive feedback loops in society that reward the winners of a competition with the resources to win even bigger next time. Systems folks call them “success to the successful” loops. Rich people collect interest; poor people pay it. Rich people pay accountants and lean on politicians to reduce their taxes; poor people can’t. Essay. Rich people give their kids inheritances and good educations; poor kids lose out.
Anti-poverty programs are weak negative loops that try to counter these strong positive ones. It would be much more effective to weaken the positive loops. That’s what progressive income tax, inheritance tax, and universal high-quality public education programs are meant to do. (If rich people can buy government and weaken, rather than strengthen those of measures, the government, instead of essay, balancing “success to and sparta the successful” loops, becomes just another instrument to reinforce them!) The most interesting behavior that rapidly turning positive loops can trigger is chaos. This wild, unpredictable, unreplicable, and yet bounded behavior happens when a system starts changing much, much faster than its negative loops can react to it. For example, if you keep raising the capital growth rate in the world model, eventually you get to a point where one tiny increase more will shift the economy from exponential growth to oscillation. Another nudge upward gives the oscillation a double beat. And just the tiniest further nudge sends it into chaos. I don’t expect the world economy to turn chaotic any time soon (not for that reason, anyway).
That behavior occurs only in unrealistic parameter ranges, equivalent to doubling the size of the economy within a year. Real-world systems can turn chaotic, however, if something in college, them can grow or decline very fast. Fast-replicating bacteria or insect populations, very infectious epidemics, wild speculative bubbles in money systems, neutron fluxes in the guts of nuclear power plants. These systems are hard to similarities athens essay control, and control must involve slowing down the positive feedbacks. In more ordinary systems, look for leverage points around birth rates, interest rates, erosion rates, “success to the successful” loops, any place where the more you have of something, the more you have the possibility of having more. 6. Critical Skills Students. The structure of essay, information flows (who does and does not have access to shadok en essayant information).
There was this subdivision of identical houses, the story goes, except that for some reason the electric meter in some of the houses was installed in essay, the basement and in others it was installed in the front hall, where the residents could see it constantly, going round faster or slower as they used more or less electricity. With no other change, with identical prices, electricity consumption was 30 percent lower in the houses where the meter was in the front hall. We systems-heads love that story because it’s an example of a high leverage point in the information structure of the system. It’s not a parameter adjustment, not a strengthening or weakening of an existing loop. It’s a NEW LOOP, delivering feedback to a place where it wasn’t going before. A more recent example is the Toxic Release Inventory — the U.S. government’s requirement, instituted in 1986, that every factory releasing hazardous air pollutants report those emissions publicly every year. Suddenly every community could find out essay precisely what was coming out of the smokestacks in town. There was no law against between athens and sparta essay, those emissions, no fines, no determination of “safe” levels, just information. But by 1990 emissions dropped 40 percent. They’ve continued to go down since, not so much because of citizen outrage as because of corporate shame.
One chemical company that found itself on the Top Ten Polluters list reduced its emissions by 90 percent, just to “get off that list.” Missing feedback is one of the most common causes of system malfunction. Adding or restoring information can be a powerful intervention, usually much easier and cheaper than rebuilding physical infrastructure. The tragedy of the commons that is crashing the world’s commercial fisheries occurs because there is no feedback from the state of the fish population to the decision to invest in fishing vessels. (Contrary to economic opinion, the shadok en essayant continuellement price of fish doesn’t provide that feedback. As the between fish get more scarce and hence more expensive, it becomes all the more profitable to go out and catch them. College. That’s a perverse feedback, a positive loop that leads to collapse.)
It’s important that the missing feedback be restored to the right place and in compelling form. To take another tragedy of the commons, it’s not enough to inform all the athens and sparta essay users of an aquifer that the groundwater level is dropping. En Essayant. That could initiate a race to the bottom. It would be more effective to similarities and sparta set a water price that rises steeply as the pumping rate begins to exceed the recharge rate. Compelling feedback. Shadok En Essayant. Suppose taxpayers got to specify on athens and sparta essay their return forms what government services their tax payments must be spent on. (Radical democracy!) Suppose any town or company that puts a water intake pipe in a river had to put it immediately DOWNSTREAM from its own outflow pipe. Suppose any public or private official who made the decision to invest in a nuclear power plant got the waste from that plant stored on his/her lawn. Suppose (this is an old one) the politicians who declare war were required to critical thinking for college spend that war in the front lines. There is a systematic tendency on the part of human beings to between athens and sparta essay avoid accountability for their own decisions. That’s why there are so many missing feedback loops — and why this kind of leverage point is so often popular with the critical thinking skills masses, unpopular with the powers that be, and effective, if you can get the powers that be to permit it to happen (or go around them and make it happen anyway). 5. The rules of the between and sparta system (incentives, punishments, constraints).
The rules of the system define its scope, its boundaries, its degrees of freedom. Thou shalt not kill. Everyone has the right of free speech. Contracts are to be honored. The president serves four-year terms and cannot serve more than two of them. Nine people on and logic skills students a team, you have to touch every base, three strikes and you’re out. If you get caught robbing a bank, you go to jail. Mikhail Gorbachev came to power in the USSR and similarities between opened information flows ( glasnost ) and changed the economic rules ( perestroika ), and look what happened. Constitutions are the strongest examples of social rules. Physical laws such as the second law of thermodynamics are absolute rules, whether we understand them or not or like them or not. Laws, punishments, incentives, and informal social agreements are progressively weaker rules.
To demonstrate the gre essay writing tips power of rules, I like to similarities between and sparta essay ask my students to imagine different ones for a college. Suppose the students graded the essay on smoking teachers, or each other. Suppose there were no degrees: you come to college when you want to learn something, and you leave when you’ve learned it. Suppose tenure were awarded to professors according to their ability to solve real-world problems, rather than to between publish academic papers. Suppose a class got graded as a group, instead of as individuals. As we try to imagine restructured rules like that and what our behavior would be under them, we come to understand the power of gre essay writing, rules. They are high leverage points. Power over the rules is real power. That’s why lobbyists congregate when Congress writes laws, and similarities between essay why the critical and logic Supreme Court, which interprets and delineates the Constitution — the rules for writing the rules — has even more power than Congress.
If you want to athens and sparta essay understand the deepest malfunctions of systems, pay attention to the rules, and to who has power over them. That’s why my systems intuition was sending off alarm bells as the new world trade system was explained to good paragraph essay me. It is athens essay, a system with rules designed by shadok continuellement, corporations, run by corporations, for the benefit of corporations. Its rules exclude almost any feedback from any other sector of between and sparta essay, society. Most of humorous college essay, its meetings are closed even to the press (no information flow, no feedback). It forces nations into positive loops “racing to the bottom,” competing with each other to weaken environmental and athens and sparta social safeguards in order to writing tips attract corporate investment. It’s a recipe for unleashing “success to athens and sparta the successful” loops, until they generate enormous accumulations of power and huge centralized planning systems that will destroy themselves, just as the Soviet Union destroyed itself, and for similar systemic reasons. 4. The power to add, change, evolve, or self-organize system structure.
The most stunning thing living systems and some social systems can do is to change themselves utterly by introduction paragraph to an, creating whole new structures and behaviors. In biological systems that power is called evolution. Similarities Athens And Sparta. In human economies it’s called technical advance or social revolution. In systems lingo it’s called self-organization. Self-organization means changing any aspect of a system lower on this list — adding completely new physical structures, such as brains or wings or computers — adding new negative or positive loops, or new rules. The ability to self-organize is the strongest form of system resilience. A system that can evolve can survive almost any change, by changing itself. The human immune system has the power to develop new responses to (some kinds of humorous college, ) insults it has never before encountered. The human brain can take in new information and pop out completely new thoughts. The power of self-organization seems so wondrous that we tend to between athens and sparta regard it as mysterious, miraculous, manna from heaven. Economists often model technology as literal manna — coming from nowhere, costing nothing, increasing the humorous college essay productivity of an economy by some steady percent each year.
For centuries people have regarded the spectacular variety of nature with the similarities between same awe. Only a divine creator could bring forth such a creation. Further investigation of self-organizing systems reveals that the divine creator, if there is one, does not have to produce evolutionary miracles. He, she, or it just has to write marvelously clever RULES FOR SELF-ORGANIZATION. Writing Tips. These rules basically govern how, where, and what the system can add onto or subtract from itself under what conditions. Between. As hundreds of self-organizing computer models have demonstrated, complex and delightful patterns can evolve from quite simple evolutionary algorithms. (That need not mean that real-world algorithms are simple, only essays, that they can be.) The genetic code within the DNA that is the basis of all biological evolution contains just four different letters, combined into words of three letters each. That pattern, and the rules for replicating and rearranging it, has been constant for something like three billion years, during which it has spewed out an unimaginable variety of failed and successful self-evolved creatures. Self-organization is basically a matter of an evolutionary raw material — a highly variable stock of information from which to select possible patterns — and a means for experimentation, for selecting and testing new patterns. For biological evolution the raw material is athens, DNA, one source of variety is spontaneous mutation, and the testing mechanism is something like punctuated Darwinian selection. Continuellement. For technology the similarities between essay raw material is the body of understanding science has accumulated and stored in libraries and in the brains of its practitioners. The source of variety is writing tips, human creativity (whatever THAT is) and similarities athens essay the selection mechanism can be whatever the market will reward, or whatever governments and foundations will fund, or whatever meets human needs.
When you understand the essays power of system self-organization, you begin to understand why biologists worship biodiversity even more than economists worship technology. The wildly varied stock of DNA, evolved and accumulated over billions of years, is the source of evolutionary potential, just as science libraries and labs and universities where scientists are trained are the source of athens and sparta, technological potential. On Smoking. Allowing species to athens and sparta essay go extinct is a systems crime, just as randomly eliminating all copies of particular science journals, or particular kinds of scientists, would be. The same could be said of essay, human cultures, of course, which are the store of behavioral repertoires, accumulated over essay, not billions, but hundreds of thousands of years. They are a stock out of which social evolution can arise. Unfortunately, people appreciate the humorous college essay precious evolutionary potential of cultures even less than they understand the preciousness of every genetic variation in the world’s ground squirrels. Between Essay. I guess that’s because one aspect of almost every culture is the belief in the utter superiority of that culture. Insistence on critical thinking for college students a single culture shuts down learning. Cuts back resilience. Any system, biological, economic, or social, that gets so encrusted that it cannot self-evolve, a system that systematically scorns experimentation and wipes out the raw material of between, innovation, is critical thinking skills for college, doomed over the long term on this highly variable planet. The intervention point here is obvious, but unpopular.
Encouraging variability and experimentation and diversity means “losing control.” Let a thousand flowers bloom and ANYTHING could happen! Who wants that? Let’s play it safe and push this leverage point in similarities between and sparta essay, the wrong direction by wiping out biological, cultural, social, and market diversity! Right there, the diversity-destroying consequence of the push for control, that demonstrates why the goal of a system is a leverage point superior to the self-organizing ability of essay on smoking, a system. If the goal is to bring more and more of the between athens essay world under the control of one particular central planning system (the empire of gre essay tips, Genghis Khan, the world of Islam, the and sparta People’s Republic of China, Wal-Mart, Disney, whatever), then everything further down the list, physical stocks and writing flows, feedback loops, information flows, even self-organizing behavior, will be twisted to conform to that goal.
That’s why I can’t get into arguments about whether genetic engineering is a “good” or a “bad” thing. Like all technologies, it depends upon who is wielding it, with what goal. The only thing one can say is essay, that if corporations wield it for the purpose of critical thinking and logic skills for college students, generating marketable products, that is a very different goal, a different selection mechanism, a different direction for similarities between and sparta essay, evolution than anything the gre essay writing planet has seen so far. As my little single-loop examples have shown, most negative feedback loops within systems have their own goals — to keep the bathwater at between athens and sparta essay the right level, to keep the room temperature comfortable, to keep inventories stocked at sufficient levels, to keep enough water behind the dam. Those goals are important leverage points for essay, pieces of systems, and most people realize that. Similarities Athens. If you want the room warmer, you know the thermostat setting is the humorous essay place to intervene. But there are larger, less obvious, higher-leverage goals, those of the entire system. Even people within systems don’t often recognize what whole-system goal they are serving. To make profits, most corporations would say, but that’s just a rule, a necessary condition to stay in the game.
What is the point of the game? To grow, to increase market share, to bring the world (customers, suppliers, regulators) more and more under the control of the corporation, so that its operations becomes ever more shielded from uncertainty. John Kenneth Galbraith recognized that corporate goal — to engulf everything — long ago. 5 It’s the goal of a cancer too. Similarities Between And Sparta. Actually it’s the goal of every living population — and only a bad one when it isn’t balanced by essay, higher-level negative feedback loops that never let an upstart power-loop-driven entity control the world.
The goal of similarities athens and sparta, keeping the market competitive has to trump the goal of each corporation to eliminate its competitors (and brainwash its customers and swallow its suppliers), just as in ecosystems, the goal of keeping populations in balance and evolving has to trump the goal of each population to reproduce without limit. I said awhile back that changing the players in the system is a low-level intervention, as long as the players fit into the same old system. The exception to that rule is at the top, where a single player can have the power to change the system’s goal. Critical And Logic Students. I have watched in wonder as — only very occasionally — a new leader in an organization, from Dartmouth College to Nazi Germany, comes in, enunciates a new goal, and swings hundreds or thousands or millions of perfectly intelligent, rational people off in a new direction. That’s what Ronald Reagan did, and we watched it happen. Not long before he came to office, a president could say “Ask not what government can do for you, ask what you can do for the government,” and no one even laughed. Reagan said over and over, the similarities goal is shadok en essayant, not to get the people to help the government and not to get government to help the people, but to get government off our backs. One can argue, and I would, that larger system changes and the rise of corporate power over athens essay, government let him get away with that. But the thoroughness with which the public discourse in the U.S. and even the world has been changed since Reagan is testimony to the high leverage of articulating, meaning, repeating, standing up for, insisting upon new system goals. 2. The mindset or paradigm out of which the gre essay tips system — its goals, structure, rules, delays, parameters — arises.
Another of Jay Forrester’s famous systems sayings goes: it doesn’t matter how the tax law of a country is written. There is similarities between essay, a shared idea in the minds of the society about what a “fair” distribution of the tax load is. Whatever the rules say, by fair means or foul, by complications, cheating, exemptions or deductions, by constant sniping at the rules, actual tax payments will push right up against the accepted idea of “fairness.” The shared idea in the minds of society, the great big unstated assumptions — unstated because unnecessary to state; everyone already knows them — constitute that society’s paradigm, or deepest set of beliefs about how the thinking and logic skills students world works. There is a difference between nouns and verbs. Money measures something real and has real meaning (therefore people who are paid less are literally worth less). Growth is good. Nature is a stock of resources to similarities between athens and sparta essay be converted to writing human purposes. Evolution stopped with the emergence of Homo sapiens . One can “own” land.
Those are just a few of the paradigmatic assumptions of our current culture, all of which have utterly dumfounded other cultures, who thought them not the least bit obvious. Paradigms are the sources of systems. From them, from shared social agreements about the nature of reality, come system goals and information flows, feedbacks, stocks, flows and everything else about systems. No one has ever said that better than Ralph Waldo Emerson: Every nation and every man instantly surround themselves with a material apparatus which exactly corresponds to … their state of thought. Observe how every truth and every error, each a thought of similarities between athens essay, some man’s mind, clothes itself with societies, houses, cities, language, ceremonies, newspapers. Observe the ideas of the present day … see how timber, brick, lime, and stone have flown into en essayant continuellement convenient shape, obedient to the master idea reigning in similarities between athens essay, the minds of many persons….
It follows, of course, that the least enlargement of ideas … would cause the most striking changes of external things. 6. The ancient Egyptians built pyramids because they believed in tips, an afterlife. We build skyscrapers, because we believe that space in downtown cities is enormously valuable. (Except for blighted spaces, often near the skyscrapers, which we believe are worthless.) Whether it was Copernicus and Kepler showing that the earth is not the similarities essay center of the universe, or Einstein hypothesizing that matter and energy are interchangeable, or Adam Smith postulating that the selfish actions of individual players in markets wonderfully accumulate to thinking skills for college students the common good, people who have managed to similarities essay intervene in gre essay, systems at the level of paradigm have hit a leverage point that totally transforms systems. You could say paradigms are harder to change than anything else about a system, and therefore this item should be lowest on the list, not second-to-highest. But there’s nothing physical or expensive or even slow in the process of paradigm change. In a single individual it can happen in a millisecond. All it takes is a click in the mind, a falling of scales from eyes, a new way of similarities between athens and sparta, seeing. Whole societies are another matter — they resist challenges to their paradigm harder than they resist anything else.
So how do you change paradigms? Thomas Kuhn, who wrote the seminal book about the great paradigm shifts of science, 7 has a lot to say about essays, that. In a nutshell, you keep pointing at the anomalies and failures in the old paradigm, you keep coming yourself, and loudly and between athens with assurance from the new one, you insert people with the new paradigm in places of public visibility and power. You don’t waste time with reactionaries; rather you work with active change agents and with the vast middle ground of people who are open-minded. Systems folks would say you change paradigms by gre essay, modeling a system, which takes you outside the system and forces you to see it whole. We say that because our own paradigms have been changed that way. 1. The power to athens and sparta essay transcend paradigms. There is yet one leverage point that is even higher than changing a paradigm. That is to tips keep oneself unattached in the arena of paradigms, to stay flexible, to realize that NO paradigm is “true,” that every one, including the one that sweetly shapes your own worldview, is a tremendously limited understanding of an immense and amazing universe that is far beyond human comprehension.
It is to “get” at a gut level the paradigm that there are paradigms, and to see that that itself is a paradigm, and to similarities between and sparta essay regard that whole realization as devastatingly funny. It is to let go into Not Knowing, into what the Buddhists call enlightenment. People who cling to paradigms (which means just about all of college business, us) take one look at the spacious possibility that everything they think is guaranteed to athens be nonsense and humorous pedal rapidly in the opposite direction. Surely there is no power, no control, no understanding, not even a reason for being, much less acting, in the notion or experience that there is no certainty in any worldview. But, in fact, everyone who has managed to entertain that idea, for between and sparta essay, a moment or for a lifetime, has found it to be the humorous essay basis for radical empowerment. If no paradigm is right, you can choose whatever one will help to achieve your purpose. If you have no idea where to similarities between and sparta get a purpose, you can listen to the universe (or put in the name of your favorite deity here) and do his, her, its will, which is probably a lot better informed than your will. It is in this space of mastery over paradigms that people throw off addictions, live in on smoking, constant joy, bring down empires, get locked up or burned at the stake or crucified or shot, and have impacts that last for millennia. Back from the sublime to the ridiculous, from enlightenment to caveats.
There is so much that has to be said to qualify this list. Similarities. It is tentative and its order is slithery. There are exceptions to every item that can move it up or down the business essays order of leverage. Having had the list percolating in and sparta, my subconscious for years has not transformed me into shadok a Superwoman. The higher the leverage point, the and sparta essay more the system will resist changing it — that’s why societies have to rub out truly enlightened beings. Magical leverage points are not easily accessible, even if we know where they are and which direction to push on them. There are no cheap tickets to mastery.
You have to work hard at it, whether that means rigorously analyzing a system or rigorously casting off your own paradigms and throwing yourself into the humility of Not Knowing. In the end, it seems that mastery has less to gre essay do with pushing leverage points than it does with strategically, profoundly, madly letting go. J.W. Forrester, World Dynamics , Portland OR, Productivity Press, 1971 J.W. Forrester, Urban Dynamics , Portland OR, Productivity Press, 1969. Similarities Athens And Sparta Essay. Thanks to David Holmstrom of Santiago, Chile.
For an example, see Dennis Meadows’s model of gre essay writing tips, commodity price fluctuations: D.L. Meadows, Dynamics of Commodity Production Cycles , Portland OR, 1970. John Kenneth Galbraith, The New Industrial State , 1967. Ralph Waldo Emerson, “War,” (lecture delivered in Boston, March, 1838). Reprinted in Emerson’s Complete Works , vol.
XI, Boston, Houghton, Mifflin Co., 1887, p. 177. Thomas Kuhn, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions , Chicago, University of similarities between athens and sparta, Chicago Press, 1962. About The Donella Meadows Project. The mission of the Donella Meadows Project is to preserve Donella (Dana) H. Essay. Meadows’s legacy as an inspiring leader, scholar, writer, and teacher; to manage the intellectual property rights related to Dana’s published work; to provide and maintain a comprehensive and easily accessible archive of her work online, including articles, columns, and letters; to between and sparta develop new resources and programs that apply her ideas to current issues and make them available to an ever-larger network of students, practitioners, and critical and logic leaders in social change. Read More. DMI will be producing an E-newsletter with news from the athens and sparta essay organization, updates on the work of our fellows, and more. Sign up here if you'd like to hear about what we're working on. About The Donella Meadows Project. The Donella Meadows Project, a project of the Academy for Systems Change, 2 Beaver Meadow Road, Norwich, Vermont 05055 | 802-649-7250 | Contact Us. The Academy for Systems Change site is a Catalyst Webworks production.
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