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Homework Is Evil?: “The benefits of completing homework for students with different aptitudes in thesis words phrases an introductory physics course” One of the perennial problems of teaching intro physics is fritts resume getting students to do their homework, so I was very interested to thesis words, see Andy Rundquist on Twitter post a link to a paper on the arxiv titled “How different incentives affect homework completion in introductory physics courses.” When I shared this with the cover letter, rest of my department, though, I got a link to thesis, an even more interesting paper from the same group, on the effect that doing homework has on av installer resume, student performance. This has an extremely surprising conclusion: for the weakest students in introductory physics, doing more homework actually decreases their grade in the course. This is surprising enough to be worth a little discussion on the blog, so we’ll give this the QA treatment. See! I told you, homework is evil! And these people have proved it with SCIENCE! OK, let’s not get ahead of ourselves, here. What they’ve shown isn’t quite as sweeping and dramatic as that, though it is interesting. Killjoy. OK, what did they actually show?

Well, they looked at thesis words a very large sample of resume students in the second term of introductory physics– a couple of thesis phrases years worth of classes with around 1000 students/year– and divorce looked at the correlation between the amount of homework those students did and their scores on the exams for the course. They first separated the students into four groups based on “physics aptitude,” though, and looked at each group independently. For the highest-aptitude group, they found what you would expect: students who did more homework got higher scores on the exams. In the lowest-aptitude group, though, they found the opposite: students who did more homework got lower exam scores. That’s… weird.

But how do you sort students by aptitude in words the first place? I mean, how do you know which students are good at physics before they take the exams? The aptitude sorting is essays understanding based on grades in prerequisite classes. The specific course they looked at was the second term of phrases intro physics, covering electricity and magnetism. Students taking that course needed to take two calculus courses and divorce the first term of intro physics first, and the average grade in those three courses was the thesis, basis for the “aptitude” sorting. This average was reasonably well correlated with the grade in the second term of understanding physics, and words phrases also with other measures of aptitude (SAT scores, conceptual test scores, etc.). Couldn’t that just be a measure of general student skills, though? That is, students who get lousy grades in calculus also get lousy grades in av installer physics because they have poor study skills in both?

That’s one of the weaknesses, yes. If it were just a measure of poor attitude, though, you might expect the words, “low-aptitude” students to all blow off the homework, and that’s not what they see– the homework completion rates for cover letter for housekeeping position with all the groups are pretty similar. These appear to be students who are putting a reasonable amount of effort into thesis phrases the class, and just not doing well. Speaking of descriptive essay wedding which, shouldn’t you show us these results? You could look in the paper, you know. Yeah, but then I’d have to click the mouse button two whole times. Just put a graph in the post, please? Fine, here you go: Figure 1 from the arxiv preprint discussed in the text.

This shows the cumulative exam score (three midterms and a final) on the vertical axis, with the percentage of the homework completed on the horizontal axis. The high-aptitude group is at the top, and the low-aptitude group is at the bottom. Those points are kind of scattered all over the place, dude. Yeah, but that’s pretty good for thesis phrases social-science type data. And you can see a pretty clear trend indicated by the straight lines on av installer resume, each of those graphs. Thesis Phrases? For the debra fritts, high-aptitude group, the line slopes up and to the right, indicating the more homework is correlated with a higher grade. Words Phrases? In the low-aptitude group, the line slopes down and to the right, indicating that more homework is correlated with a lower grade. How big an effect are we talking? Not all that big– very roughly, doing an additional 10% of the homework raised or lowered the exam total by about 2%. But it’s statistically significant, and the difference between groups is surprising. Yeah, that’s definitely weird.

What would cause that, or is this one of those “correlation is not causation” situations? Well, they don’t have an incontrovertible demonstration of a causal link between these, but they have some ideas. Essay? The education-jargon term for it is that doing more homework “placed an excessive cognitive load on thesis words phrases, low aptitude students.” So,…. basically, “Mr. Osborne, my brain is full”? Not quite as pejorative as that, but yeah. The idea is that students who don’t have a solid framework for doing physics end up inventing ad hoc “schemas” for each homework problem they do, idiosyncratic ways of explaining how they got the answer. The more homework they do, the divorce, more of these they accumulate, and it becomes hard to sort out thesis phrases what, exactly, they’re supposed to be doing.

The higher-aptitude students, on the other hand, are in a better position to av installer resume, interpret the thesis words, problems in terms of a smaller number of universal rules, and descriptive essay of a ceremony thus have an easier time keeping everything straight. Thesis? When they confront a problem, they have a smaller set of more flexible tools to resume, draw from, so finding the right approach is easier. It’s a nice story, but is words there any other suport for it? Sort of. Essays On Human? They looked at each of the thesis words, mid-term exams separately, and the correlation between doing the homework for the relevant section and the score on that exam (so, graphs like the above only plotting the grade on the first quarter of the class versus the av installer, percentage of the first quarter of the homework done, etc.). On the first couple of exams, the low-aptitude groups didn’t show much correlation between grades and homework at all, but on the third exam and the final, the negative correlation was very clear.

And how does that help anything? Well, the idea is that for the first few exams in intro EM, they’re only dealing with electric fields, and the number of techniques that can come into play is very small. Thesis Phrases? In the debra resume, third quarter, they introduce magnetic fields, which follow different rules. In the “excessive cognitive load” picture, this introduces a problem because the low-aptitude students can get confused between electric and magnetic field approaches. Thesis? There’s a significant increase in the number of techniques they need to for housekeeping position with, know and use, and that triggers the “negative benefit” of phrases doing more homework. Couldn’t it just be that magnetic fields are harder to deal with?

I mean, there’s all those cross products and doctoral stuff… That’s also a possibility. That probably wouldn’t produce a negative correlation with homework, though– if anything, you’d expect students to phrases, get better with practice. Which brings up another thing: What does this mean for teaching? Should you stop making weak students do homework? That’s one of the frustrating things about this paper (and a lot of education research, for that matter)– they identify a problem, but don’t do much to suggest solutions. They do note that this finding seems to run counter to the usual advice– most of the letter position with, time, we tell students who are struggling to do more homework, not less– but it’s kind of hard to words, tell what to do instead. To be fair, though, this is a surprising enough result that it’s worth publishing even without a suggested solution. But is this going to fritts resume, change your approach? Not immediately. For one thing, the effect isn’t all that big, and I’d want to see it confirmed by somebody else.

More than that, though, I’m not entirely sure that this is broadly applicable. Why not? Well, this is a study based at the Air Force Academy, where all entering students are required to words phrases, take two terms of physics. This includes the 40-ish percent of them who go on to major in non-scientific subjects. While this is great from a sample size perspective– they’re teaching 1000 students a year in intro physics, so it’s easy to get statistical power in only a few years of testing– it might mean that their sample doesn’t generalize. Their lowest tier of essays understanding physics aptitude is going to thesis words phrases, include a bunch of non-scientists who probably wouldn’t take physics at all at debra fritts resume most other schools.

The students I see in Union’s intro classes might not include any from the thesis words, population showing the strongest negative effect in this study. So, in divorce college the end, I think this is probably saying something interesting about the words phrases, way students learn physics, but might not have that much practical application. Then again, a different approach to homework that turned the negative correlation around for the weakest students might well produce a dramatic improvement in the stronger students, as well. Which would be worthwhile. As there isn’t any such approach on essays on human, offer yet, though, I’m going to hold off on making changes until somebody suggests one. This is definitely something to thesis, keep an fritts resume eye on, though. And, as a nice bonus, it’s a great excuse for not doing my physics homework! I’m making a rational strategic decision to improve my grade!

Well, as long as you’re happy with thinking of yourself as a low-aptitude student, that is. Oh, yeah. Thesis Words Phrases? Good point. I guess my ego does demand that I do my homework, after all. Vanity: a powerful force for resume good. In physics education, anyway…

F. J. Kontur, #038; N. B. Thesis? Terry (2013). The benefits of completing homework for students with different. aptitudes in divorce college essay an introductory physics course Physics Education arXiv: 1305.2213v1. Hmm. Will it help my grade if I turn this paper in with my EM final on words phrases, Wednesday? It seems to me that the doctoral, interpretation could also be that overall, the thesis, amount of homework done does not affect the grade distribution for the course, seeing as all the av installer resume, graphs look like they could be subsets of the Fall 2010 Medium-high aptitude graph. Having a few students who do little HW yet do well on exams will skew toward a negative slope. Without those students you get a flat or positive slope. I would like to see this research repeated with a few thousand more students’ worth of data. Hmm – what if lower aptitude students are more likely to seek peer assistance in homework as the homework load gets heavier, which artificially inflates their homework score on an absolute scale, but does not help their understanding. This might be extractable from the thesis words phrases, data by looking at normalized or rank scores rather than absolute scores.

This is doctoral in finance no surprise. If you want to get the thesis words, weaker students to cover position, do better using homework/quizzes, you put them into study groups with stronger students. The peer tutoring method work shows that that works, and the AFA is an ideal place to thesis phrases, do it because you can force everyone to show up. Otherwise, the homework merely reinforces the bad models that the weaker students are using to letter for housekeeping, try and thesis phrases understand the work. It would be interesting to try a similar study with a state university that has a large, strong engineering program (Michigan and Purdue are two examples that come to mind). That will at least test the objection that the weakest students might be people who would not ordinarily take physics. Also, the Air Force Academy is not the only university that requires physics of av installer all of its undergraduates regardless of words phrases major. Resume? (My undergraduate degree is from such a university.) But most schools that have that requirement are explicitly aimed at people with an interest in STEM fields. The Air Force Academy probably draws more than a few wannabe pilots.

Whether this trend holds for people at words phrases a school like, e.g., RPI, would also be a check on whether the lack of self-selection for STEM interest explains the Air Force Academy results. Took required college physics course as a senior bio major with freshmen physics majors taught by a re-treaded high school teacher. Had the highest exam average in the class, but got a B because I didn’t do all the resume, highly repetitious homework problems. Learned an important lesson: don’t teach science like that. MsPoodry: Having a few students who do little HW yet do well on exams will skew toward a negative slope. Without those students you get a flat or positive slope.

I would like to words, see this research repeated with a few thousand more students’ worth of data. They talk about a test where they excluded the outliers, and essay of a found a similar slope (though now I don’t recall whether that was just the high-homework-completion outliers, or the low end as well). I think you’d have to take out more than just a couple of them to get a flat slope, though those extreme low-completion points are eye-catching. Words Phrases? I definitely agree about the need for resume more data, which they’re presumably working on… Steinn: Hmm – what if lower aptitude students are more likely to thesis words phrases, seek peer assistance in essays homework as the thesis words phrases, homework load gets heavier, which artificially inflates their homework score on an absolute scale, but does not help their understanding. These are completion percentages, not scores, I believe. That is, it’s the fraction of the homework they did, not the fraction they got correct. (Though the axis label is a little ambiguous…) Also, they talk about checking to see if cheating was an issue, using a time-per-problem standard as is fairly common in this field, and say they didn’t see any evidence of cheating on a broad scale. So they claim this can’t be explained by weaker students just getting answers from stronger students. On the general findings, I should also add that while the result is kind of surprising, anecdotally, I’ve definitely had a number of students who dilligently do homework and practice problems and come to office hours, and seem to only confuse themselves more as a result. Essays On Human Understanding Locke? So there’s some superficial plausibility to the “excessive cognitive load” idea for at words phrases least a subset of students.

How to help them, though, remains kind of mysterious. Isn’t there a selection bias issue here? Suppose you are comparing two students, Alice and Bob, who both had an 83 average overall, but Alice only on human, completed 20% of the thesis words, homework while Bob completed 80%. Of course you’d expect Alice’s exam score to be higher. It doesn’t necessarily have to be, but the essays on human locke, only alternative is for Bob to be doing utterly terribly on his homework. I’m confident that if you condition on final grades, exam scores and homework completion will be negatively correlated, but this tells us nothing about whether homework is valuable. Of course the authors aren’t conditioning on grades in the current course, but they are conditioning on prior grades, which are positively correlated with current grades (Table II).

This makes me skeptical of the whole approach in the paper as being at least slightly biased towards undervaluing homework. Determining how biased it is would take a more detailed analysis. Chad: I don’t recall whether that was just the phrases, high-homework-completion outliers. It’s specifically the high end: “students who scored above 90% on divorce essay, homework completion are removed from the analysis” The reason for this was “Additional inquiry revealed that that subset of students achieved their high homework scores by copying solutions from the Internet.” I second MsPoodry’s concern – due to lever arm effects and the squared deviation penalty, a few widely scattered x-axis outliers are going to have a disproportionate effect on the value of the thesis, slope. That said, there still looks to be a trend when you cover them up. Descriptive? I’m not sure if it’s still statistically significant, though.

Regarding what to thesis, do, if the cause actually is cognitive overload, the fritts resume, straightforward way is to encourage the words phrases, confused student to throw out all their old baggage and relearn with a new and appropriate mental framework. (Apropos the Air Force – “break you down and on human understanding build you back up again” is the traditional military teaching technique.) For lectures, emphasizing how what’s being taught now is the same as what was learned previously and how it’s different would probably help. From my experience, professors tended to have the phrases, attitude that once you’ve had the exam you’ve mastered the material, and revisiting how it fits in with new material was unnecessary. Would “practice makes permanent, not perfect” be an accurate summary of the hypothesis? @Chad: I think “homework completion” has to mean “completed correctly” – otherwise the divorce essay, completion fraction ought to crowd the 100% axis more strongly. I’ll advance an alternative hypothesis: the mean score and dynamic range on the exam are too high and too small respectively. It’d be interesting to see the exam, but I wonder if it is a combination of many easy basic questions combined with some “trick questions” to weed out the high scorers. That would explain the thesis words phrases, anti-correlation also. Steinn: I think “homework completion” has to mean “completed correctly” – otherwise the completion fraction ought to crowd the 100% axis more strongly. It’s really not clear what they mean by “completion score” here.

It’s an online homework system with multiple attempts, though, so my guess would be that “completed” and college “completed correctly” are probably pretty close to each other. Based on their other paper, I think those percentages may be just the fraction of assignments that a student does at all. I’ll advance an alternative hypothesis: the thesis phrases, mean score and dynamic range on av installer, the exam are too high and too small respectively. It’d be interesting to words phrases, see the exam, but I wonder if it is of a wedding ceremony a combination of many easy basic questions combined with some “trick questions” to weed out the thesis words, high scorers. They give a detailed description of the in finance, exams, which were apparently written by the PER group in words consultation with the course instructors. So, maybe. Anonymous #8: I’m confident that if you condition on final grades, exam scores and homework completion will be negatively correlated, but this tells us nothing about doctoral dissertations in finance, whether homework is valuable. The negative effect on grades from selecting on prior scores ought to be pretty small, as homework is a very small component of the thesis words, final grade– not more than 10% in av installer any of the sections they looked at. And their grade bands are fairly wide– I don’t think the max-10% contribution of doing homework would sort students between bands that are 0.75 of a grade point wide. Thesis Phrases? But then, the effect they see is small, and it might be enough to resume, make a difference. As somebody on Google+ noted, the really takeaway here may be just how flat those distributions are.

Whether the slopes are real or not, homework appears to make almost no difference to exam scores, and thesis words phrases that’s a little surprising. Here is an doctoral in finance alternative interpretation of thesis people who are not doing well and not benefiting from practice: maybe they should not be in STEM. Resume? Why pay to study a subject and prepare for a career that uses it if practice isn’t helping? They are probably smart students who will do great majoring in thesis words phrases something else and be great USAF officers, they just shouldn’t be on cover letter no experience, the STEM track. Thesis Phrases? Maybe the class doesn’t need to wedding, be changed because it is doing exactly what it should be doing. Thanks for words phrases posting on our article. Debra Fritts Resume? You’re right that our language was a bit too vague on what was meant by “homework completion”. In fact, homework completion = getting a correct answer in phrases the online homework program before you run out of guesses. We’re still research (1) what the underlying cause of this effect is, and (2) how to reverse it, but, as of now, we haven’t come up with anything definitive, which is why we didn’t try to offer solutions.

Thanks for posting on our article. You’re right that our language was a bit too vague on what was meant by “homework completion”. In fact, homework completion = getting a correct answer in the online homework program before you run out of guesses. We’re still researching (1) what the underlying cause of this effect is, and (2) how to reverse it, but, as of now, we haven’t come up with anything definitive, which is why we didn’t try to offer solutions. Students don’t pay tuition at the Air Force Academy. Do you have a sense of how much of those completion scores are just showing up, as it were?

My experience with online homework systems with multiple attempts is descriptive essay wedding that students tend to get the right answer within five trials in 80-90% of the words phrases, problems they bother doing. That is, If I have a student who got 50% of the position no experience, homework points, that’s generally because they only attempted 60% of the problems, and blew the rest off. I think your intuition is correct. We are currently looking at how the number of wrong attempts connects to the other data that we’ve looked at, but, from my experience, if students attempt to do homework problems and are given 3-5 attempts to get it correct, they will almost always get the points. Your style explaining modern physics reminds me the thesis words phrases, great R.P. Feynman and his master lessons and funny (and smart)examples about Quantum Electrodinamics.

Seriously Mr Orzel, congratulations for essays on human your amazing books. Alex @13: You may have overlooked the thesis, note in the original post that passing the dissertations, course in question is an Academy-wide requirement, even for people who aren’t STEM majors. You might ask why they should require it, but given the nature of what the Air Force does, the thesis words, requirement does not surprise me. I don’t know what fraction of USAFA cadets are in non-STEM majors, but I suspect it is smaller than West Point or Annapolis, based on a sense that the Army and the Navy have greater need for non-STEM majors (e.g., language experts for translation/diplomacy/liaison) and doctoral dissertations in finance the fact that the Air Force was part of the Army until the thesis words phrases, late 1940s (the split occurred around the time the War and Navy Departments were consolidated into the DoD we know today). Awww, too bad I just finished teaching about linear regression, this would have been a great paper to discuss in class! That aside, I often get the resume, impression that bright students need to do less homework before they “get it” thus causing a negative correlation. Phrases? I don’t think this brightness is descriptive essay of a wedding really the same thing as the words, aptitude that was controlled for in this article.

It might be interesting to compare different classes (same subject, pref. taught by the same lecturer) and see what the relationship is between exam grades and the amount of homework assigned, instead of completed. Those correlations look very poor. What are the t scores on those coefficients? Are you just finding students who had good physics training before entering the Academy? Those who need to do little homework already understood the concepts, so the course was a low-effort retread. I suppose that this could be picking out those with good backgrounds but bad attitudes, who coast on av installer, their high-school preparation and get good-but-not-great grades putting them in the upper end of the lower grade bands. However, I don’t think that’s all that likely. For one thing, you’d expect students with good preparation to be more likely to end up in the top band of “aptitude,” and the correlation between homework and grades is positive in that group. Students who put in words less effort there get lower grades.

More than that, though, this is the second course, on EM, and letter position with there’s a much bigger jump between high school physics and college level physics in EM than in mechanics. Anecdotally, while I regularly see students in words intro mechanics coast on their high school achievements and get good grades, those who attempt the same trick in EM generally get crushed. Cover Position? It just doesn’t work very well without a background in vector calculus, and almost nobody gets that in high school. I get that the course is an Academy-wide requirement, and I get why they require it. My point is that by thesis, identifying a subset that is not benefiting from practice, this course is dissertations probably performing a valuable role. Thesis? If more practice with a mathematical science is doctoral dissertations in finance not helping you learn it, then you probably shouldn’t major in anything heavy on math and science.

It is fine that the Academy requires everybody to study physics, I just wonder what lessons people should draw from what happens when they study it. And yes, it was clumsy of me to refer to spending money. I was thinking of thesis phrases some more general lessons about studying STEM, and what we might conclude if this finding were replicated elsewhere. If it were replicated elsewhere, it would suggest to essays on human understanding, me that the subset of thesis words phrases students that doesn’t benefit from practice is probably the subset that should change majors sooner rather than later. And even in the context of a zero-tuition institution, students are still investing time, and if they aren’t doing well in the subject they’d do well to invest their time in a subject where they can be more successful, some subject where that success might have value in their subsequent careers. Do the weaker students know by now that they are unlikely to fail? I ask because that scatter plot says half of these kids would fail my course. Does “low aptitude” actually mean “should have failed where passing is the first step to debra, becoming an engineer”?

I ask because my experience is that a student who has learned how to study in the process of passing the first semester has a very high probability of passing the second semester unless they flake out. Some other thoughts: 1) I find that getting less than 80% of the thesis phrases, HW correct in my classes is a sign of the resume, end times. Ditto for getting 100% by copying or being told the formula to use. 2) I also find that the thesis words phrases, second semester is unique in several respects.

The really conceptual material (Gauss, Ampere, and E vs B) is cover letter for housekeeping with no experience not learned by doing HW by rote as they seem to thesis phrases, be doing, whereas the parts about circuits benefit a LOT from dissertations in finance, simply working problems. First semester does not have this sort of words phrases variation in the type of studying needed at various points in the semester. 3) There is a very interesting paper where the authors looked at the role played by guessing. Debra? They find that computer-based HW seems to encourage that defective approach to thesis, problem “solving” and that the weakest students get weaker as a result. I’ve seen this group grow over debra fritts, time as computer-based HW has been adopted across a wide swath of the STEM curriculum and thesis phrases this might be what they are actually seeing. 4) The problem of confusing E and doctoral B strikes me as similar to the way students confuse derivatives and integrals. Thesis? My attack on it is to assign some E problems along with the B problems. (I also alternate between R and C problems when doing circuits for in finance the same reason.) Alex – Thanks for words phrases the clarification. Incidentally, one of my hopes is that better addressing the needs of hard-working physics students who, nevertheless, struggle can save a lot of position money and heartache on the part of both students and educators.

Though the thesis phrases, money issue isn’t present at on human the Academy, the heartache can certainly occur. CCPhysicist – Are you referring to Pascarella’s article (The Influence in phrases Web-Based Homework on Quantitative Problem-Solving in a University Physics Class)? We do reference that in our article. Pascarella’s article is one of the few to suggest some negative impacts of online homework. I think in on human locke general, you bring up a lot of thesis words good points. Some of the descriptive essay wedding, feedback that we’ve gotten on our article is that everyone knows that simply getting points in an online homework system will lead to phrases, learning.

I tend to agree with that sentiment. Letter With No Experience? But the issue is, what aspect(s) of words homework does lead to doctoral dissertations in finance, learning? And why do we not incentivize those aspects rather than getting the correct answer? Your comments about mixing together problems also gibes with another favorite paper of mine from words phrases, a pair of educational psychologists on the benefits of “interleaving” homework problems – “Recent Research on Human Learning Challenges Conventional Instructional Strategies” by Rohrer and av installer resume Pashler (2010). I noticed this phenomena when I was taking Freshman physics and asked my professor about. His hypothesis was that those with high aptitude did all the homework to enhance their knowledge while those with low aptitude did all the homework because they knew they would not do well on exams and words they wanted to maximize what credit they could. Many Freshman physics students are not going to take any more physics courses and are looking for a ticket punch. They often just want a ticket punch and get past the ordeal. Resume? They have been known to cheat by getting others to do or help their homework. But simply put, the motivations are different. I have always found the hypothesis to be tenable since.

Yes, I was referring to the Pescarella article. (I wish I knew what the mystery college was for that study, and words what instructor effect there might be. IME the instructor effect is fritts not small.) My hypothesis for words the cause is under active challenge each semester, but there is essay of a ceremony also a student effect. I think one of my classes did better than another simply because one student asked “Yahoo answers told me how to do it, but I don’t understand why I had to add an thesis extra factor of divorce college essay 2 to thesis phrases, their formula?” early in debra fritts resume the semester. Words Phrases? I think I replied that I was glad he asked, because Yahoo answers isn’t taking the tests and I will give less than half of the possible points if all you do is use some magic equation. I love the “ticket punch” comment. Those who think they won’t need to take any more physics get a really rude awakening when they sit down in Engineering mechanics.

PS to Fred Kontur – I’ve had History and English majors in my physics class who were on their way to fly jets (Navy or AF) so I appreciate the challenge at essays the Academy, although in my experience those kids work harder than anyone except a Marine. Interesting, but I’m not sure what – if any – meaning to attach to it. One of the troubling aspects is whether the words phrases, selection into “aptitude” groups is the origin of the essays on human understanding locke, negative slope for the “low aptitude” group. If we assume that grades are consistent from class to class for a given student, then the selection process for “low aptitude” students is simply selecting for students with low grades. Obviously if you pre-select for thesis low grades, then any student in that group who has high exam grades must have low homework grade (otherwise their grade for the class wouldn’t be low), and dissertations vice versa. Perhaps the thesis words phrases, paper could be re-titled “Students with high homework scores and low grades tend to for housekeeping with, have low exam scores.” But that would be less sexy. I think Chad covers your criticism somewhat in #12. I should also point out that homework is not a part of the overall course grade in the Calculus 1 and 2 classes at USAFA.

So I just don’t think that the homework score would be dragging down students’ overall grades in the way that your comment seems to imply. Thank you very much for the clarification! I am grateful for the honor of receiving feedback from an author of the words phrases, study. That information certainly weakens the role my explanation would play in in finance the negative slopes, but if homework is part of the score in one of the three classes used to classify aptitude (and the second term physics class) then I think my point would still partially stand, no? I suspect I’m overly and unfairly resistant to the “negative correlation” result of your paper because it goes against my past experience. I’ve never taught a large intro class, but I’ve taught a dozen or so upper-level physics classes. At the end of the semester I plot exam final grades vs. homework grades (for fun and curiosity). I do this without dividing into aptitudes, and I always see a strong positive correlation. Thesis Words Phrases? It’s not nearly as strong a correlation as the correlation between final grade homework grades, but it’s a lot stronger than any of the positive or negative correlations in your paper. Then again, I’m dealing with a different population of descriptive of a ceremony students, a different kind of homework assignment, and a different way of grading homeworks. This research fits with other work which shows that setting challenging homework is less effective than setting homework which is either repetitive (of what has just been learned), rote learning (eg vocabulary) or preparatory (watch the video, read the words phrases, chapter).

The problem with challenging homework comes when less able students get it wrong – you have simply reinforced wrong connections in the brain. The part of the learning where having the descriptive essay of a, teacher present is phrases most effective is doctoral in finance when students are trying something new. Teachers may like to join The Evidence-Based Teachers Network. New comments have been temporarily disabled. Please check back soon. Chakat Firepaw on phrases, The Age Math Game Eric Lund on The Age Math Game wolfgang on Kid Art Update Eric Lund on Kid Art Update Michael Vander Sande on Kid Art Update Thomas on Physics Blogging Round-Up: July Thomas on Physics Blogging Round-Up: July tcmJOE on Physics Blogging Round-Up: July Griffith Winthrop on Physics Blogging Round-Up: July Eric Lund on resume, Vacation Update. You've read the thesis words phrases, blog, now try the books: Eureka: Discovering Your Inner Scientist will be published in December 2014 by Basic Books. Fritts? This fun, diverse, and accessible look at how science works will convert even the biggest science phobe. --Publishers Weekly (starred review) In writing that is welcoming but not overly bouncy, persuasive in a careful way but also enticing, Orzel reveals the thesis words phrases, “process of looking at the world, figuring out how things work, testing that knowledge, and letter position sharing it with others.”. With an easy hand, Orzel ties together card games with communicating in the laboratory; playing sports and learning how to thesis phrases, test and refine; the details of some hard science—Rutherford’s gold foil, Cavendish’s lamps and magnets—and entertaining stories that disclose the process that leads from observation to colorful narrative. --Kirkus Reviews.

How to Teach Relativity to Your Dog is published by Basic Books. “Unlike quantum physics, which remains bizarre even to debra fritts, experts, much of relativity makes sense. Thus, Einstein’s special relativity merely states that the laws of physics and the speed of light are identical for all observers in smooth motion. This sounds trivial but leads to weird if delightfully comprehensible phenomena, provided someone like Orzel delivers a clear explanation of thesis words phrases why.” --Kirkus Reviews Bravo to both man and dog. Essays Understanding Locke? The New York Times . How to Teach Physics to Your Dog is published by Scribner. It's hard to imagine a better way for the mathematically and scientifically challenged, in particular, to thesis words phrases, grasp basic quantum physics. -- Booklist Chad Orzel's How to Teach Physics to Your Dog is an doctoral dissertations absolutely delightful book on phrases, many axes: first, its subject matter, quantum physics, is divorce arguably the most mind-bending scientific subject we have; second, the device of the words, book -- a quantum physicist, Orzel, explains quantum physics to Emmy, his cheeky German shepherd -- is a hoot, and has the singular advantage of making the mind-bending a little less traumatic when the going gets tough (quantum physics has a certain irreducible complexity that precludes an easy understanding of its implications); finally, third, it is debra fritts resume extremely well-written, combining a scientist's rigor and accuracy with a natural raconteur's storytelling skill. -- BoingBoing. Another month, another set of phrases blog posts. This one includes the cover for housekeeping position, highest traffic I think I’ve

I keep falling down on my duty to provide cute-kid content, here; I also keep forgetting Our big home renovation has added a level of chaos to everything that’s gotten in the Another month, another collection of blog posts for Forbes: — The Physics Of Century-Old Mirror Selfies: Back So, when last I posted an thesis phrases update on kid stuff, we were about to embark for

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A CRITICAL STUDY OF THE SYMPHONIES OF BEETHOVEN. Translated by Michel Austin. Some thirty six or seven years ago, Beethoven’s works, which at the time were completely unknown in words, France, were tried out at the Opera’s concerts spirituels . Today it would be hard to believe the storm of criticism from the av installer resume, majority of musicians that greeted this wonderful music. It was described as bizarre, incoherent, diffuse, bristling with harsh modulations and wild harmonies, bereft of melody, over the top, too noisy, and horribly difficult to thesis phrases play. Av Installer Resume? To satisfy the demands of the men of good taste who at the time held sway at the Academie royale de musique , M. Habeneck, who later organised and directed with such care the performance of the symphonies at the Conservatoire, found himself obliged to make monstrous cuts in them, of thesis words phrases a kind that would only be tolerated in a ballet by Gallemberg or an opera by Gaveaux. Without such corrections Beethoven would not have been granted the resume, honour of appearing on the programme of the concerts spirituels between a solo for bassoon and phrases a flute concerto. At the first hearing of those passages that had been marked with a red pencil, Kreutzer took to flight blocking his ears, and he had to summon all his courage to steel himself to listen at the other rehearsals to what was left of the symphony in D major (no. 2). Let us not forget that M. Kreutzer’s opinion on Beethoven was shared by ninety nine per cent of musicians in Paris at the time, and essays on human understanding that without the phrases, persistent efforts of the tiny fraction who took the opposite view, the greatest composer of modern times would probably still be largely unknown today. The mere fact that fragments of Beethoven were performed at the Opera was therefore of considerable significance, and we can state this with good reason, since without this the Societe des concerts du Conservatoire would probably not have been founded. The credit for this noble institution belongs to this small group of intelligent men and to the public.

The public – I mean the true public, which does not belong to any particular clique – is guided by dissertations, its own feelings and not by narrow ideas or any ridiculous theories it may have conceived on art. That public, which is often mistaken in its judgments, since it frequently changes its mind, was struck at the outset by some of Beethoven’s salient qualities. It did not ask whether this particular modulation was related to another, whether certain harmonies were acceptable to pundits , nor whether it was admissible to use certain rhythms which were as yet unknown. All it noticed was that these rhythms, harmonies and modulations, adorned with noble and passionate melodies, and enhanced by powerful orchestral writing, exerted on it a strong impression of a completely novel kind. Nothing more was needed to stimulate its applause. Only at rare intervals does our French public experience the keen and incandescent emotion that the art of music can generate; but when its emotions are truly stirred, nothing can equal its gratitude for the artist who caused this, whoever he may be. Thus from its first appearance, the famous allegretto in A minor of the seventh symphony, which had been inserted in the second to make the rest palatable , was judged at its true worth by the audience at the concerts spirituels . A loud clamour arose for words phrases, the piece to be repeated, and at the second performance the av installer, first movement and scherzo of the symphony in D (no. 2), which at first hearing had made little impression, scored an almost comparable success. The obvious interest in Beethoven that the public began to show from thesis words phrases, then on doubled the energy of his defenders and reduced to inaction, if not to silence, the essays on human understanding, majority of his detractors.

Little by little, thanks to these glimmerings of dawn which tell the clear-sighted on which side the sun is thesis words phrases, about to rise, the core of college essay supporters increased in size and thesis the result was the foundation, almost entirely for Beethoven’s sake, of the magnificent Societe du Conservatoire , which nowadays has scarcely a rival in the world. We will attempt to on human locke analyse the symphonies of thesis phrases this great master, starting with the first symphony which the Conservatoire performs so rarely. Through its form, melodic style, and the spareness of its harmonic and orchestral writing, this work is quite different from the other compositions of Beethoven which followed. In writing this symphony the av installer resume, composer was evidently under the influence of Mozart’s ideas, which he has throughout imitated ingeniously and at thesis, times magnified. But in the first and second movements one can notice from time to time certain rhythmic patterns which the dissertations, author of Don Giovanni has admittedly used, but very rarely and in a much less striking way. The first allegro has a six bar theme, which though not very distinctive in itself, acquires interest subsequently through the skilful way in which it is treated. Thesis Words? It is followed by a transitional melody of a rather undistinguished style. Essays On Human Understanding? A half-cadence which is repeated three or four times leads to a passage for wind instruments with imitations at the fourth above.

It is thesis words, all the more surprising to find this here, as it was often used before in essay, several overtures to French operas. The andante includes a soft accompaniment for timpani which nowadays seems rather commonplace, but which can nevertheless be seen as the forerunner of the striking effects which Beethoven was to produce later with this instrument, which his predecessors had in general used to words little or no purpose. This piece is full of for housekeeping charm; the theme is graceful and lends itself well to fugal developments, through which the thesis phrases, composer has been able to exploit it in ingenious and witty ways. The scherzo is the first born in this family of delightful musical jests (scherzi), a form invented by Beethoven who established its tempo. In almost all his instrumental works it takes the essay, place of the minuet of phrases Mozart and Haydn, which is only half the speed of the scherzo and very different in essay wedding ceremony, character. This one is delightful in its freshness, nimbleness, and charm. It is the only really novel piece in this work, in words, which the poetic idea, which plays such a large and rich part in the majority of works which followed, is completely absent.

This is admirably crafted music, clear, alert, but lacking in strong personality, cold and sometimes rather small-minded, as for example in the final rondo, which has the character of a musical amusement. In a word, this is not Beethoven. We are about to meet him. Everything in this symphony is noble, energetic and proud; the introduction ( largo ) is a masterpiece. The most beautiful effects follow in cover letter for housekeeping position, quick succession, always in unexpected ways but without causing any confusion. Words Phrases? The melody has a touching solemnity; from the very first bars it commands respect and cover letter for housekeeping position with sets the emotional tone. Rhythms are now more adventurous, the orchestral writing richer, more sonorous and varied. This wonderful adagio leads to an allegro con brio which has a sweeping vitality. The grupetto in the first bar of the theme played by violas and cellos in thesis, unison is subsequently developed it its own right, either to cover no experience generate surging crescendo passages or to bring about imitations between wind and strings, all of them at once novel and thesis phrases lively in character. In the middle comes a melody, played by clarinets, horns and bassoons for the first half, and rounded off as a tutti by the rest of the orchestra; it has a masculine energy which is further enhanced by the felicitous choice of accompanying chords. The andante is av installer, not treated in the same way as that of the first symphony; instead of a theme developed in words phrases, canonical imitation it consists of a pure and innocent theme, presented at first plainly by the strings, then exquisitely embellished with delicate strokes; they faithfully reproduce the tender character of the main theme.

This is the enchanting depiction of innocent joy, scarcely troubled by passing touches of melancholy. The scherzo is as openly joyful in its capricious fantasy as the on human locke, andante was completely happy and calm. Everything in this symphony smiles, and even the martial surges of the first allegro are free from any hint of violence; they only speak of the youthful ardour of a noble heart which has preserved intact the most beautiful illusions of life. The author still believes in thesis, immortal glory, in love, in devotion… What abandonment in his joy, what wit, what exuberance! The various instruments fight over for housekeeping position no experience particles of a theme which none of them plays in full, yet each fragment is coloured in a thousand different ways by being tossed from one instrument to the other. To hear this is like witnessing the enchanted sport of Oberon’s graceful spirits. The finale is of the same character: it is a scherzo in double time, perhaps even more delicate and witty in its playfulness. It is a serious mistake to truncate the title which the composer provided for the symphony. It reads: Heroic symphony to thesis words commemorate the resume, memory of a great man . As will be seen, the thesis words, subject here is not battles or triumphal marches, as many, misled by the abbreviated title, might expect, but rather deep and serious thoughts, melancholy memories, ceremonies of imposing grandeur and sadness, in short a funeral oration for cover letter for housekeeping with no experience, a hero.

I know few examples in music of a style where sorrow has been so unfailingly conveyed in forms of such purity and such nobility of expression. The first movement is in words phrases, triple time and in a tempo which is almost that of a waltz, yet nothing could be more serious and more dramatic than this allegro . The energetic theme on which it is built is not at first presented in its complete form. Contrary to normal practice, the composer has initially provided only a glimpse of his melodic idea, which is only revealed in descriptive of a, its full power after a few bars’ introduction. The rhythmic writing is extremely striking in the frequent use of syncopation and, through the stress on the weak beat, the insertion of bars in duple time into bars in triple time. Words? When to doctoral in finance this irregular rhythm some harsh dissonances are added, as we find towards the middle of the development section, where the first violins play a high F natural against an E natural, the fifth of the words phrases, chord of cover with no experience A minor, it is difficult not to shudder at this depiction of indomitable fury. This is the voice of despair and almost of rage. Yet one wonders, Why this despair, Why this rage? The reason for it is not obvious. Then in the next bar the orchestra suddenly calms down, as though, exhausted by its own outburst, its strength was abruptly deserting it.

A gentler passage follows, which evokes all the words phrases, most painful feelings that memory can stir in the mind. It is impossible to essays on human locke describe or merely to indicate the multiplicity of melodic and harmonic guises in which Beethoven presents his theme. We will only mention an extremely odd case, which has caused a great deal of argument. The French publisher corrected it in his edition of the score, in the belief it was an engraving error, but after further enquiry the passage was reinstated. The first and second violins on their own are playing tremolando a major second (B flat, A flat), part of the chord of the seventh on the dominant of E flat, when a horn gives the impression of having made a mistake by coming in four bars too soon, and rudely intrudes with the beginning of the main theme which consists only thesis phrases of the notes E flat, G, E flat, B flat. The strange effect produced by understanding, this melody built on thesis phrases the three notes of the debra fritts resume, tonic chord against the two discordant notes of the dominant chord can easily be imagined, even though the distance between the parts greatly softens the clash. But just as the ear is about to protest against this anomaly, an energetic tutti cuts off the horn, ends piano on the tonic chord and gives way to the entry of the thesis, cellos which then play the on human locke, complete theme with the appropriate harmony. Taking a detached view it is difficult to find a serious justification for thesis phrases, this musical caprice*. But it is said that the fritts resume, author attached much importance to it. It is even related that at the first rehearsal of the symphony, M. Ries who was present stopped the orchestra and exclaimed: Too early, too early, the horn is thesis phrases, wrong!.

As a reward for his indiscretion, he was roundly taken to task by a furious Beethoven. *However you look at it, if that was really what Beethoven wanted, and av installer resume if there is any truth in the anecdotes which circulate on the subject, it must be admitted that this whim is an absurdity. There is no comparable oddity in thesis words phrases, the rest of the score. The funeral march is a drama in its own right. It is like a translation of cover letter for housekeeping position no experience Virgil’s beautiful lines on the funeral procession of the young Pallas: Multaque praeterea Laurentis praemia pugnae. Adgerat, et longo praedam jubet ordine duci. Post bellator equus, positis insignibus, Aethon. It lacrymans, guttisque humectat grandibus ora. The ending in particular is deeply moving. The theme of the march returns, but now in a fragmented form, interspersed with silences, and only accompanied by three pizzicato notes in the double basses. When these tatters of the sad melody, left on their own, bare, broken and lifeless, have collapsed one after the other onto the tonic, the wind instruments utter a final cry, the last farewell of the warriors to their companion in arms, and the whole orchestra fades away on a pianissimo pause.

Following normal practice the third movement is entitled scherzo . In Italian the word means play, or jest. At first sight it is hard to see how this kind of music can find a place in thesis words, this epic composition. It has to be heard to be understood. The piece does indeed have the rhythm and tempo of a scherzo ; these are games, but real funeral games, constantly darkened by thoughts of death, games of the kind that the warriors of the Iliad would celebrate around the tombs of their leaders. Even in his most imaginative orchestral developments Beethoven has been able to preserve the on human, serious and sombre colouring, the deep sadness which of course had to predominate in such a subject. The finale is just a continuation of the thesis, same poetical idea. There is dissertations in finance, a very striking example of orchestral writing at the beginning, which illustrates the thesis, kind of effect that can be produced by juxtaposing different instrumental timbres. Cover Letter For Housekeeping Position No Experience? The violins play a B flat, which is immediately taken up by thesis, flutes and oboes as a kind of echo. Although the of a, sound is played at the same dynamic level, at the same speed and with the same force, the dialogue produces such a great difference between the notes that the nuance between them might be likened to the contrast between blue and purple . Such tonal refinements were completely unknown before Beethoven, and it is to him that we owe them. For all its great variety this finale is words phrases, nevertheless built on a simple fugal theme.

Besides a profusion of ingenious details the composer develops on top of it two other themes, one of which is exceptionally beautiful. The melody is doctoral, as it were derived from a different one, but its shape conceals this. On the contrary it is much more touching and expressive, far more graceful than the original theme, which has rather the character of a bass line and serves this function very well. This melody returns shortly before the thesis words, end, in a slower tempo and essays understanding locke with different harmonies which further enhance its sad character. The hero costs many a tear. After these final regrets devoted to his memory the poet abandons the elegiac tone and intones with rapture a hymn of glory. Though rather brief this conclusion is very brilliant and provides a fitting crown to the musical monument. Phrases? Beethoven may have written more striking works than this symphony, and divorce college several of his other compositions make a greater impact on the public. But it has to words be admitted that the Eroica symphony is so powerful in its musical thought and execution, its style so energetic and dissertations so constantly elevated, and its form so poetic, that it is the words phrases, equal of the composer’s very greatest works. Debra? Whenever this symphony is performed I am overcome with feelings of deep and thesis as it were antique sadness; yet the public seems hardly moved.

One must feel sorry for the predicament of the artist: though fired with such enthusiasm he has not managed to make himself intelligible even to an elite audience and letter for housekeeping position with no experience make it rise it to the level of words phrases his own inspiration. This is all the more regrettable as in other circumstances this same audience warms up to the composer and av installer shares his emotion and tears. It is fired with an ardent and genuine passion for some of his compositions, which may be equally worthy of admiration but are nevertheless no more beautiful than this work. It appreciates at its true worth the allegretto in A minor of the seventh symphony, the allegretto scherzando of the eighth, the finale of the words, fifth, the scherzo of the ninth. It even appears to fritts be deeply moved by the funeral march of this symphony – the thesis phrases, Eroica . But as far as the first movement is concerned, there is no escaping the truth, and I have observed this for more than twenty years: the public listens to it with composure, regards it as a well crafted and quite powerful piece, but beyond that … nothing. There is no point in philosophising. It is doctoral in finance, no good saying to thesis words phrases oneself that the on human understanding locke, same has always been true everywhere for all artistic creations of an elevated kind, that the springs of poetic emotion are hidden and difficult to fathom, that the feeling for words, beauty which some individuals possess is completely absent from the masses, even that it cannot possibly be otherwise… None of this provides any consolation or can appease the anger – call it instinctive, involuntary, even absurd if you like – which fills one’s heart at the sight of a misunderstood masterpiece, of a composition of such nobility which the crowd observes but does not see, listens to but does not hear, and allows to pass by with hardly a sideways glance, as though dealing with something mediocre or ordinary. It is dreadful to cover position with have to say to oneself with total certainty: what I find beautiful is beauty itself for me, but may not be so for my best friend. Someone who normally feels the same way as I do will be affected in quite a different way. It may be that the work which sends me into raptures, makes me shiver, and moves me to tears, leaves him cold, or even annoys and irritates him… The majority of great poets have no feeling for thesis phrases, music and only enjoy melodies of a trivial or childish character.

Many intelligent people, who think they like music, have no idea of the emotions it can stir. These are painful truths, but they are tangible and obvious, and only a peculiar kind of doctoral dissertations obstinacy prevents one from recognising them. I have seen a bitch howling with pleasure on hearing a major third played in double stopping on a violin, yet her pups have never reacted in a similar way, whether you play them a third, a fifth, a sixth, an octave, or any other consonant or discordant chord. Whatever the composition of the public, it always reacts to great musical conceptions in words phrases, the same way as that bitch and her pups. There are nerves that react to certain vibrations, but this ability to respond, incomplete as it is, is not equally disseminated and is subject to innumerable variations. It follows that it is virtual lunacy to rely on some artistic means rather than others to doctoral dissertations in finance affect it and that the best a composer can do is to remain blindly true to his own feelings and resign himself in advance to all the thesis words phrases, whims of fortune.

One day I was walking out of the letter for housekeeping position, Conservatoire with three or four dilettanti after a performance of the Choral symphony. – How do you find this work? one of them asked me. – Immense! magnificent! overwhelming! – That is strange, I was bored stiff. And what about you? he added, turning to an Italian… – Well, I find this unintelligible, or rather intolerable, there is no melody… But here are some papers talking about it, and thesis words phrases let us see what they say: – Beethoven’s Choral symphony is the pinnacle of modern music; art has yet to produce anything comparable for the nobility of its style, the grandeur of the av installer, design and the finish of the details. (Another paper) – Beethoven’s Choral symphony is a monstrosity. Words? (Another paper) – This work is dissertations, not completely barren of words ideas, but they are poorly presented and the sum total is av installer, incoherent and devoid of charm. Thesis Words? (Another paper) – Beethoven’s Choral symphony has some wonderful passages, but the composer was obviously short of inspiration. As his exhausted imagination let him down he had to devote his energies, sometimes to good effect, to making up through craftsmanship what he was lacking in inspiration. The few themes found in the work are superbly treated and descriptive essay of a ceremony set out in a perfectly clear and logical sequence. In short, it is a very interesting work by a tired genius . Where is the phrases, truth, and where is the error?

Everywhere and nowhere. Everybody is right. What to someone seems beautiful is not so for someone else, simply because one person was moved and the other remained indifferent, and the former experienced profound delight while the latter acute boredom. Descriptive Essay Wedding? What can be done about this?… nothing… but it is dreadful; I would rather be mad and believe in thesis words phrases, absolute beauty. Beethoven forsakes here completely the tones of epic and elegy to return to the less elevated, less sombre, though perhaps no less difficult style of the second symphony. The tone of this score is generally lively, alert, and joyful, or of a heavenly gentleness. Leaving aside the brooding adagio which serves as an introduction the first movement is almost wholly dedicated to joy. Essays Understanding? The theme in detached notes with which the words phrases, allegro begins is no more than a canvas on which the composer lays out subsequently other more substantial melodies, and what looked at the start of the movement like the principal theme is made to appear of fritts secondary importance. Though it leads to unusual and thesis words phrases interesting results, this device had already been used by Mozart and Haydn with comparable success. But in the second part of the same allegro a really new melody is introduced, the first bars of which arrest the doctoral, listener’s attention, draw him into its mysterious developments then surprise him with its unexpected conclusion.

This is what happens. Thesis Words? After a fairly vigorous tutti, the first violins break the opening theme into fragments which they turn into fritts resume, a dialogue pianissimo with the thesis words phrases, second violins. This leads to held notes on the dominant seventh of the key of on human understanding B natural, each of phrases which is separated by two bars of cover with no experience silence, filled only by a soft tremolo on the timpani on the note B flat, the enharmonic major third of the fundamental F sharp. The passage is repeated, then the timpani fall silent and leave the strings murmuring gently other fragments of the theme, and a new enharmonic modulation leads to a six-four chord of B flat. The timpani re-enter on the same note, now the genuine tonic and not as before the leading note, and continue with the tremolo for some twenty bars.

The tonal force of this B flat hardly registers initially, but gradually increases as the tremolo is words, prolonged. Then the other instruments intersperse their forward momentum with short and incomplete fragments under the continuous rumble of the timpani, and this leads to a general forte where the perfect chord of B flat is finally established in wedding, all its majesty in the full orchestra. This astonishing crescendo is one of the thesis words, happiest inspirations we know in music. The only passage that could be compared is the conclusion of the famous scherzo of the symphony in C minor, though despite its overwhelming impact it is not conceived on such a vast scale, as it starts from piano to reach the final explosion but without departing from the home key, whereas the crescendo we have just described starts mezzo forte , disappears for a while in a pianissimo under harmonies of constantly vague and indeterminate colour, then reappears with chords in a more defined tonality, and only bursts out when the cloud obscuring this modulation has completely dissipated. It is like a river whose peaceful flow vanishes suddenly from sight and only re-emerges from its underground course to come crashing down in a foaming waterfall.

As for the adagio , it defies analysis… So pure are the forms, so angelic the expression of the melody and so irresistibly tender, that the essays understanding, prodigious skill of the craftsmanship is completely hidden from view. From the very first bars one is gripped by emotion which by the end has reached an unbearable pitch of intensity. It is only among one of the giants of poetry that it is possible to find something to compare to thesis words phrases this sublime movement from the debra resume, giant of music. Nothing resembles more the impression made by this adagio than the phrases, feelings one experiences when reading the touching episode of Francesca di Rimini in the Divina Commedia , the doctoral, narrative of which Virgil cannot hear without bursting into tears, and which at thesis words phrases, the last verse causes Dante to fall, just as a dead body collapses . This movement seems to have been breathed by the archangel Michael when, seized with a fit of melancholy, he contemplated the debra resume, universe, standing on words phrases the threshold of the empyrean. The scherzo consists almost entirely of av installer phrases in words, two beats that are forced to fit into the framework of bars in triple time. Beethoven has used this device frequently and understanding locke it imparts considerable vitality to the music. Melodic endings become as a result more incisive and unexpected; in any case, these cross-rhythms have in themselves real charm, though it is difficult to thesis words explain why. Essays Understanding Locke? There is special pleasure in seeing the beat dislocated in this way yet coming together again at the end of each period, and the musical logic though temporarily suspended eventually reaching a satisfactory conclusion and a complete solution. The melody of the trio , played by the wind section, has exquisite freshness.

The tempo is slower than that of the rest of the scherzo , and its simplicity gains extra elegance from the teasing little phrases delightfully tossed by the violins over the harmonic texture. The finale is joyful and alert and thesis restricts itself to normal rhythmic forms. It consists of a jingle of scintillating notes in a continuous chatter, sometimes interrupted by a few raucous and wild chords, another example of those angry outbursts to which we have already drawn attention with this composer. This, without doubt the most famous of the symphonies, is also in our opinion the first in which Beethoven gave wings to his vast imagination without being guided by or relying on any external source of av installer resume inspiration. In the first, second and fourth symphonies, he has more or less enlarged already existing forms, suffusing them with all the poetry his youthful vigour was capable of adding in terms of thesis phrases brilliant and passionate inspiration. In the third (the Eroica ) the forms are admittedly broadened and the musical thought rises to great heights, yet there is no mistaking the influence of one of those divine poets whom the great artist had long worshipped in fritts resume, his heart. Beethoven, faithful to the precept of Horace: «Nocturna versate manu, versate diurna», regularly read Homer, and in his magnificent musical epic, inspired, it is said rightly or wrongly, by a contemporary hero, the memories of the ancient Iliad self-evidently play a wonderfully beautiful part. By contrast the C minor symphony seems to arise directly and solely from Beethoven’s own genius. In it he develops his own intimate thoughts, it is about his secret suffering, his concentrated anger, his dreams full of such sad despair, his nocturnal visions, his outbursts of enthusiasm. The forms taken by melody, harmony, rhythm and the orchestral writing are as substantially individual and novel as they are powerful and phrases noble. The first movement depicts those turbulent feelings which move a great soul seized with despair – not the calm and concentrated despair which has an air of resignation, nor the sombre and silent despair of Romeo learning of the death of descriptive essay Juliet, but rather the terrifying fury of Othello when he hears from the mouth of Iago the poisonous calumnies which convince him of Desdemona’s crime.

At times the mood is one of frenzied delirium which breaks out in terrifying cries, at others one of exaggerated despair which can express nothing but regret and self-pity. Listen to those orchestral hiccoughs, the chords exchanged between wind and thesis phrases strings which grow fainter as they come and on human go, like the painful breathing of a dying man, then give way to a violent gesture, where the thesis, orchestra seems to rise again revived by a flash of anger. See how this quivering orchestral mass hesitates for a moment before plunging headlong, divided into two fiery unisons like two streams of lava. Can you deny that this passionate style of writing is beyond and above everything that had been written before in descriptive essay wedding, orchestral music? There is a striking example in this movement of the effect produced by the occasionally excessive doubling of parts and of the raw character of the chord of a fourth on the supertonic, in other words the second inversion of the dominant. It occurs frequently without preparation or resolution, and once even without the thesis phrases, leading note and on a pause: the low D is in all the doctoral dissertations, string voices, while there is a bare and dissonant G on top in some wind parts.

The character of the adagio is rather reminiscent of the allegretto in A minor of the seventh symphony and of the slow movement in E flat of the fourth. Thesis Phrases? It has the solemn melancholy of the former, and the touching grace of the latter. Debra Fritts Resume? The theme played first by the cellos and phrases violas in unison, with a simple pizzicato accompaniment in the double basses, is followed by a passage for wind instruments which keeps returning in identical form and in the same key from resume, beginning to thesis words phrases end of the movement, whatever the successive changes undergone by the first theme. This persistent repetition of the identical phrase, constantly repeated with the same simple and deep sadness, gradually stirs in the mind of the listener an indescribable feeling, without doubt the most intense of its kind that we have experienced. Divorce College? Among the most daring harmonic effects in this sublime elegy we may mention: 1 0 the thesis words, high note held by flutes and debra resume clarinets on the dominant E flat while the strings are active lower down and progress through the thesis, chord of the sixth, D flat, F, B flat, which has no connection with the high pedal note; 2 0 the episodic passage played by a flute, an descriptive of a, oboe and two clarinets in thesis words, contrary motion, which occasionally results in unprepared dissonances of the second, between the leading note G and F, the major sixth of A flat. This third inversion of the chord of the leading seventh is forbidden by the majority of theorists, as is the high pedal we have just mentioned, yet the result is altogether delightful. There is cover letter with, also at the last entry of the first theme a canon in thesis, unison at an interval of one bar , between the violins and flutes, the clarinets and bassoons, which would give added interest to the melody treated in this way if the essays understanding locke, imitation by the wind instruments could be heard; unfortunately the whole orchestra is playing loud at the same moment and makes it almost inaudible. The scherzo is a strange composition. The first bars, which in themselves have nothing that should alarm, provoke that inexplicable emotion experienced under the magnetic gaze of some individuals. Everything here is mysterious and sombre; the phrases, orchestral effects, all more or less sinister in character, seem to belong to the world of thought of the famous scene of Blacksberg in Goethe’s Faust . The prevailing dynamics are piano and mezzo forte . The central section (the trio) is fritts resume, taken up by a passage for the basses, bowed with full vigour, the words phrases, ponderous roughness of cover with no experience which rattles the feet of the music stands and sounds rather like the antics of an exhilarated elephant… But the monster moves away, and the sound of phrases its wild frolics gradually fades. The theme of the scherzo reappears pizzicato ; gradually silence is established, and only a few lightly plucked notes are heard from the violins together with the essays, strange clicking sounds produced by the high A flat of the words, bassoons clashing with G, the octave of the tonic of the dominant minor ninth.

The strings then break the sequence and for housekeeping with settle gently on a bowed chord of A flat on which they doze off. The timpani using sponge-headed sticks keep the rhythm going on words phrases their own with light strokes which stand out faintly against on human the general somnolence of the rest of the orchestra. These timpani notes are Cs; the piece is in C minor, but the chord of A flat, long held by phrases, the other instruments, seems to be introducing a different key; for its part the solitary pulsing of the timpani on C tends to essay preserve the feeling of the original key. The ear hesitates… where will this harmonic mystery end?… and then the soft throbbing of the timpani gradually increase in thesis, volume, joined by the violins which have started to move again, changing the doctoral dissertations, harmony. This leads to the dominant seventh chord of G, B, D and F while the timpani continue to play obstinately the tonic C. The whole orchestra, reinforced by the trombones which have not yet appeared, explodes now in the major in a triumphal march and the finale begins. Thesis Phrases? The electrifying effect of this passage is well known, and there is no need to elaborate for the reader. Critics have nevertheless sought to diminish the composer’s merit by essay of a wedding ceremony, asserting that he had merely resorted to a commonplace device in words, making the brilliance of the major mode follow the darkness of divorce a pianissimo in thesis, a minor key, that the triumphal theme was lacking in originality, and that interest flagged as the movement progressed instead of increasing. We would answer: is it because the transition from piano to forte , and doctoral dissertations in finance from minor to major , are known devices that there is thesis, less genius in creating such a work?… How many other composers have not tried to achieve this same effect? And how can their efforts compare with the gigantic hymn of victory, in which the soul of the poet musician, liberated from earthly shackles and suffering, seems to soar radiantly to heaven?… It is true that the first four bars of the march are not of striking originality; but there is a limit to what can be done with the genre of the fanfare, and we do not believe it possible to invent new types of fanfare without giving up completely its simple, grandiose and festive character. Beethoven wanted for av installer, the start of his finale a fanfare-like entry; in the rest of the movement, in thesis phrases, fact even in av installer resume, the continuation of the principal theme, he quickly reverts to the lofty and thesis words original style that is descriptive of a, his hallmark.

As for the criticism that he failed to thesis phrases sustain interest through the end of the movement, one might answer that in the present state of the understanding locke, art of music it is thesis, impossible to produce a more shattering effect than the transition from the scherzo to divorce college the triumphal march, and it was therefore not possible to intensify that effect any further. To remain at phrases, such a height is college, already a prodigious feat; despite the breadth with which Beethoven develops his material, he nevertheless brings it off. But this consistency of level from the beginning to the end is enough to give the impression of a fall-off; so great has been the initial impact on the listener, whose emotional response has been raised to the highest pitch, that it is all the more difficult to words sustain it subsequently at the same level. In a long row of columns of the same height perspective suggests that the more distant ones are actually smaller. It could be that our inadequate constitutions would adapt better to a more laconic ending such as Gluck’s Our general is calling you back : the audience would thus not have the time to cool down, and the symphony would be over before fatigue prevented the audience from following in the composer’s footsteps. Dissertations In Finance? But this remark only thesis phrases applies so to speak to the way the work is understanding locke, presented; it does not disqualify this finale from being in itself of a magnificence and richness next to which very few pieces could stand comparison without being obliterated. Thesis Words Phrases? This astonishing landscape could have been designed by Poussin and drawn by Michelangelo. The author of Fidelio and of the Eroica symphony sets out to depict the tranquillity of the countryside and the shepherds’ gentle way of doctoral dissertations in finance life. But let us be clear: we are not dealing here with the picture-postcard and prettified shepherds of thesis words M. de Florian, still less those of M. Lebrun, who wrote the Rossignol [The Nightingale], or those of J.-J. Rousseau, the composer of the essay, Devin du Village [The Village Soothsayer]. We are dealing here with real nature.

The title given by the composer to his first movement is Gentle feelings stirred by thesis, the sight of a beautiful landscape . The shepherds begin to move about nonchalantly in the fields; their pipes can be heard from a distance and close-by. Exquisite sounds caress you like the scented morning breeze. A flight or rather swarms of twittering birds pass overhead, and the atmosphere occasionally feels laden with mists. Heavy clouds come to hide the sun, then suddenly they scatter and fritts resume let floods of dazzling light fall straight down on words phrases the fields and the woods. These are the images that come to mind when I hear this piece, and despite the vagueness of instrumental language I suppose that many listeners have probably reacted in debra fritts resume, the same way. Further on there is a Scene by the brook . Contemplation… The composer probably created this wonderful adagio lying on his back in the grass, his eyes turned to thesis words heaven, his ear listening to the wind, fascinated by countless reflections of sound and light, observing and listening at once to av installer resume the white ripples of the words phrases, river as they break gently on the stones of the bank. This is delightful. There are some who vehemently criticise Beethoven for wanting to reproduce at the end of the adagio the song of three birds, at first in succession and then together. In my view the divorce college essay, normal test of the appropriateness or absurdity of such attempts is whether they come off or not. On this point I would therefore say to Beethoven’s critics that they are right as far as the phrases, nightingale is concerned: the imitation of essay its song is no more successful here than in M. Lebrun’s well-known flute solo, for the very simple reason that since the nightingale only emits indistinct sounds of indeterminate pitch it cannot be imitated by instruments with a fixed and precise pitch. But it seems to thesis words phrases me that the case is different with the resume, quail and the cuckoo, whose cry involves either one or two real notes of phrases fixed pitch, and can therefore be fully imitated in a realistic way.

Now if the composer is criticised for introducing a childishly literal imitation of bird-song in a scene where all the quiet voices of heaven, earth and water must naturally find their place, I would say in reply that the same objection could be made when in the storm he also imitates faithfully the gusts of wind, the flashes of lightning and debra fritts the bellowing of animals. And heaven knows that no one has ever dreamed of criticising the storm of the pastoral symphony! But let us proceed. The poet now brings us in words, the midst of a Joyful gathering of peasants. The dancing and laughter are restrained at first; the oboe plays a cheerful refrain accompanied by a bassoon that can only manage to produce two notes. Beethoven’s intention was probably to suggest in this way an old German peasant, sitting on a cask with a decrepit old instrument, from which all he can draw are the two principal notes of the key of F, the understanding, dominant and the tonic. Thesis Phrases? Every time the oboe plays its naive and jolly tune like a girl in college, her Sunday clothes, the old bassoon blows his two notes. Thesis Words? When the melody modulates to a different key the bassoon falls silent and quietly counts his rests, until the original key returns and he is able to interject again unruffled his F, C and F. This burlesque effect is wonderfully apt but the public seems to av installer resume miss it almost completely. The dance gets more animated and becomes wild and noisy. Words Phrases? A rough theme in duple time signals the arrival of mountaineers with their heavy clogs.

The first section in triple time is resume, repeated, but even more animated. Phrases? The dancers mingle excitedly, the women’s hair flies loose over their shoulders, the mountaineers add their noise and intoxication, there is resume, clapping, shouting and running, and the scene goes wild and furious… Then suddenly a distant clap of thunder strikes terror in the midst of this rustic ball and scatters the dancers. Storm, lightning . Words Phrases? I despair of being able to convey an idea of this prodigious piece. It has to be heard to understand how realistic and sublime imitative music can become in the hands of someone like Beethoven. Listen to the gusts of wind gorged with rain, the debra fritts, dull growl of the basses, the shrill hissing of piccolos announcing the fearful storm that is about the break out.

The hurricane approaches and increases in intensity. A huge chromatic scale, starting in the upper instruments, plunges to the depths of the orchestra, picks up the basses on the way, drags them upwards, like a surging whirlwind that sweeps everything in its way. The trombones then burst out, the thunder of the thesis words phrases, timpani intensifies in violence; this is no longer rain and wind but a terrifying cataclysm, a universal deluge and letter for housekeeping with the end of the world. In truth the piece induces dizziness, and there are many who on hearing this storm are not sure whether the words, emotion they experience is one of pleasure or of pain. The symphony concludes with the Thanksgiving of the peasants after the return of fine weather . Everything smiles again, the av installer resume, shepherds come back and answer each other on the mountain as they call their scattered flocks. The sky is clear, the torrents gradually dry out, calm returns and with it the rustic songs with their gentle tones. They soothe the mind, shattered as it was by words phrases, the awesome splendour of the preceding tableau. Is it really necessary after this to write of the stylistic oddities to be found in ceremony, this mighty work – the groups of five notes on the cellos clashing with passages of four notes in the double-basses, which grind together without being able to thesis phrases blend into a genuine unison?

Must one mention the horn call which plays an arpeggio on the chord of C while the dissertations in finance, strings hold that of F?… In truth I cannot. To do this one has to think rationally, and how can you avoid being intoxicated when in the grip of such a subject! Far from it – if only one could sleep and go on sleeping for months on end, and inhabit in one’s dreams the unknown sphere which for a moment genius has allowed us to glimpse. After such a concert should one have the misfortune to have to see some comic opera, attend a soiree of fashionable songs and a flute concerto, one would have a look of stupefaction. Should someone ask you: – How do you find this Italian duet? You would reply in all seriousness. – And these variations for clarinet? – And the finale of the new opera? And some distinguished artist who has heard your answers but does not know why you are so preoccupied, will point at you and say: Who is this idiot? How the ancient poems, for all their beauty and the admiration they evoke, pale before this marvel of modern music! Theocritus and Virgil were great landscape artists; lines like the following are music to the ears: «Te quoque, magna Pales, et te, memorande, canemus. Pastor ab Amphryso; vos Sylvae amnesque Lycaei.» especially when they are not recited by barbarians like us French, who pronounce Latin in such a way that it could be mistaken for a peasant dialect…

But Beethoven’s poem!… these long periods so full of thesis phrases colour!… these speaking images!… these scents!… this light!… this eloquent silence!… these vast horizons!… these magic hideouts in the woods!… these golden harvests!… these pink clouds like wandering specks in descriptive essay wedding, the sky!… this vast plain dozing under the midday sun!… Man is absent!… nature alone reveals herself glorying in words, her splendour… And the descriptive of a, deep rest of everything that lives! And the wonderful life of everything that rests!… The little stream that pursues its murmuring course towards the river!… the river, the source of all water, which descends towards the ocean in majestic silence!… Then man appears, the man from the countryside, robust and full of religious feeling… his joyful play interrupted by the storm… his fears… his hymn of thanksgiving… Hide your faces, poor great poets of antiquity, poor immortals. Your conventional language, so pure and thesis harmonious, cannot compete with the art of sound. Position With No Experience? You are vanquished, no doubt with glory, but vanquished all the same! You have not experienced what nowadays we call melody, harmony, the combination of different timbres, instrumental colour, modulations, the skilful clashes of conflicting sounds which fight and then embrace, the sounds that surprise the ear, the strange tones which stir the phrases, innermost recesses of the divorce essay, soul. Words Phrases? The stammering of the locke, childish art which you referred to as music could not give you any idea of this. For cultured minds you alone were the great melodists, the masters of harmony, rhythm, and thesis words phrases expression.

But these words had a very different meaning in your vocabulary from what we give them now. The art of sound in its true meaning, independent of dissertations anything else, was only born yesterday. It has scarcely reached manhood, and is barely twenty years old. It is beautiful and all-powerful: it is the phrases, Pythian Apollo of modern times. We owe to it a world of emotion and feeling which was closed to you. Yes, great venerated poets, you are vanquished: Inclyti sed victi . The seventh symphony is famous for its allegretto *. Divorce Essay? It is words, not that the three other movements are less worthy of admiration – far from it.

But the public usually judges a work on the effect it produces, and only measures that effect by no experience, the volume of the applause. Consequently the movement that always receives the loudest applause is invariably thought to be the most beautiful (even though there is a certain kind of priceless beauty that is not liable to excite noisy approval). And then, to enhance even further the object of words phrases such partiality everything else is sacrificed to it. In France at least that is invariably the custom. Divorce Essay? That is why when talking of Beethoven one refers to the Storm of the pastoral symphony, the finale of the symphony in C minor, the thesis words phrases, andante of the symphony in A, etc., etc. *Which is always referred to as the descriptive essay, adagio or andante . It has apparently not been established whether this work was composed after the Pastoral and the Eroica , and a number of people believe on phrases the contrary that it preceded them by essay, some time. If this opinion is well founded, then the thesis words phrases, number which identifies it as the seventh would only be that of its sequence in the order of publication.

The first movement opens with a broad and majestic introduction where melody, modulations and the orchestral writing successively hold the listener’s attention. It begins with one of av installer resume those instrumental effects of which Beethoven is indisputably the phrases, creator. The whole orchestra plays a loud and sharp chord, and the ensuing silence reveals the slender voice of an exposed oboe, whose entry was disguised by essay, the orchestral tutti and now develops the melody on its own. There could hardly be a more original way of starting. At the end of the introduction the words, note E, the dominant of A, returns after a series of excursions into debra fritts, neighbouring keys and phrases forms the locke, subject of a series of exchanges between violins and flutes, similar to the effect found in the opening bars of the finale of the thesis, Eroica symphony . The E comes and goes for six bars without accompaniment, changing its appearance every time it passes from strings to college wind. Finally it is taken over by flute and oboe and serves as bridge between the introduction and the allegro : it becomes the first note of the main theme, whose rhythmic outline it gradually sketches.

I have heard this theme ridiculed for its rustic simplicity. Phrases? Had the composer written in large letters at debra, the head of this allegro the words Dance of peasants , as he has done for thesis words, the Pastoral symphony, the charge that it lacks nobility would probably not have been made. This shows that while some listeners do not like to be forewarned of the subject treated by the composer, there are others on the contrary who are inclined to react unfavourably to any theme that comes in an unfamiliar guise, if the explanation for the anomaly is not provided in advance. Given the impossibility of deciding between such conflicting views the best course for a composer in such circumstances is to follow his own instinct instead of pursuing the vain delusion of descriptive essay ceremony universal approval. This theme has a strongly characterised rhythm, which permeates the harmony and shows up in a multitude of forms without ever interrupting the phrases, forward momentum of the music up to the end of the movement. The use of an ostinato rhythmic pattern has never been attempted so successfully. The ample developments of the allegro constantly revolve around the same idea, and av installer so incredible is the skill with which it is thesis phrases, written, so frequent and ingenious the variations in tonality, so novel the chordal progressions and av installer resume their grouping, that the movement is over before the attention and warm response generated in the listener can lose any of their keenness. The harmonic effect which champions of academic rigour criticise most vehemently is also the happiest: the resolution of the dissonance in the six-five chord on the subdominant of the key of E natural. This dissonance of a second on a very loud tremolo in the upper parts between the first and second violins is resolved in a completely novel way.

One might have sustained the E and raised the F sharp to G, or sustained the F and brought the E down to D: but Beethoven did neither, and without changing the bass he merged the two dissonant parts into an octave on F natural, by moving the phrases, F sharp a semitone lower and the E down by a major seventh. The chord of a fifth and major sixth thus becomes a minor sixth without the fifth which has dissolved into F natural. The sudden transition from forte to piano at the exact point in this unusual harmonic transformation gives it an even stronger character and wedding enhances its charm. Before passing on to the following movement let us not omit to mention the striking crescendo through which Beethoven brings back his favourite rhythm which he had momentarily left aside. This is done by means of a two bar phrase (D, C sharp, B sharp, B sharp, C sharp) in the key of A major, which is phrases, repeated eleven times in divorce essay, the lower register by the basses and violas, while the wind instruments sustain an E at the top, bottom and thesis words middle of the range in quadruple octaves, and the violins sound a bell-like phrase, the three notes E, A, E, C, repeated in debra, increasingly fast figuration and combined in such a way as to present always the dominant when the basses play D or B sharp, and the tonic or its third when they play C. This is words phrases, completely novel, and dissertations in finance fortunately no imitator has tried, I believe, to squander this beautiful invention. As in the first movement though in a different form, a simple rhythm is again the thesis words phrases, principal cause of the extraordinary effect produced by essays on human locke, the allegretto . The rhythmic pattern consists merely of a dactyl followed by a spondee played relentlessly, either in three parts, or in only one, then in phrases, all parts together. Dissertations? Sometimes it serves as an accompaniment, but frequently it focuses attention on itself, and also provides the starting point for a small fugal episode with two subjects played by phrases, the strings. It appears first in fritts, the lower strings – violas, cellos, double-basses – played piano , then is repeated soon after in a pianissimo full of melancholy and mystery. From there it passes to the second violins while the cellos sing a kind of lament in the minor mode. The rhythmic pattern rises from octave to octave, reaches the first violins who then pass it in a crescendo to the wind instruments at phrases, the top of the orchestra, where it bursts out in its full force.

Sounded with even greater vehemence the melody now assumes the character of an anguished lament. Conflicting rhythms clash painfully with each other; these are tears, sobs and av installer supplications, this is the expression of limitless grief and all-consuming suffering… But a ray of hope appears: these heartbreaking sounds are followed by a transparent melody, pure, simple, gentle, sad and resigned like patience smiling to suffering . The basses continue on their own with their inexorable rhythm under this melodic rainbow; to borrow yet another quotation from thesis words phrases, English poetry, « One fatal remembrance, one sorrow, that throws. Its black shade alike o'er our joys and our woes. » After a similar alternation of anguish and resignation, the orchestra, as though drained by such a painful struggle, plays only fragments of the main theme and collapses in exhaustion. Flutes and oboes pick up the cover letter, theme in thesis words phrases, a dying voice, but do not have the strength to finish it, which the violins do with a few barely audible pizzicato notes. At this point the wind instruments, reviving like the flame of a candle on the point of extinction, utter a deep sigh on essay wedding ceremony an unresolved harmony and… the rest is silence . This mournful cry, which begins and ends the andante , is produced by thesis words, a six-four chord, which always tends to resolve itself onto another one. Ending on an unresolved harmony is the only way to conclude, by leaving the listener in suspense and thereby increasing the impression of dreamy sadness into which everything that came before must have plunged him. For Housekeeping Position With No Experience? The theme of the words phrases, scherzo modulates in a very novel way. It is in letter position with, F major, and instead of concluding at the end of the thesis words, first phrase in C, B flat, D minor, A minor, A flat, or D flat, like the majority of pieces of this kind, the essays understanding, modulation reaches the key of thesis words phrases A major, a major third above the tonic. The scherzo of the Pastoral symphony , also in F, modulates to D major, a third below. There is some similarity of av installer colour in thesis phrases, these key sequences; but other resemblances can also be observed between the two works.

The trio of the seventh symphony ( presto meno assai ), in which the violins hold the dominant almost continuously, while oboes and clarinets play underneath a bright rustic melody, is very much in the spirit of landscape painting and the idyll. Debra Resume? Yet another new type of crescendo can be found there, played in the lower register by the second horn, who repeats softly the notes A and thesis words G sharp in duple time, though the main beat is in triple time, with emphasis on the G sharp though A is the real note. The public always seems taken by surprise on hearing this passage. The finale is at least as rich as the preceding movements in new combinations, incisive modulations and delightful flights of fantasy. The theme has some similarities with that from Gluck's overture to Armide , though only in the disposition of the opening notes, and these are more obvious to the eye than to the ear: in performance the two themes could hardly be more different. The freshness and understanding locke elegance of Beethoven’s theme, very different from the chivalrous dash of that of Gluck, would make a greater impression if the chords played in the high register by the wind instruments did not cover so much the first violins playing in words phrases, the middle range, while second violins and violas underneath accompany the melody with a tremolo in essays understanding locke, double-stopping. Throughout this finale Beethoven has achieved effects as graceful as they are unexpected with the thesis, sudden transition from the key of C sharp minor to that of for housekeeping with no experience D major. Among his most daring and felicitous harmonic inventions is without doubt the long pedal on the dominant E, decorated with a D sharp of equal value as the main note. Thesis Words Phrases? The chord of the seventh is sometimes brought about in the upper part, with the av installer, result that the D natural of the upper parts coincides precisely with the D sharp of the basses. One might imagine that the result would be a dreadful dissonance, or at thesis phrases, least a lack of doctoral harmonic clarity; yet this is thesis, not the case, and the tonal thrust of this dominant is such that the essay wedding ceremony, D sharp does not disfigure it in any way, and thesis words that only the buzzing E registers. Beethoven did not write music for the eyes . The coda, launched by this threatening pedal, has extraordinary brilliance, and is fully worthy of on human bringing this work to its conclusion – a masterpiece of words phrases technical skill, taste, imagination, craftsmanship and position with no experience inspiration.

This symphony is thesis words phrases, also in F, like the Pastoral , though it is designed on a more modest scale than the preceding symphonies. Yet though it hardly exceeds the resume, first symphony (in C major) in the breadth of its forms, it is at least far superior to thesis words phrases it in three respects – instrumental writing, rhythm and melodic style. Av Installer? The first movement has two themes, both of them gentle and words peaceful in character. The second and in our view the more striking of the two always seems to avoid the perfect cadence, by debra resume, modulating first in a completely unexpected way (the phrase begins in D major and words ends in C major), and divorce college then dissipating itself inconclusively on the diminished seventh chord of the subdominant. This capricious turn in the melody gives the listener the feeling that the composer, inclined at thesis phrases, first towards gentle feelings, has suddenly been distracted by a sad thought which interrupts his joyful song. The andante scherzando is resume, one of those creations for which there is neither model nor counterpart: it drops from heaven complete into the composer’s imagination; he writes it at phrases, a single stretch and we are amazed to hear it. The role of the wind instruments is here the opposite of their normal one: they accompany with repeated chords, played pianissimo eight times in every bar, the airy dialogue a punta d’arco between violins and letter for housekeeping with basses. This has a gentle innocence which is delightful in phrases, its nonchalant manner, like the song of two children picking flowers in a field on a fine spring morning. The main theme consists of two sections of three bars each, the symmetry of essays on human understanding which is phrases, broken by the silence which follows the basses’ reply; as a result the first section ends on the weak beat and essays understanding the second on the strong. The harmonic ticking of the oboes, clarinets, horns and bassoons so captivates the listener that he does not notice the lack of phrases symmetry in the strings’ melody which results from the cover with, additional silent bar.

The function of this bar is evidently to thesis words leave exposed for longer the delightful chord over cover with no experience which the lively melody flutters. This example shows once more that the law of symmetry can sometimes be broken to good effect. But it is hard to believe that this exquisite idyll should end with the commonplace which Beethoven disliked most, namely the Italian cadence. At the moment when the thesis, instrumental dialogue of the two small orchestras of wind and strings is at its most enchanting, the composer, as though suddenly obliged to av installer resume stop, makes the violins play tremolo the four notes G, F, A, B flat (sixth, dominant, leading note, tonic), repeat them several times in a hurry, exactly as when the Italians sing Felicita , and then come to an abrupt halt. I have never been able to make sense of this musical joke.

At this point a minuet, similar in design and tempo to those of Haydn, takes the place of the scherzo in triple time which Beethoven invented and which he has used in all his other symphonic works in such an ingenious and striking way. In truth this is a rather ordinary piece, and the old-fashioned form seems to have stifled musical thought. The finale by contrast sparkles with wit; the musical material is brilliantly original and richly developed. It has diatonic progressions in two parts and in contrary motion, through which the phrases, composer achieves a crescendo of huge dimension which brings the work to a most effective conclusion. Debra? The harmonic writing does however contain a few rough edges caused by passing notes which are not resolved quickly enough on words phrases the right notes and doctoral in finance which sometimes even pause on a silence. At the cost of phrases some violence to the letter of musical theory it is easy to explain away these passing dissonances, but in performance they always grate on the ear to of a ceremony a greater or lesser degree. But consider the high pedal held by the flutes and oboes on F, while the timpani underneath repeat the same note in octaves at thesis words, the return of the theme, and doctoral in finance the violins play the notes C, G and B flat from the dominant seventh chord, preceded by the third F, A from the tonic chord. This sustained high note may not be allowed by theory, since it does not always fit into the harmony, but it does not cause any offence. On the contrary, thanks to the skilful layout of the instruments and the character of the musical phrase, the result of this bunching of sounds is excellent and remarkably smooth. Before concluding we cannot omit mentioning an orchestral effect which perhaps more than any other takes the listener by surprise when this finale is performed: the note C sharp played very loud by the mass of the orchestra in unison and in octaves after a diminuendo which has faded out in the key of C major.

The first two times this rasp is immediately followed by phrases, the return of the theme in F, and it becomes clear that the C sharp was simply an essays on human understanding, enharmonic D flat, the flattened sixth of the main key. But the third appearance of this strange entry has a very different character. The orchestra, after modulating to C as before now plays a real D flat followed by a fragment of the theme in D flat, then a real C sharp, followed by another fragment of the theme in C sharp minor, and finally repeats this C sharp three times over with increased force, and the whole theme now returns in F sharp minor . The note which initially played the role of a minor sixth becomes on its last appearance successively the flattened major third , the sharpened minor third , and finally the dominant . This is very striking. To analyse such a work is difficult and daunting task which we have long hesitated to thesis words undertake. The excuse for such a foolhardy venture can only descriptive of a wedding lie in our persistent efforts to see the work through the composer’s eyes, to penetrate its intimate meaning, to experience its impact, and to study the thesis phrases, impressions it has made so far on a few who are gifted with exceptional sensitivity, as well as on the general public. Among the many diverse views that have been expressed on this score there can hardly be two that are in agreement. Some critics regard it as a monstrous insanity ; others can only see in it the fading glimmers of a dying genius ; more cautiously a few declare they find it at the moment completely unintelligible, but do not despair of achieving at least an approximate understanding of it later; the majority of artistically minded people regard it as an extraordinary conception, though some of its parts nevertheless remain unexplained or without apparent purpose. A small number of musicians who are temperamentally inclined to examine carefully anything that might enlarge the realm of art, and who have thought deeply about the dissertations in finance, general layout of the Choral symphony after studying the score and listening to thesis phrases it attentively on several occasions, assert that this work seems to them the most magnificent expression of Beethoven’s genius: we believe we have said at some earlier point that this is the opinion we share. Debra Fritts? Without enquiring what purely personal ideas the composer might have wanted to express in this vast musical poem – a subject wide open to individual conjecture – let us see whether the novelty of the form is not justified in this case by an intention that is quite independent of any philosophical or religious thought, which might seem equally reasonable and beautiful to anyone, be he a fervent Christian, a pantheist or an atheist, in short by an intention of a purely musical and poetic kind. Beethoven had already written eight symphonies before this one. To progress beyond the point he had already reached solely with the thesis words, resources of orchestral instruments, what further means were available?

The answer is the addition of voices to instruments. Essay? But in phrases, order to observe the law of crescendo , and enhance in the work itself the power of the additional resource he wanted to provide to the orchestra, it was surely necessary to allow the instruments to figure on their own in the first section of the musical canvas he intended to understanding locke display… Granted this premise, it is easy to see that he must have been led to search for a mixed musical genre to phrases serve as link between the two major articulations of the symphony. The instrumental recitative was the bridge he had the audacity to throw between the chorus and the orchestra, over which the instruments crossed to go and join the voices. The transition once established the composer must have wanted to announce and motivate the fusion that was about to of a wedding take place. That is the point where speaking through the chorus leader, he exclaimed, to the sound of the instrumental recitative he had just introduced: Friends! No more sounds like these, but let us intone more pleasant songs, more filled with joy! That is, so to speak, the treaty of alliance concluded between chorus and orchestra; the same theme of the recitative, used by both orchestra and chorus, seems to constitute the oath formula. Thereafter it was up to the composer to select the text for his choral composition: for this Beethoven turned to Schiller and took over the Ode to words Joy . He coloured it with countless nuances which poetry on its own could never have conveyed, and it progresses to the end acquiring ever more splendour, grandeur and brilliance. Such is the of a wedding, rationale, it may be suggested more or less plausibly, for the general scheme of this immense work; let us now study its individual parts in detail. The first movement has a sombre majesty and is like no other piece written by Beethoven before. Thesis Words? The harmony is at times excessively daring: the most original patterns, the most expressive gestures crowd in resume, and criss-cross in every direction, but without causing any obscurity or congestion.

On the contrary the result has perfect clarity, and the numerous orchestral voices that plead or threaten, each in its own way and its own special style, seem to words phrases form a single voice, such is the emotional charge that drives them. This allegro maestoso , written in D minor, begins nevertheless on for housekeeping position no experience the chord of A without the words phrases, third, in divorce college essay, other words on the notes A and E sustained as a fifth, and words played as an arpeggio above and below by the first violins, violas and double-basses. Cover? The listener is therefore not sure whether he is hearing the chord of A minor, or of A major, or that of the thesis words, dominant of D. This prolonged tonal ambiguity gives great power and character to the entry of the av installer resume, full orchestra on the chord of D minor. At the thesis, end of the movement there are moments that move the soul to essays on human understanding its depths. Phrases? It would be hard to hear anything more profoundly tragic than the song of the wind instruments beneath which a chromatic phrase played tremolo by the strings swells and rises gradually, like the roar of the sea before an dissertations in finance, approaching storm. This is a passage of words magnificent inspiration.

On several occasions in this work we will be drawing attention to clusters of notes which cannot possibly be described as chords, and essay of a wedding we will be forced to admit that the reason for these anomalies escapes us completely. For example on page 17 of the wonderful movement we have been describing there is a melodic passage for clarinets and thesis phrases bassoons, which is accompanied as follows in the key of C minor: the bass plays first an F sharp supporting a diminished seventh, then an A flat supporting a third, fourth and augmented sixth, and finally G over which flutes and oboes play the notes E flat, G, C which gives a six-four chord. This would be an excellent resolution of the previous chord if the fritts resume, second violins and violas did not add to the harmony the two notes F natural and A flat which disfigure it and cause a most unpleasant confusion which fortunately is of short duration. This passage is lightly scored and completely free from any roughness; I cannot therefore understand this quadruple dissonance which is so strangely introduced and completely unmotivated. One might suppose there is an engraving error, but a careful inspection of these two bars and words phrases those that precede dispels all doubts and one remains convinced that this is divorce essay, really what the thesis words phrases, composer intended. The scherzo vivace which follows contains nothing of the same kind. Admittedly there are a number of pedal notes on the tonic in the upper and on human understanding middle voices which are sustained through the dominant chord. But I have already stated my position on these pedal notes that are foreign to the harmony, and this new example is not needed to demonstrate the excellent use they can be put to when they arise naturally from the musical logic. It is particularly through the use of thesis words phrases rhythm that Beethoven has managed to on human understanding locke make this delightful banter so interesting.

The theme with its fugal response four bars later is full of vitality, and sparkles with wit when the response then comes a bar earlier and follows a ternary instead of the initial binary rhythm. Phrases? The central part of the scherzo is taken up with a presto in duple time full of rustic joy. The theme is deployed over an intermediary pedal note which is doctoral in finance, either the words phrases, tonic or the dominant, accompanied by cover letter position with no experience, a counter-subject which harmonises equally well with either of the held notes, the dominant and the tonic . The melody is finally brought back by a phrase of delightful freshness in thesis words phrases, the oboe; after staying poised for a moment over the dominant major chord of debra resume D it finally blossoms in the key of F natural in a way that is as graceful as it is unexpected. This is another echo of the gentle impressions that Beethoven loved so much, impressions that are aroused by the sight of thesis words a radiant and peaceful landscape, pure air and the first rays of dawn in spring. In the adagio cantabile the principle of unity is so little observed that one might think of it as two separate movements rather than one. The first melody in B flat in quadruple time is followed by a completely different melody in D major in triple time. The first theme, slightly altered and varied by the first violins, appears for the second time in essays on human locke, the original key and leads to the return of the melody in triple time, unchanged and without embellishments but in the key of G major. After this the first theme finally establishes itself and no longer allows the rival theme to compete for words, the listener’s attention.

Repeated hearings of this wonderful adagio are needed to get completely used to such a peculiar design. As for the beauty of all these melodies, the av installer resume, infinite grace of the ornaments which decorate them, the thesis words, feelings of sad tenderness, passionate despair and religious reverie they express, if only my words could give even an doctoral in finance, approximate idea of them, then music would have found in the written word a rival which even the greatest of poets will never be able to oppose to it. It is an immense movement, and phrases once the listener has succumbed to essay of a its powerful charm, the only answer to the criticism that the composer has violated here the words phrases, law of unity has to be: so much the worse for the law! We are now close to the moment when the voices are about to join the orchestra. Cellos and double-basses intone the recitative we mentioned above, after a passage for the wind instruments as harsh and violent as a cry of anger.

The chord of the major sixth, F, A and D, with which this presto begins, is altered by an appogiatura on understanding locke B flat, played simultaneously by flutes, oboes and clarinets; the sixth of the key of D minor grinds dreadfully against the dominant and produces an excessively harsh effect. This does indeed express fury and rage, but here again I cannot see what motivates such feelings, unless the composer, before making the chorus leader sing the words: Let us intone more pleasant songs , had wanted in a strangely capricious way to vilify the orchestral harmony. Yet he seems to regret it, since in between each phrase of the recitative of the basses, he repeats, like so many memories that are dear to words phrases his heart, fragments of the three preceding movements. Debra Fritts? What is more, after this first recitative, he puts in the orchestra, in the midst of exquisitely chosen chords, the beautiful theme which is about to be sung by all the voices on Schiller’s ode. Thesis Words? This theme, gentle and calm in character, becomes increasingly animated and brilliant as it moves from the basses which play it first to the violins and the wind instruments.

After a sudden interruption, the essays on human, whole orchestra plays again the furious ritornello mentioned above which now introduces the vocal recitative. The first chord is again built on an F which is supposed to carry the thesis words, third and the sixth and does indeed do so, but this time the composer not content with the appogiatura of B flat adds those of G, E and C sharp, with the result that ALL THE NOTES OF THE MINOR DIATONIC SCALE are played at once and produce the hideous assembly of notes: F, A, C sharp, E, G, B flat, D. Av Installer? Forty years ago, the thesis words phrases, French composer Martin, known as Martini, wanted to produce in his opera Sapho a similar howl for the orchestra, and did so by essay ceremony, using at once all the diatonic, chromatic and enharmonic intervals of the scale at the moment when Phaon’s mistress hurls herself into the sea – but he did not ask himself whether his attempt was appropriate and whether it enhanced or assaulted the dignity of art, though admittedly there could be no mistaking his intentions. But in this case my efforts at discovering Beethoven’s purpose are completely in vain. I can see a formal intention, a deliberate and calculated attempt to produce a double discordance, both at the point which precede the appearance of the recitative, instrumental at first and later vocal. I have searched hard for thesis, the reason for this idea, and position I have to admit that it is unknown to thesis words phrases me. The chorus leader, after singing his recitative on words by Beethoven himself, as we have mentioned, introduces on his own the theme of the Ode to Joy , with a light accompaniment of two wind instruments and essays on human the strings playing pizzicato . This theme recurs to the end of the symphony and is always recognisable, though its appearance keeps changing. A study of these diverse transformations is all the more absorbing as each of thesis words phrases them brings out a new and distinctive nuance in the expression of dissertations in finance a single feeling, that of joy.

At first this joy is full of gentleness and peace; it becomes somewhat livelier when the voice of thesis phrases women is heard. The beat changes; the theme, sung initially in quadruple time, returns in 6/8 time in syncopated style and now takes on a more robust and agile character that has a martial quality. No Experience? This is the song of a departing hero who is confident of victory; you can almost imagine his shining armour and words hear the rhythmic tread of doctoral dissertations his step. A fugal theme in which the original melody can be recognised, serves for a while as subject for a lively orchestral development, which recalls the bustling activity of a crowd full of ardour… But the chorus soon re-enters and sings energetically the thesis phrases, joyful hymn in its original simplicity, supported by cover for housekeeping position, chords of the wind instruments which shadow the melody, and criss-crossed by a diatonic passage played by the whole mass of thesis strings in unison and octaves. The andante maestoso which follows is in finance, a kind of chorale intoned first by the tenors and basses of the chorus, in unison with a trombone, the words phrases, cellos and double-basses. Joy here assumes a religious dimension and becomes solemn and immense. The chorus falls briefly silent then resumes less emphatically its spacious chords, after a passage of great beauty for orchestra alone which has an organ-like quality. The imitation of the majestic instrument of Christian churches is produced by flutes in the lower register, clarinets in the chalumeau register, the lower notes of the bassoons, the dissertations, violas divided into two parts, upper and lower, and the cellos playing on their open strings G and D, or the low C (open string) and the C in the middle range, always in double-stopping. This piece starts in G, moves to C, then to F, and ends on a pause on the dominant seventh of D. There follows a great allegro in 6/4 where from the start are combined the beginning of the first theme, already used frequently with such variety, and thesis words phrases the chorale of the divorce college, preceding andante . The contrast between these two ideas is made even more striking by a fast variation of the joyful theme, on top of the long notes of the chorale, played not only by the first violins but also by thesis words phrases, the double-basses. Now it is impossible for double-basses to perform a succession of notes at that speed, and once again it is essay, hard to understand how a composer as familiar as Beethoven with the art of orchestration could have committed such a lapse in writing a passage like this for this unwieldy instrument. There is less fire and grandeur, and greater lightness in the style of the following piece: its keynote is that of innocent joy, expressed first by four solo voices and then given greater warmth through the thesis words, addition of the chorus.

Moments of tenderness and religious feeling alternate twice with the joyful melody, then the tempo becomes increasingly precipitate. Av Installer Resume? The whole orchestra bursts out, the percussion instruments – timpani, cymbals, triangle, bass drum – strike emphatically the strong beats of the thesis words, bar. Joy resumes her sway, a popular and tumultuous joy which might look like an orgy if at the end the voices did not pause once more on a solemn rhythm to send, in an ecstatic cry, their final greeting of love and respect for religious joy. The orchestra ends on fritts resume its own, but not without interspersing its headlong rush with fragments of the first theme which the listener cannot get tired of. A translation as accurate as possible of the German poem set by Beethoven will convey to the reader the stimulus for this profusion of musical combinations, masterly supports of unceasing inspiration and obedient tools of a powerful and tireless genius * . « Joy! Fair spark of the gods, daughter of Elysium, we enter your sanctuary intoxicated with your fire! Your magic power unites again those whom earthly customs have forcibly separated. All men will be brothers again under your gentle wing. « Who has had the good fortune to be the friend of a friend, who has won a noble wife, let him mingle his joy with ours! Yes, any who can call even one soul on earth his own. But who cannot, let him steal away in tears from this gathering. « All beings drink joy on the breast of nature; all good and all evil men follow a path strewn with roses.

She gave us kisses and vintage, a friend who is thesis, true unto death. The worm receives the joy of life and the cherub stands before God! « Glad like the suns that fly through the glorious fields of heaven, hurry, brothers, on essay of a wedding ceremony your way, joyful like a hero hastening to victory. « Millions, be embraced! This kiss to the whole world! Brothers, above the words, starry heaven, a dear father must have his dwelling. Letter Position With? « You fall prostrate, o you millions? World, do you sense the creator?

Seek him above the starry heaven! He must dwell over the stars! « Joy! Fair spark of the gods, daughter of Elysium, we enter your sanctuary intoxicated with your fire! « Daughter of Elysium, joy, fair spark of the gods!! » Of all the thesis words, composer’s symphonies this is the most difficult to perform; it requires patient and repeated study, and in particular a good conductor. Debra Fritts? It also requires a body of singers all the larger since evidently the chorus must cover the orchestra in many places. In addition, the way the music is written for the words and the excessive height of words phrases some of the choral parts make voice production very difficult and reduce considerably the volume and divorce essay power of the sound.

Be that as it may, when Beethoven had finished his work and could contemplate the majestic dimensions of the monument he had just built, he must have said to thesis words himself: «Death may come now, but my task is accomplished.» * Note: the following is understanding locke, our own translation of Schiller's German text. Thesis Words Phrases? The Hector Berlioz Website was created by Michel Austin and Monir Tayeb on 18 July 1997;

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At least 21 years of age at the time of joining Arm reach of 212 cm while standing on tiptoes Minimum height of 160 cm High school graduate (Grade 12) Fluency in English (written and spoken) No visible tattoos while you’re in Emirates cabin crew uniform (cosmetic and bandage coverings aren’t allowed) Can adapt to new people, new places and av installer resume, new situations Physically fit for this demanding role. Blending the best of eastern and thesis phrases, western cultures, Dubai is dissertations in finance, a truly cosmopolitan city. Whether you enjoy spending a lazy day on the beach or wandering around the various markets, there’s something here for thesis words phrases everyone. Of A Ceremony. What’s more, it’s known for its hospitality and safety, making it a secure location to stay throughout your career. Thesis Words Phrases. If you’re looking for a dynamic and advanced city, you’ve found one. Travelling becomes more than part of your job, it becomes your lifestyle; and doctoral dissertations, our concessional travel tickets make it easier to explore new cities outside of your layovers. That’s just one of the incredible rewards we offer you, here’s what you can look forward to. Cabin Crew Terms and Conditions Starting Pay: 2576 USD, 2299 EUR, 1821 GBP) Layover Expenses: Meal allowances are provided in the currency of the country of night stop. Hotel accommodation as well as transport to and from the airport is provided by the company.

Once probationary period is thesis phrases, complete you may request to move to cover for housekeeping no experience, another apartment pending availability. Phrases. Due to varying rosters of essays locke occupants and to ensure security, there are no visitors allowed past 01:00 unless they are Emirates (EK) crew. You may have two family members visit at the same time and stay in your accommodation twice a year for a maximum of 30 days each visit. We believe that learning and development should last throughout your career, so we offer e-learning courses for thesis words phrases cabin crew as well as classroom courses and project-based training. Resume. And if you want to earn a relevant degree or diploma, we could pay for it.

As well as the role requirements, there’s a little more that great cabin crew members offer. You will need to words, provide full length and passport sized photos in business attire and casual wear. Business attire with closed fitted jacket, knee length skirt, skin colour stockings and av installer, closed toe heels Smart casual wear – we suggest jeans and words, a plain coloured t-shirt with closed toe high heels No accessories Hair should be neatly tied Full make up Full length photo (from the top of your head to your shoes) Stand up straight with arms straight down by your side and both legs together Face the camera straight on and ensure the photo is sharp and in essay wedding ceremony, focus Find good lighting to avoid shadows Plain background for thesis words your formal photo And above all else please remember to smile. Business attire with closed jacket, shirt and tie Smart casual wear – we suggest jeans and a plain coloured t-shirt with closed shoes No accessories Short hair neatly presented with minimal styling product Clean shaven Full length photo (from the top of with your head to your shoes) Stand up straight with arms straight down by thesis phrases, your side and both legs together Face the camera straight on av installer resume and ensure the photo is thesis words phrases, sharp and in focus Find good lighting to avoid shadows Plain background for your formal photo And above all else please remember to smile. What to expect on your assessment day. Getting you started, Emirates Cabin Crew. 8 days: Induction week will provide information to assist and support you during your transition into your new environment, within Dubai and letter position with no experience, throughout your training. 13 days: safety emergency procedures training will provide you with the skills to ensure our aircraft and passengers remain safe at all times. Covering Aircraft equipment, fire-fighting, in-flight emergencies and evacuation. 5 days: Group Medical training will equip you to be able to confidently manage any medical incident on-board. You’ll cover topics such as CPR, bleeding, burns, emergency childbirth and a variety of medical conditions.

2 days: safeguarding tomorrow – Security training will provide you with guidelines, skills and techniques to prevent and manage acts of unlawful interference, disruptive behaviour, hijacking and thesis, sabotage. 1 day: Image and uniform training will give you the skills and knowledge to project a professional image in line with the Emirates brand, You will cover uniform standards, skincare, make-up, hair care, nail care and a healthy lifestyle. 1 day: Are you ready to shine? Emirates is letter for housekeeping with, one of the biggest stars in the sky. Only you can make it the brightest. 12 days Service training, 4 months On the phrases Job learning and development and wedding ceremony, 3 days service Assessments to thesis words, equip you with the resume knowledge and skills required to thesis words phrases, deliver ‘World’s best In-flight Experience.’ 8 days: Induction week will provide information to assist and support you during your transition to av installer resume, into your new environment, within Dubai and throughout your training.

13 days: safety emergency procedures training will provide you with the skills to ensure our aircraft and passengers remain safe at all times. Covering Aircraft equipment, fire-fighting, in-flight emergencies and thesis phrases, evacuation. 5 days: Group Medical training will equip you to be able to confidently manage any medical incident on-board. You’ll cover topics such as CPR, bleeding, burns, emergency childbirth and a variety of medical conditions. 2 days: safeguarding Tomorrow – Security training will provide you with guidelines, skills and techniques to prevent and manage acts of unlawful interference, disruptive behaviour, hijacking and sabotage. 1 day: Image and uniform training will give you the skills and resume, knowledge to project a professional image in words, line with the cover letter with no experience Emirates brand, You will cover uniform standards, skincare, make-up, hair care, nail care and a healthy lifestyle. 1 day: Are you ready to shine? Emirates is one of the thesis biggest stars in the sky.

Only you can make it the brightest. 12 days Service training, 4 months On the Job learning and development and college essay, 3 days service Assessments to equip you with the knowledge and skills required to deliver ‘World’s best In-flight Experience.’ We’ve rolled out an words phrases updated application process for cabin crew positions where candidates are required to essays locke, create their applications online and attend an online video interview. Due to the large volume of applications that we receive, only shortlisted candidates will be invited for words phrases assessment days at various locations. What makes Emirates one of the world’s fastest-growing airline? It’s a combination of quality, innovating and going one step further for customers. We’re also confident in the future of the travel industry – we’ve been adding around four new destinations every year. And now we’re adding one new aircraft every month. That’s what happens when you’re determined to be the best.

What are the opportunities for cabin crew? It’s the international lifestyle, tax-free salary, free quality accommodation and our award-winning multicultural team. The travel benefits and training are amazing too. What makes the career path rewarding? Many of our middle and senior managers started out doctoral dissertations in finance, as cabin crew, so it’s a great beginning if you’re determined to achieve something.

In the meantime, you’ll be working with people from 140 nationalities, building your skills and advancing your career – even becoming flight purser within five years or training others. How long are the contract and thesis words, probation? In accordance with current Dubai Government regulations, the debra fritts contract is a three-year non-binding one, renewable with agreement by Emirates management and the crew member. The probationary period is thesis words, six months. The number of annual leave hours relates to your job grade. It’ll be in your contract of employment. What makes Emirates the fastest-growing airline in the world?

From the outset, Emirates has been committed to quality and innovation and to resume, exceed customer expectation. More than 400 international awards bear witness to our dedication to these core values. What are the opportunities for Cabin Crew in Emirates? Being based in words, Dubai, Emirates offers its Cabin Crew an understanding locke international lifestyle, an attractive tax-free salary, free quality accommodation and the opportunity to work with an award-winning multicultural team. Salaries for Cabin Crew are competitive and packages of words phrases attractive travel benefits and excellent professional development opportunities are available. Is this a rewarding career path and why? Working with Emirates will give you endless opportunities: to meet and work with people from over 120 nationalities; to increase your skills and rapidly advance your career. Currently, high performing Cabin Crew have been able to attain the position of Flight Purser within five years and debra fritts, many have also become trainers in cabin service. Many people in middle and words phrases, upper management joined the cover for housekeeping position with no experience airline as Cabin Crew and now work in thesis phrases, other departments.

Opportunities abound: waiting for dissertations you to pursue them, based on words performance of course! How long is the contract and is it binding? In accordance with current Dubai Government regulations, the contract is a three-year non-binding one, renewable with agreement by Emirates management and essays on human understanding locke, crew member. There is a probationary period of words six months commencing from the date of joining. What is the probationary period for company employment? For all positions, the probationary period is six months from the date of joining the company. What is the annual leave policy of the company? All full-time employees are entitled to paid annual leave.

The number of debra resume working hours of annual leave provided per calendar year is related to your job grade and is specified in your contract of employment. What is the recruitment process like? Candidates are short-listed and undergo an initial screening. Many will then be asked to participate in thesis phrases, assessment exercises. Finally, those identified as having potential will be called for an interview. Candidates who fail to make it through the initial screening process may reapply after six months; those who are not successful after the college interview may reapply after one year. What does Emirates look for in Cabin Crew? Irrespective of nationality, we look for a positive attitude, confidence, flexibility, maturity, a friendly disposition, and thesis phrases, importantly a genuine passion to help others and to provide quality service. As the job can be physically demanding, we also look for those with resilience and a determination to continually perform well. Do you need previous experience as Cabin Crew? Previous experience in a customer service role would be of benefit but previous cabin crew experience is not required.

Can I attend a Cabin Crew interview in any country where Emirates recruitment campaigns are being held? Yes. If Emirates is dissertations, not conducting interviews in your home country, you may be invited to attend the selection process in a nearby country or you may choose to attend the Open Information Days as advertised. Phrases. Should you choose to attend, expenses incurred will not be reimbursed. How many job applications does Emirates receive? How many Cabin Crew are working with Emirates at present? Emirates receives an average of 15,000 applications for for housekeeping position with no experience Cabin Crew per month. Thesis. Over 13,000 Cabin Crew are currently working for the airline. If selected to join Emirates as Cabin Crew what medical tests are required? Two pre-employment medical tests are required: one in your home country at your own expense and one upon arrival in Dubai which will be conducted at the Emirates Group Clinic by doctors qualified in aviation medicine. This is a legal requirement for all Emirates Crew.

Do you get paid/compensated and divorce essay, are you provided with company accommodation while training? Your basic salary is calculated from the first day of thesis words joining. Company accommodation is also provided upon your arrival in Dubai. What is involved in the training? Where does it take place? All Cabin Crew recruits go through an initial five-week training course in Dubai, conducted in English at a purpose-built crew training centre that is part of the Emirates Aviation College. Training includes the practical and theoretical aspects of safety, first aid and inflight service on the various aircraft operated by Emirates.

The trainees on each course are normally a rich cultural mix. There are regular assessments with stringent pass marks for each module. Hence a high standard of performance and dedication is essay, required. Are you allocated flights as soon as you join training? You are given a roster on the day of your graduation at the end of your training.

Initially, you will fly as supernumerary so that your performance can be observed and feedback obtained in words, order to identify any further training needs prior to your first operational flight. When do you get a roster? How many days off do you get in a month? Cabin Crew have a monthly roster and have approximately eight days off per month in Dubai. Cabin Crew promotions are based on assessment of performance. What are the career development opportunities within Emirates? Staff have first opportunity to apply for a vacant position as most of these are advertised internally before being advertised to outside applicants. Cover No Experience. Candidates interested in applying for any internal vacancy should meet the following requirements: Completion of thesis phrases one year in cover letter for housekeeping position, your current role (position/department). The minimum qualifications and thesis phrases, experience required for the advertised position.

The support of your line manager. Emirates provides all Cabin Crew with a comprehensive package for medical and dental services at the designated Emirates Clinics. Does Emirates provide any insurance cover? All Cabin Crew are insured on a 24-hour worldwide basis under life insurance and personal accident insurance policies. The company’s policy on insurance is descriptive ceremony, detailed in The Emirates Group Employee Handbook, which is issued to every employee upon phrases joining the company.

Does Emirates offer a pension scheme? Emirates provides a non-contributory end of position no experience service benefit (EOSB) (a lump sum of money assessed according to salary scale) on completion of the thesis phrases term of your contract. What is the essay wedding ceremony pay structure/allowance? Your pay is made up of three components: a fixed basic salary, an hourly pay for operated flights and an overseas allowance. Flying pay on an hourly basis - AED55 paid between chocks off and chocks on. Flying pay is paid in the month following accrual. Meal allowances are paid in thesis words, the currency of the country in which a night stop is made.

The company provides free transport to and from the essay wedding airport and hotel accommodation. When may I apply for thesis concessional travel? Rebate travel concessions apply after six months’ service. An unlimited number of ID90 subload tickets and ID50 firm tickets on Emirates only are available for yourself. Limited concessionary travel facilities are available for descriptive essay wedding ceremony immediate family members.

How much leave will I be entitled to? Cabin Crew are entitled to 30 calendar days’ leave per words year based on availability of leave slots. One firm annual leave ticket is provided free of charge to your country of letter for housekeeping origin. After three years of service this may be taken to any destination on the Emirates network. How often how soon can I go home? All employees are on probation for the first six months of their service. They are, therefore, eligible for leave after the probation period. We fly to over 120 destinations and thesis, you could be rostered to your home country, based on operational requirements.

What is the Exchange Rate Protection scheme? UAE-based expatriate employees, irrespective of nationality, grade or position, are covered by the Exchange Rate Protection (ERP) scheme, unless they are from the USA or any country where the on human currency is fixed against the US dollar. The ERP scheme is intended to provide reasonable protection if you are adversely affected by exchange rate fluctuations in words phrases, the currency of your home country or the resume place of your permanent residence. Your ERP currency will be given as per the country of your Annual Leave Destination, and once your ERP is determined it can never be changed. Under the phrases ERP Scheme, 50 per cent of the debra resume net basic salary received each month is protected up to a maximum of 15 per cent. If the company achieves its profit target, employees receive a profit share payment. The company’s financial year runs from 1st April to 31st March the following year.

The company announces its results – and any profit share to be made - in April for words phrases the financial year just ended. The profit share is paid in essays on human understanding locke, May. The amount varies from year to year and has ranged from phrases two to 14 weeks of basic salary. To qualify for the full profit share, you must have been employed for the complete period, 1st April to 31st March. No Experience. If you joined after the 31st March but before 30th September, you would be entitled to a pro rata amount. If you joined after 30th September, you will have to wait until the next profit share. What is accommodation like and is it expensive? Emirates provides shared furnished air conditioned accommodation free of charge. There are more than 50 buildings in various locations throughout Dubai that you could be placed in. Thesis Phrases. Each apartment block has leisure facilities.

Two/three colleagues (same gender) share a two/three bedroom apartment and each have their own bedroom but share the kitchen and debra fritts resume, the living area. Two people may have to share a second bathroom in some three-bedroom apartments. Can my family come to visit and stay with me in company accommodation? Family members can stay in your apartment in accordance with the Emirates accommodation regulations. Can different genders share accommodation? Dubai is an Islamic country. Thesis Words Phrases. Men and women cannot share accommodation unless they are married. What is Dubai like as a lifestyle destination? From a country that relied on pearl diving, Dubai has now developed into an international tourism and regional business hub. It is a modern cosmopolitan city where people of many cultures and religious backgrounds live and work in harmony.

Dubai offers many advantages and prides itself on being one of the cover letter no experience most exciting cities in the world. Dubai is a city of contrast, a land where the old and the new, traditional and modern, east and west blend seamlessly to produce a fascinating, mysterious, exciting place with a distinct personality all of its own. There is an endless variety of superb restaurants and phrases, sports and leisure facilities catering for all tastes. The salary you receive from Emirates is tax free. Do I need to open a UAE bank account? Yes, because your salary is divorce, paid monthly in UAE dirhams. What is the procedure for obtaining a UAE driving licence? Obtaining a UAE driving licence and the costs involved are your responsibility.

There many countries which have an agreement with the UAE whereby you can convert your existing driving licence to thesis, a UAE driving licence. If you are unable to convert your existing driving licence into a UAE driving licence, then you will have to undergo driving tests conducted by Dubai Police. There are many private driving schools in Dubai and you can register with one of av installer them for driving lessons. Do you need another language? What is the predominantly spoken language? In Dubai, Arabic and thesis words phrases, English are widely spoken. Candidates need fluency in spoken and written English. On Human Understanding. Fluency in thesis, another language is an advantage. There are a number of for housekeeping no experience language institutions in Dubai if you wish to thesis, learn another language. Do I have to hold certified logbooks? It is a requirement that the candidate provide complete certified logbook records when they are invited for the selection process.

It is unacceptable to have some years missing, misplaced or otherwise. Prior to joining, all pilots must provide certified evidence of hours flown. Resume. This can either be a stamp in their logbook from their Fleet Manager/Chief Pilot verifying their hours flown or a stamped original letter from the record/fleet department of thesis phrases their respective airline/authority. Does Emirates intend to recruit direct entry Captains? Please refer to our Pilot Vacancies page for current opportunities. How does the Emirates training bond apply? All First Officers sign a training bond for a period of 5 years (US$42,000) on a decreasing pro-rata basis. When can I expect to av installer resume, be upgraded to Captain?

The minimum requirements for words phrases upgrade to debra fritts, Command are: a. Possession of words a valid UAE ATPL. b. 6,000 hours Total Time (Note 1, Note 2). c. 2,500 hours Emirates operating time and 3 years’ service in Emirates, on any fleet (Note 2). d. Four satisfactory PPCs in Emirates on dissertations any aircraft type. e. Two satisfactory manual handling simulator sessions on any Emirates aircraft type. f. 1000 hours Emirates operating time on words the fleet on which the upgrade is planned. g. Two satisfactory PPCs on essays on human understanding the fleet in which the upgrade is planned (Note 2). The minimum requirements for thesis words phrases upgrade to Command on the Airbus A380: Note 1: Total Time is defined as all flying as P1 and/or P2, excluding single and multi-engine piston. Note 2: No alleviations of SFI, non-EK P3, FEO, or any other credits or reductions are allowed to any hours criteria. What is the duration of the contract of employment? Unless stated otherwise, the contract of debra fritts resume employment is thesis words, permanent and open (i.e. no fixed duration). If I am selected how is essays on human understanding locke, my Fleet type decided? Whilst past experience and candidate’s preference is words phrases, taken into account, this will not always determine the fleet type as allocation is based solely on Emirates’ operational requirements. When Emirates’ operational requirements deem it necessary to transfer between fleets you can express your interest or volunteer for the transfer as it will be based on of a seniority. Can I apply for thesis words Emirates Cadet program?

The current Emirates Cadet Program is available for U.A.E. nationals only. The probation period is six months commencing from doctoral dissertations your date of joining. How does the rostering system work? The rostering system is a rotating cycle, so each group becomes the top priority for bidding (favourite flights, etc.) every 5 months. Thesis. Within the for housekeeping with groups there is a seniority list, however when you are in the top most group, you have a strong chance of receiving the duties you request. Bid preferences include: Destination, Regions, Days off, requesting pairing length, check-in time, etc. Words Phrases. Reserve/standby is usually rostered for each group every 10 months or there about for duration of 35 days which will be allocated in the bottom bid groups.

How long are the flight duties/sectors in Emirates? The sectors range from 50 minutes to debra, 17 hours. Layover trips generally range from thesis phrases 24 hours to 72 hours. The maximum multi-stop layover duty is 9 days. What happens if I am on descriptive wedding ceremony holiday and can’t complete my bid for the next month? The system allows you to place a ‘standing’ bid, which will be registered in the system and will be the one selected if no monthly bid is phrases, made. How long does the ceremony interview process for words phrases pilot recruitment take? As per current processes, the resume interview is generally held over words, 4 days in Dubai. We have recently introduced a pre-selection program in certain locations around the world which is cover letter for housekeeping with, designed to cover some aspects of the selection and shorten the time required for phrases the remaining assessment conducted in Dubai.

The major part of the recruitment process is held in Dubai. Pre-selection is now available overseas for divorce essay the benefit of candidates who cannot take much time off work. It may include a SIM assessment, psychometric testing and Advanced Compass modules. When do we get pay rises? Are annual increments guaranteed? The Company reviews salaries on an annual basis and may award pilots a ‘step rise’ in salary or a percentage increase, subject to satisfactory performance, however this payment is not contractual. If the Company reaches its profit target, employees receive a profit share payment in May. The amount varies from year to year and has ranged from words phrases 2-14 weeks of basic salary. All employees must be employed for the complete period 1st April – 31st March in the preceding year to be eligible for essays on human the full profit share payment.

If you join after the 31st March and words phrases, before 30th September you are entitled to a pro rata amount. Letter Position. If you join after 30th September you will have to thesis, wait until the end of next financial year to resume, be eligible for the profit share. What is “Exchange Rate Protection” scheme? Expatriate pilots irrespective of thesis words nationality, grade or position are covered by the Exchange Rate Protection (ERP) scheme (except for the USA). The ERP scheme is divorce college essay, intended to provide you reasonable protection if you are adversely affected by exchange rate fluctuations to the currency of your home country. Under the ERP Scheme, 50% of the net basic salary received each month is thesis phrases, protected. The salary you receive from Emirates is tax free.

You may have to check the taxation laws in your home country of residence for resume any possible income taxation. Our alternative to the pension scheme is the Provident Fund. Thesis Words. Full details of the scheme are provided on joining the company. A = the amount that the company contributes-12% of av installer basic salary B = Compulsory amount for employee 5% of thesis monthly basic salary C = voluntary additional contributions made by employee. Eligibility for of a ceremony payout of the Provident fund on leaving Emirates is linked to your length of service. You will receive the market value of your contributions to the Account B and C fund, but will need to have completed 7 years’ service to be entitled to the full 100% of the market value of Account A, or 5-7 years to thesis words, be entitled to 75% of Emirates contributions to Account A. For service periods of less than 5 years you are entitled to End of Service Benefit payments. The fund is linked to the Stock Market (Global Stock Market). The fund is managed by a Provident Scheme Officer. Should you wish to resume, change the investment of your funds (based on fluctuations on the Stock Market) you may make changes up to 6 times per thesis words phrases year free of charge. Cover Position With. You get 2 free consultations per year and can monitor your accounts online.

Can I take the money from the company and thesis, invest it myself? At the present time this option is divorce essay, not available. Do I need to thesis phrases, open a UAE bank account? Yes, as your salary is letter position with no experience, paid monthly in local currency. Do I get transportation allowance? No, the company provides free transportation to and from work. Do I have to pay to travel to thesis phrases, Dubai for my interview? We provide invited candidates with a return Economy class ticket (upgradable to Business) to Dubai from their nearest destination on the Emirates network. Does the education allowance for our children cover all costs? We contribute tuition and transport fees for 3 children, ages 4-19. Parents can choose which school they prefer for their children, and some schools may cost more than the av installer allowance covers.

Who do I call or email to get a ruling on whether a pre-existing conditions is covered or not by the medical scheme? The final decision is taken by our Chief Medical Officer and you will be advised before joining. As with all insurance companies, there is an exclusion list and a pre-existing condition is normally excluded for the first 2 years of employment. You can email or following the thesis phrases selection programme contact your Recruitment Specialist. Yes, when outside of clinic hours you can go to the emergency section in on human, selected hospitals that will treat you without any payment required upon presenting your Emirates ID card. Is there an ambulance service here? Yes, through the thesis words government hospitals and through private hospitals. What do I do if a member of my family is seriously injured?

There are excellent Accident and Emergency services (AE) through the college essay private hospitals namely: Welcare Hospital, American Hospital, with which Emirates has direct billing service. Is there a pre joining medical for families? No, but families will be required to submit a declaration of health. It is a requirement for the Company medical scheme. All persons joining the scheme must complete a medical before joining. They will also be required to attend an initial dental check upon joining which would assess any pre-existing conditions. If I fail my pre-joining medical, will I be told the reason?

This is at thesis, the discretion of the Company. Why are the HIV/Hepatitis B and TB tests required? The above tests are a government requirement in order to be granted a residence visa. A positive result will lead to termination of employment and for housekeeping no experience, deportation. What if I am sick for words phrases more than 15 days? As stated in the contract, for absence due to college, sickness/accident or industrial injury the words following applies: Absence due to incapacity must be supported by descriptive of a, a medical certificate and issued by a company doctor (after completion of a 6 month notice period) full basic salary will be paid for up to 52 weeks. Am I covered by thesis words, Emirates for cover letter position no experience loss of thesis words license? Yes, full details can be found in the Employee Handbook on joining the company. The Company insures all Flight Crew as listed below, against permanent loss of licence arising from accident or sickness: All ages up to completion of 61st year 3 annual basic salaries. Ages 62 to 63 years 2 annual basic salaries.

Ages 63 to 64 years 1 annual basic salary. Ages 64 and above Nil. Annual basic salary means the monthly basic salary excluding all allowances. If loss of license is essays on human, due to a ‘pre-existing condition' it is not covered by this insurance. There are various private schemes available which you can arrange, or you may wish to continue with an existing coverage that you have in your own country. Do I have to get a sick note if I go sick for a flight? No. Emirates currently operate a ‘self-certification’ system whereby the flight crew can call sick for a flight without a visit to the clinic.

Restrictions and conditions apply to this system and thesis words, full details will be made available to you on joining the company. How many days off will I get in divorce, a month? You will be entitled to a minimum of 8 days off per thesis words phrases month. If my family remains in fritts resume, my home country, is thesis phrases, it possible for me to commute? Emirates does not support or condone the commuting of Flight Crew. Is it possible to leave Dubai when I have days off?

You may leave Dubai when you have days off, all you have to do is to fill the essay wedding ceremony “away from thesis base” form on debra resume the crew portal so the company know your location. Thesis Phrases. You are also required to provide a contact telephone number and address. How much leave will I be entitled to and how do I apply for leave? You will be entitled to 42 days leave per year. Primary Leave, which must be from on human locke 21-28 days in duration, is allocated by a bidding system through the Flight Crew Portal; allocation is dependent on when leave was taken in the previous year and on fleet seniority.

Am I entitled to take any leave during the probation period (first 6 months)? No. Phrases. Leave requests will not be authorized during the probation period. Special cases will be looked into and considered on a one to one basis. When do my staff travel benefits start? Travel concessions apply after 6 months service for descriptive 90% (Cat A) standby tickets and 50% (Cat C) firm ticket from the date of joining. Stopover allowances apply at all layover locations and are paid in local currency. What concessional travel do I receive for my family? Single staff = Mother, Father, Brother, Sister. - Married = Mother, Father, Brother, Sister, mother-in-law, father-in-law. Thesis Words Phrases. Their annual entitlement is unlimited firm tickets (ID50%) and 2 x ID90% sub load ticket on Emirates. In addition, a wider range of relatives are entitled to a max. of 10 firm (ID50%) tickets per year.

Your spouse and children up to age 21 (or 23 if in full time education) are entitled to unlimited concessional tickets. What class of Cabin am I entitled to? Captains are eligible for Business Class travel with upgrade to First Class on fritts a space available basis at phrases, the time of departure when traveling on Emirates services. First Officers are eligible for Economy Class travel with upgrade to descriptive essay of a wedding, Business Class on thesis words a space available basis at the time of departure when traveling on Emirates services. However children under 13 are not eligible for the upgrade. If my application is short listed, is it possible to defer attendance in av installer, the Selection Program?

You may contact Pilot Recruitment via email on words to advise us if you wish your application to av installer resume, be considered at a later date. Thesis Words. If, however you have been scheduled to attend an cover for housekeeping position with interview which you initially accept and later decline with less than one week’s notice, your application may be closed, with no opportunity to re-apply at a later date. If I am selected and have a bond with my current airline, will Emirates pay the remainder of the bond? The payment of an outstanding bond amount from a previous employer is the responsibility of the individual. If I am not successful in the Selection Program, is it possible to reapply? Yes, you can reapply after a period of 24 months. Where in Dubai can I expect to be accommodated? (Location) The location is subject to availability at the time of joining. Words. But a request could always be placed.

What are my Accommodation entitlements as First Officer? As a single or married First Officer without children you are entitled to av installer resume, either furnished or unfurnished two or three bedroom company apartment OR if married with dependent children who are residing in Dubai you will be entitled to thesis words, either furnished or unfurnished company villa OR in both cases the Accommodation Allowance of divorce college DHS 159,840 pa. Upon upgrade to Captain your entitlement will be as below. What are my Accommodation entitlements as Captain? As a Captain you are entitled to either furnished or unfurnished three or four bedroom company villa regardless of marital status/children or Accommodation Allowance of DHS 179,400 pa.

What should I expect to find in words, my accommodation when I arrive? Should you choose the furnished option, your accommodation will be furnished with living/dining room/bedroom furniture with curtains and lamps provided. We also provide a ‘starter pack’ in all company accommodation which includes linen, kitchen items and crockery. During the first week of av installer joining the company you will receive AED 3,300 to purchase supplementary items. You will be issued with a list of items in the starter pack with your contract. The cost of furniture/starter pack, which is valued at AED 45,000, is amortized in words, equal monthly amounts over a period of 5 years. If an employee leaves the company before the value of the debra resume furnishings allowance have been fully amortized, the employee will repay the phrases company the unamortized value of the furnishings. College. You may not return the company furniture in lieu of any outstanding unamortized amount. The starter pack and supplementary allowance are not given to those selecting the Accommodation Allowance option or the unfurnished option.

Some landlords (apartment accommodation) do not allow any pets. However, a special request may be made prior to joining (subject to availability). You will be required to advise Emirates in thesis words phrases, advance if you are planning to bring a pet with you, and you have to resume, make sure that your pets have a government health certificate and the original vaccination certificate from your country of origin; then you will have to apply for words phrases an import permit that lasts for in finance one month. Then you can start the shipping procedure. Can I decorate the thesis phrases walls of my villa/apartment? You may choose to understanding, change the colours, however when you are leaving the words premises, it is your responsibility to leave the accommodation in its original condition and colour, to avoid charges.

Can I opt-out of the Emirates Housing Scheme any time and take the av installer money to sort out thesis words, my own accommodation? If you want to opt-out of company accommodation you must apply for permission giving 3 months’ notice to draw the Accommodation Allowance in writing, before making any commitment to lease or purchase alternative accommodation. Please note that if you opt for the Accommodation Allowance, you will be liable to pay the costs of electricity, water supply and municipality charges and you will not be able to change back to company accommodation. What television system is used here? NTSC or PAL? It is a PAL system. There are many companies offering different packages for satellite TV channels, e.g. Orbit, Star TV, Showtime or Firstnet. Divorce Essay. Packages vary, offering emphasis on words phrases sports, children’s channels, UK or US channels, etc.

I am entitled to an apartment but I want to live in a villa, is fritts, this possible? No, as you get what you are entitled to. However, on upgrade to Captain and change of thesis phrases family status (i.e. when you have children residing with you in Dubai) you will be entitled to a villa. Another option is to understanding locke, opt out of company accommodation and use your allowance to rent a villa. Can I choose the colours of words phrases my soft furnishings? Unfortunately not as the company furniture comes in a standard design.

Can my friends and relatives who come to visit me stay at av installer, my villa? Yes, they can, as this is your place. If you reside in an apartment, you are required to notify the building security (if company provided accommodation). Does Emirates insure my possessions in the house or must I do that? Emirates do not provide insurance neither for the house nor for your personal belongings, but you can use the insurance company that Emirates deals with so you get the best insurance deal.

Is there an Emirates club I can join? If so, how much does it cost? There is a pilot club called Emirates Pilot Club that costs DHS 75 per pilot and phrases, DHS 150 per couple per month. The membership gives you a wide choice of health clubs that you can use for free or at a very low cost, and a choice of debra restaurants with very good discounts. You will have to check the availability of the offers at the time. Is it easy to thesis phrases, hire a home assistant? Yes.

It is possible to use an agency to debra fritts resume, employ a domestic worker. For visas fill in a visa form and submit the documents to Emirates HR service centre and they will direct you - with the next steps. This employee will be under your sponsorship and you will have to pay all fees incurred. How much do you have to pay a home assistant? It depends on the individual’s nationality and words, you must adhere to the government requirements of minimum salary and annual leave entitlements. Essays Understanding Locke. (Please note some governments stipulate a minimum salary for their citizens employed overseas). Can we hire a home assistant and a driver? Sponsoring only one domestic help is the norm. If you wish to sponsor more than one, approval has to thesis words, be obtained case by case basis only. Can single pilots sponsor home help of the opposite sex? Single pilots can only sponsor home assistants of the same sex. Debra. There are many cleaning companies that provide home help by the hour and the prices are very reasonable.

Who pays my electricity, water and telephone bills? Emirates will pay the costs of electricity, water supply and phrases, municipality taxes (if the employee resides in company accommodation) up to an amount of 32,000 AED annually. The local calls to land lines are free of charge and the company will provide a telephone allowance. If I am selected as an Emirates pilot, can I live in dissertations in finance, a city of my choice? All our pilots are based in Dubai, and words, accommodation in Dubai is provided by Emirates. If I am selected, where will I live in Dubai? We provide accommodation in Dubai for all our pilots. Single pilots are provided a 2 bedroom apartment, and married pilots without children a 3 bedroom apartment. Married pilots with children who still live with them are provided a villa. Debra. Alternatively, Emirates provides an accommodation allowance and this can be used to rent an apartment or villa to suit personal preferences. Is there a waiting list for schools?

Yes, for some schools there is a waiting list and in some cases the list is quite long. It is entirely your responsibility to thesis words, find a school place for your child. We will supply you with a list of schools in av installer resume, Dubai with all their contact numbers. What if my children do not speak English? What school will they get in? There are 3 schools, at least that, you can enrol your children in if they do not speak English. Emirates International School /Dubai International Academy /Dubai American Academy.

Is there a school bus or do we have to drive our children to school? Some schools operate transport, others don’t. Thesis Words Phrases. Transport allowance is covered by the education support scheme. Do I get Education Support Allowance? Yes, support allowances (for up to 3 children) are as follows: Primary School AED 40,000 maximum per child (Emirates pay 100% of the first AED 20,000 and 90% of the balance, up to a limit of AED 40,000 per academic year). Secondary School AED 60,000 per child (Emirates pay 100% of the first AED 30,000 and 90% of the balance, up to a limit of AED 60,000 per academic year) Can I also get this allowance if my children study overseas? If my children go away to cover letter with, school do I get the full allowance to do with it as I wish or must I get the school to bill Emirates?

What time does school start and finish? The school year starts in the beginning of thesis words September and finishes in the end of June with two weeks break between the end of December to mid-January and end of March to mid-April and the timings are approximately 0745am to of a ceremony, 1530pm. Can I bring my children to start school halfway through the year? If the school is prepared to thesis phrases, offer a place to your child then they may start during the school year. For Housekeeping. However a child cannot enter after the 30th April each year as the school year ends in June.

Is there any crime in the schools such as drugs? Generally the thesis phrases schools are well disciplined and a crime is an individual act that is tolerated by neither the school nor the national authority. Most schools are virtually crime free. If I travel to Dubai alone initially, can my spouse join me as soon as my visa is issued? It will take up to of a wedding ceremony, 10 working days to process your spouse’s visa once yours is processed. Can my spouse travel with me at the same time of joining? Yes, your spouse can enter the UAE on transit visa at your expense.

The transit visa is thesis words phrases, then converted to a residency visa at a cost of approximately 1000 AED or a return flight. Who pays for the visas for college essay my spouse and children? visa is words, issued, there is a requirement to pay the cost of transferring the visa from visit to residence type, or they may be required to exit the country while the visa is cover letter no experience, being processed. You will be responsible for paying the cost of thesis transfer of the visa or the cost of the cover tickets if they arrive before the visa is processed. Your family will be provided with a joining ticket once their visas have been approved. (Please note Emirates covers the words phrases costs for up to three children). Yes, most employment agencies in Dubai have websites, where your spouse can view vacancies and doctoral dissertations, register his/her CV. Can my spouse start his/her own business here? Who would be his/her sponsor?

Yes. He/she is likely to require a ‘local’ sponsor (a UAE national), however this is not always necessary as there is a free zone when one can open their business. Can I share accommodation with my partner if we are not married? According to the UAE laws, you are not allowed to reside in the same accommodation on a permanent basis with a person from the opposite sex if you are not married. You may apply for thesis words phrases an application letter through our Employee Service Centre on the 2nd Floor (Atrium level) of the Emirates Group Headquarters Building and then visit a liquor outlet to submit your application form. Can I convert my driver’s license to UAE or must I take a test? There is a list of countries that can convert their driving license including most European, North American, Australasian and GCC countries. If not on descriptive essay of a wedding this list, a test is required. Please check with Recruitment prior to thesis words phrases, joining.

What is the car loan that Emirates offer and what is the cost of the locke car insurance? We offer a Dhs 70,000 interest free car loan which must be paid back on a monthly basis (deducted from words phrases your salary). The maximum repayment period is over 48 months. Cover Letter Position With No Experience. You may apply for the loan as soon as you join the company. It is thesis, advisable to fritts resume, bring a ‘No Claims’ letter from your previous Insurance Company as you may be entitled to a discount if you provide such a letter. Requesting the car loan from Emirates requires you to undertake car insurance with Royal Sun Insurance and you are eligible for an employee discount. Are there restrictions on women driving in UAE? There are no restrictions on women driving here; they must possess a UAE license. Are there restrictions generally on women clothing, going out alone? In general women are treated with great respect here and there is no restriction on clothing (however situational awareness must be exercised in certain parts of town). It is much westernised here and life for females is comfortable.

If I am a Muslim am I allowed to apply for thesis words phrases a liquor license? According to essays understanding locke, the UAE law, Muslims cannot apply for a liquor license. If you declare you are of phrases no religion or an atheist, you will also not be permitted to obtain a liquor license. Drugs are strictly against the law. There are severe penalties for those found to be either taking drugs, or possessing drugs. Compared to other cities there is very little crime in Dubai, however common sense and precaution are advised. House burglaries and petty theft do occur. Will you help transfer my personal belongings to Dubai?

You will be provided a free freight allowance of 100 kgs, and your spouse can claim an additional 100 kgs. Each child in your family will also be entitled to a free allowance of 25 kgs. You may use your furniture allowance towards shipping costs as well should you wish to ship your furniture from your home country. What are the criteria for essays understanding locke applying for a job? Must hold a valid UAE passport Must have good command of both written and verbal English Must hold Khalasat Al Qaid or Marsoom Must hold UAE National Identity Card. On the Job Training. This applies to roles where the words candidate is given a training period (x-1). The salary will be lower than the proposed job grade until the trainee completes his or her OJT.

Firstly, a trainee is chosen for cover for housekeeping position with an appropriate job (through the Recruitment Team) The trainee then joins the company The trainees attends a National Induction Programme A Development Plan is words phrases, set A tripartite meeting is resume, held with the trainee and thesis words, their line manager Course Nominations Follow-up tripartite meeting. What does the Career Development Unit do? After you complete the training period, you will meet the a member of the unit to discuss your interests and career aspirations. The unit member meets your line manager for feedback. Cover Position With. Agreement is made on thesis words your development needs A development plan is set. The unit member follows up on your progress to essays on human, ensure that everything is working out as planned. What is the procedure for license conversion as per GCAA in Dubai? All information pertaining to license conversion, eligibility and words phrases, the documentation required can be found on the following website: What are the accommodation options available for understanding Licensed Aircraft Engineers in Dubai? – Company accommodation and furnishings (up to Dhs30,000, depending on size of accommodation and items provided by the landlord) – Dhs 3,300 on joining to purchase supplementary items. – Dhs 30,000 furnishing allowance.

– No additional allowances. – No temporary accommodation. –Dhs 119,460 utilities allowance. –Dhs 30,000 furnishing allowance. – No additional allowances. – Up to 3 months' temporary accommodation. – Temporary accommodation does not have starter pack items (e.g. bedding, towels, cutlery etc).

– New joiners may order a starter pack. All Licensed Aircraft Engineers will be asked to choose from the above options at the time of joining. How much can I carry as my excess baggage at the time of joining? On joining, the company will reimburse the cost of unaccompanied shipping of personal effects up to 50-100 kg for the spouse, depending on your grade, plus 25kg per child up to thesis, a maximum of three children under 19. Debra Resume. The costs will be reimbursed on presentation of thesis phrases receipted invoices. What class of essay travel am I eligible for?

If you are a Licensed Aircraft Engineer, you will be eligible to travel on thesis phrases economy/upgradeable to business class on your Annual Leave ticket. However, children under the fritts age of 16 years are not eligible for an upgrade. Will Emirates assist me in obtaining Family Visa? Emirates acts as a sponsor for the employee and provides a three-year residence visa/work permit, which is renewable. Once the employment visa is phrases, stamped in your passport, you can act as a sponsor for family (spouse and children). We provide assistance in processing family visas.

What is the process for applying for essays understanding family visas? You must provide attested marriage certificate, passport copies and photographs of the dependents. It takes around three-to-four weeks generally to thesis words, process the family visa and once the visa is processed, your family can travel to resume, Dubai on joining ticket. What is the annual leave policy of the company? All full-time employees are entitled to words, generous paid annual leave in comparison to most other companies. The number of working hours of annual leave provided per calendar year is related to your job grade and is specified in your contract of employment. What are the career development opportunities within Emirates?

Staff have first opportunity to apply for a vacant position as most of these are advertised internally before being advertised to outside applicants. Candidates interested in letter for housekeeping, applying for thesis phrases any internal vacancy should meet the following requirements: Completion of one year in your current role (position/department); The minimum qualifications and experience required for the advertised position; The support of your line manager. What is the probationary period for company employment? For all positions, the divorce essay probationary period is six months from the date of joining the company. What is “Exchange rate protection” scheme? UAE-based expatriate employees, irrespective of phrases nationality, grade or position, are covered by the Exchange Rate Protection (ERP) scheme, unless they are from the essays understanding USA or any country where the currency is fixed against the US dollar. The ERP scheme is intended to provide reasonable protection if you are adversely affected by exchange rate fluctuations in words, the currency of divorce college essay your home country or the place of your permanent residence. Your ERP currency will be given as per the country of your Annual Leave Destination, and once your ERP is determined it can never be changed. Thesis Phrases. Under the ERP Scheme, 50 per cent of the net basic salary received each month is protected up to a maximum of 15 per cent. If the company achieves its profit target, employees receive a profit share payment. The company’s financial year runs from understanding locke 1st April to 31st March the following year.

The company announces its results – and any profit share to be given - in April for words phrases the financial year just ended. The profit share is paid in May. The amount varies from year to on human locke, year; in the past, it has ranged from two to 14 weeks of basic salary. To qualify for the full profit share, you must have been employed for words phrases the complete period, 1st April to 31st March. If you joined after the 31st March but before 30th September, you would be entitled to a pro rata amount.

If you joined after 30th September, you will have to doctoral in finance, wait until the next profit share. The salary you receive from Emirates is words phrases, tax-free. Do I need to open a UAE bank account? Yes - this is advised and will be explaine dduring your Onboarding experience and they will also provide details of debra recommended Banks. What is the procedure for obtaining a UAE Driving License?

Obtaining a UAE driving licence and the costs involved are your responsibility. Many countries have an agreement with the UAE under which you can convert your existing driving licence to a UAE driving licence. If you are unable to convert your existing driving licence into a UAE driving licence, then you will have to take driving tests conducted by Dubai Police. There are many private driving schools in Dubai and you can register with one of thesis them for driving lessons. What is the Education Allowance Policy for children? Education Support Allowance (ESA) is a contribution made by Emirates towards the school fees of employees’ children (up to a maximum of college essay three children below the age of 19 years). ESA for tuition fees will apply on an annual basis using the academic year from 1st September to words phrases, 31st August as applied in Dubai. ESA will be calculated on essay a pro-rata basis from the month of joining, provided other policy criteria are fulfilled. The ESA will operate on the following basis:

Primary Schools If the invoiced school tuition fees are below Dhs 16,000 per annum, the thesis company will reimburse 100 per cent of all actual invoiced compulsory core tuition fees. If the invoiced school tuition fees are above Dhs 16,000 per annum, the essays understanding locke company will reimburse 100 per thesis cent of the first Dhs 16,000 and college, 90 per cent of the remainder of all actual invoiced compulsory core tuition fees, subject to thesis, a maximum overall reimbursement of Dhs 32,000 per annum. Essays Locke. Secondary Schools If the thesis phrases invoiced school tuition fees are below Dhs 25,000 per annum, the company will reimburse 100 per cent of all actual invoiced compulsory core tuition fees. If the invoiced school tuition fees are above Dhs 25,000 per annum, the company will reimburse 100 per cent of the first Dhs 25,000 and 90 per cent of the remainder of all actual invoiced compulsory core tuition fees, subject to a maximum overall reimbursement of Dhs 50,000 per debra fritts resume annum. Will the education support allowance include registration and admission fees as well? A registration fee up to a maximum of words phrases Dhs 500 will be reimbursed as a one-off payment. If a child is registered in more than one school, additional registration fees will not be reimbursed. A registration fee is paid once only per child in understanding, each level of education (primary and thesis words, secondary).

An admission fee (where applied as a separate invoiced amount) up to a maximum of college essay Dhs 2,000 will be reimbursed as a one-off payment. If an admission fee is phrases, part of an advance payment of term fee, it is regarded as being part of letter with tuition fees and is included in the overall Education Support Allowance for tuition fees. An admission fee is paid once only per child in each level of education (primary and secondary). Are my family members eligible for medical cover if they do not reside in words phrases, Dubai? If you are a Category A staff member, your eligible dependents not residing in for housekeeping position with, the UAE are covered for in-patient treatment worldwide. They are covered for outpatient treatment only in the UAE.

They are covered for emergency outpatient treatment only in countries other than their country of domicile. All non-emergency treatment needs prior approval from the Medical Costs Manager. 2017 The Emirates Group. All Rights Reserved.