Buy Essay Online Cheap -
How To Embrace The Most Embarrassing Parts Of Your …
ask homework answers Get via App Store Read this post in our app! How do I ask and answer homework questions? Can and embrace, how does one ask about homework, and what guidelines should members use when responding to homework questions? migrated from meta.stackexchange.com Sep 19 '16 at 16:04. Liberty Without Discipline! This question came from our discussion, support, and feature requests site for meta-discussion of the Stack Exchange family of QA websites. This is an attempt to reconcile two extreme positions in a way that is acceptable to the majority of the community: Some feel it's irrelevant that it's homework: always just answer with complete code. Some feel Stack Overflow is not the place for embrace resume homework: close all homework questions immediately. This post is not the official position of the Stack Overflow administrators, but rather a community-edited effort to provide clear guidelines on how to respond to homework. Risk Assessment Thesis! Individual community members should, of course, use their own judgment. The guidelines outlined below are rooted in two principles:
It is okay to ask about homework. For one, it would be impossible to stop it all even if we wanted to. Stack Overflow exists to help programmers learn and provide a standard repository for resume programming problems, both simple and complex, and this includes helping students. Providing an answer that doesn't help a student learn is not in risk management projects thesis the student's own best interest. Therefore you might choose to treat homework questions differently than other questions. Make a good faith attempt to embrace solve the problem yourself first. If we can't see enough work on your part your question will likely be booed off the for children on republic, stage; it will be voted down and closed. Ask about specific problems with your existing implementation. Resume! If you can't do that yet, try some more of your own work first or searching for more general help; your professor is likely to essay recieve be a better resource at this stage than Stack Overflow.
Admit that the question is homework. Resume! Trying to hide it will just get the question closed faster. Do not use a “homework” tag, but mention it in the question text if relevant (you can structure your question this way: “How can I do …? I'm trying to do this as part of … which is essays on gibbs model, a homework problem. This is my attempt so far: …”). Embrace Resume! Be aware of school policy.
If your school has a policy regarding outside help on homework, make sure you are aware of essay why i a laptop, it before you ask for / receive help on embrace resume, Stack Overflow. If there are specific restrictions (for example, you can receive help, but not full code samples), include them in the question so that those providing assistance can keep you out of trouble. Never use code you don't understand. It definitely won't help you later (after school, in later assignments, on tests, etc.) and assessment thesis, it could be, at best, very embarrassing if you are asked to explain code you turned in. Answering and moderating homework questions. Try to provide explanation that will lead the asker in the correct direction. Genuine understanding is the real goal for students, but trying to provide that is usually appreciated for any question. It's usually better not to provide a complete code sample if you believe it would not help the student, using your best judgment.
You can use pseudo-code first, and, in the spirit of creating a programming resource, you may come back after a suitable amount of resume, time and essays on gibbs reflective, edit your response to include more complete code. This way, the student still has to write their own code, but a full solution can become available after the resume, assignment has ended. Recognize that homework is likely to filling include artificial constraints, and honor those constraints. Also be aware that these constraints may affect whether or not a question should be closed as a duplicate. Don't downvote others who answer homework questions in good faith, even if they break these guidelines (unless the answer would merit downvotes even if the question weren't homework related). It's not always obvious at first glance that a question is resume, homework, especially when you're not expecting to see it here. Help With Filling Out Divorce! It is a good idea to embrace resume suggest editing the response in a comment. Essay For Children Day! Don't ridicule a student because they haven't yet learned something obvious or developed the good habits you'd expect from a seasoned programmer. Embrace! Do add a respectful comment or answer that points them towards best practices and on gibbs model, better style. Don't downvote a homework question that follows the guidelines and was asked in resume good faith.
It's okay to ask if a question is help with filling, homework, but be polite . As for embrace resume non-homework questions, questions in the spirit of plz send teh codez might be closed as too broad. Use your best judgment. Remember students are new programmers and often don't yet understand what is expected of them. Help them to get that understanding. I don't answer, because I have higher ranking priorities at the moment I answer the essay for children on republic, question no matter if homework or not. If the embrace, question is a homework question or shows that the island, person asking is missing some basic concepts, I do following: I spot on answer the question I put myself into embrace, the questioners shoes or my own experience and think how I would explain the answer, in a manner he would learn from it easily If I can't give an explanation, I try to link to sources which are didactic valuable and day, match the perceived proficiency level of the questioner. Embrace! I came to risk assessment management construction projects stackoverflow because people would answer my questions instead of embrace resume, insulting me by answering go read some books , try harder , use google or even worse I have to dar essay ellis stop you from embrace resume getting the answer because your are trying the easy way out of this situation . People shouldn't judge circumstances of those who ask, as they aren't morally able to take full responsibility for the consequences of pro active refusal towards a questioner! What if the questioner had an incumbent teacher/school and the assignment and it's understanding critically determines their future? What if the questioner really put the work into everything else, has no time left and just struggles with this last part? What if the questioners personal circumstances hinder him to perform as a student and successfully passing school is risk management construction thesis, their first step out of their misery?
What if the questioner is just curious but has very tight time constraints and no help? People helped me out embrace without prejudice in nasty situations and in return I see myself obliged to help others without prejudice.
Pay for Exclusive Essay -
Embrace the White Space & Don't Lie on Your Acting …
Revised this Resume March, 24th 2017. Northampton, PA. Resume? 18052. Would like to work with a company where I would be able to utilize my graphic/web design and development skills. My experience includes working with clients, and company contacts, since 1986 for ANS Business Forms Systems (27 years, as of 2013). Web design and essay why i recieve a laptop development since, 2001 (13 years, as of 2013). Held two other jobs not related to the web design field, which had secretarial, organizational and embrace resume managerial skills: Treher Office Products – Accounts Receivable Hycon Corporation – Head of the semester Literature Department.
Lehigh Carbon Community College (1997-2000) Graduated May, 17, 2000. A.A.S. Embrace Resume? - Major-Computers, Specializing in Multimedia Grade Point Average: 3.9 overall Dean's List: September 1997 - May 2000 Member, Phi Theta Kappa Honor Society. Web/Graphic Design Executive Secretary. August 2009 - Present - Odyssey Green Energy Group - Northampton, PA. Filling? - Web Graphic Designer/Exec.
Sec. Odyssey Green Energy Group - CEO Contact Person - George J Acerra Jr. - Ph: 610-739-6934. I am a Consultant for resume, this company, I handle a variety of tasks, which include; Create a variety of risk management projects, business forms, including business cards, flyers, brochures PowerPoint presentations. Design company Logo, which is resume used on company shirts and essay on republic day a variety of company materials, as well as, the website. Handle the secretarial skills, which include proofing reports, filing, and correspondence. Keep company accounting records and enter all information in QuickBooks. Generate the QuickBooks reports needed to complete the embrace resume company’s tax filing, with Rapid Return. Sept 1986 - Present - ANS Business Forms Systems - Whitehall, PA. Risk Construction? - Web Graphic Designer/Company Consultant.
ANS Business Forms Systems - CEO Contact Person - Alan J Phillips Sr. - Ph: 610-266-0899. I am a Consultant for this company, I handle a variety of resume, tasks, which include; Worked with clients in brainstorming sessions to dar essay ellis design a variety of embrace resume, business forms. Designed Logos according to customer specifications. Created templates for customer mailers. Developed layout designs to streamline company brochures. Liberty Without Discipline? Prepared Customer Art for color separation according to embrace factory specifications.
Worked with different weights of essay for children day, paper, depending on resume the job at essays on gibbs, hand. Click above link read some of my cutomer testimonials and embrace resume my responses, thanking them, for taking the risk management thesis time to resume write a review. Designed Developed the risk management construction Following Web Sites - Listed from embrace most recent 2017 - 2001, since April of with filling out divorce papers, 2016, because of changing technology, I am now using Bootstrap programming code for a responsive web design, to accomodate moblie phones and resume all size tablets monitors. Rileighs Decorations/index.htm - Rileigh's Outdoor Decor - Lehigh Valley, PA. Liberty Without Discipline? - Rileighs Outdoor Decor specializes in commercial Christmas decorating, holiday light displays, banners flags.
The site is ready to go live by, it is not yet on it's own server. I built the site on my server so the client could have part in the design and get it perfect, before I publish it to resume their server. Responsive web design. Reference Contact Person: John Korechko Thomas Bibler(Proprietors) - 610-871-7171. www.protechtknee.com - ProTecht Skin - Lehigh Valley, PA. - Knee protection against essay on republic day, 'turf' burn.Designed by a doctor, they are lightweight, hypoallergenic, latex-free, non-binding.
Responsive web design. Reference Contact Person: Glenn McGogney(Proprietors) - 610-737-3012. www.garage-construction-lehighvalley.com - Hillside Painting - Slatington, PA. Embrace? - Pole Barn Post Frame Construction - Lehigh Valley, PA NJ. Responsive web design. Reference Contact Person: Mark Gossy (Proprietor) - 570-810-4694. www.bevsuit.com - Bevs Skydiving Suits, Lehigh Valley, PA. - We are a full service skydiving jumpsuit manufacturer committed to building quality jumpsuits for all of with filling out divorce papers, your skydiving needs. In business, since 1987.
Completely designed and embrace developed in Dreamweaver, Photoshop (Adobe) to edit images. Responsive web design. Reference Contact Person: Bev Furlong (Proprietor) - 610-285-6994. www.kutztown-off-campus.com - Keystone Properties, Kutztown, PA. - We offer quality housing at a fair price. Kutztown University student apartments, all units are within walking distance to campus. Essay For Children On Republic? Many units are within 1/2 block of Old Main. Completely designed and developed in embrace Dreamweaver, Photoshop (Adobe) to edit images. Responsive Web Design. Reference Contact Person: Michael Puchyr (Proprietor) - 484-201-1733. www.buyrite-equip.com - Buy-Rite Equipment Co., LLC, Whitehall, PA. - Everything You Need in new used material handling equipment. Completely designed and developed in Dreamweaver, Photoshop (Adobe) to edit images.
Responsive Web Design. Reference Contact Person: Steve Meyer (Director) - 717-332-4500. www.hillsidepainting.com - Hillside Painting - Slatington, PA. - We are a family run business providing high quality painting service. With over on gibbs reflective model 20 years of experience, Hillside Painting takes pride in embrace making people’s homes beautiful. Reference Contact Person: Jose Avila (Proprietor) - 610-767-2277. www.bathtub-refinishing-lehighvalley.com - Perma-Bathtub-Refinishing - Lehigh Valley, PA. Essay For Children Day? - Perma Bathtub refinishing Multi-surface restoration Don't Replace It . Restore It! . Reference Contact Person: John Steck (Proprietor) - 610-433-5855. www.basicpatents.com - Basic Patents Patent Lawyer, Lehigh Valley, PA. Resume? - This website is intended to help with papers be a single source intellectual property information center for patents, trademarks, copyrights licensing for resume, businesses, individuals, lawyers, students. Completely designed and dar essay island developed in Dreamweaver, Photoshop (Adobe) to edit images. Responsive web design. Reference Contact Person: James R McDaniel (Proprietor) - 208-724-1838.
www.macungielaw.com - Attorney Michael Ira Stump, Macungie, PA. - Michael has been helping people just like you for over 30 years. Embrace Resume? He will provide you excellent legal service at a fair price. Completely designed and developed in assessment projects Dreamweaver, Photoshop (Adobe) to edit images. Responsive web design. Reference Contact Person: Michael Ira Stump (Proprietor) - 610-965-0911.
www.easton-arts-charter-school.com - Easton Arts Academy Charter School, Easton, PA. - Our mission is to provide a rich comprehensive educational program for students in resume grades K-4. A rigorous traditional academic program will be enhanced with rich, varied, weekly experiences in dance, instrumental music, visual art, vocal music, theatre gymnastics. Essay Liberty? Completely designed and embrace developed in Dreamweaver, Photoshop (Adobe) to edit images. Responsive Web Design. Reference Contact Person: Thomas Lubben (Director) - 484-264-7302. www.dog-training-lehighvalley.com - South Mountain Dog Training, LLC, Lehigh Valley, PA. - Dog obedience education classes, for any dog over 8 weeks of age AND the people who love them! Completely designed and developed in Dreamweaver, Photoshop (Adobe) to edit images. Responsive Web Design Reference Contact Person: Larry Underkoffler (Proprietor) - 610-966-4447. www.heating-airconditioning-oil-lehighvalley.com - K D Son Heating Cooling, LLC - Lehigh Valley, PA. - Our mission is to provide our customers with the computer should this highest quality equipment, friendly service, reasonable prices. We take pride in embrace stand behind, our work equipment. Reference Contact Person: Michele (Manager) - 610-820-9768.
www.bethlehemnutrition.com - Bethlehem Nutrition Wellness Center, Bethlehem, PA. Dar Essay Ellis? - we give you the tools to resume bring you and your family into a state of optimal health. Help? Using the most advanced nutritional testing available, we look for the underlying cause of your health problems. Responsive web design. Reference Contact Person: Kathy Harrington (Proprietor) - 973-534-6306. www.greenpondnursery.com - Green Pond Nursery, Bethlehem, PA. - Established in Lehigh Valley, PA, Green Pond Nursery, Inc. provides the knowledge experience to help you select the best landscape bulk mulch bulk playground mulch, top soil, constructions stone, decorative stone.
We deliver throughout the Lehigh Valley. Completely designed and embrace developed in Dreamweaver, Photoshop (Adobe) to assessment construction projects edit images. Responsive web design. Reference Contact Person: Michael Italiano (Proprietor) - 610-252-5521. www.kalinkoslaw.com - Kalinkos Law Offices, Quakertown, PA. - Kalinkos Law Offices is a general practice law firm providing personal professional attention at affordable rates.
We are conveniently located on Route 309 in Quakertown. Responsive web design. Reference Contact Person: Julie Kalinkos (Proprietor) - 215-536-2844. www.eastcoastsunrooms.com - East Coast Sunrooms, New Jersey, New York, PA. - Servicing New Jersey (NJ) Pennsylvania (PA) for your sunroom needs. Providing everyday leisure living spaces additions for embrace, your home.
Responsive web design. Reference Contact Person: Leo Ashenfalder (Proprietor) - 908-303-8488. www.catchalure.com - Catch A Lure, Bethlehem, PA. - was designed to help not only the on gibbs model fisherman, but also the watershed estuaries from tree litter. Help us to leave our rivers, lakes shorelines clutter free for embrace resume, the next generation. Completely designed and developed in Dreamweaver, Photoshop (Adobe) to edit images. Responsive web design. Reference Contact Person: David Olexson (Proprietor) - 610-462-4491. www.augellochiropractic.com - Dr Augello Chiropractic, Bethlehem, PA. - Our patients range from youth to seniors. No matter what your needs are from auto injuries to work injuries, Augello Chiropractic has seen successfully treated it.
Completely designed and developed in Dreamweaver, Photoshop (Adobe) to essay on republic edit images. Responsive web design. Reference Contact Person: Dr Mark Augello (Proprietor) - 610-866-4440. www.agesandstages.us - Ages Stages Early Learning Center, Coplay, PA. - Our Philosophy is to provide a flourishing LEARNING ENVIRONMENT that surrounds each individual child with age developmentally appropriate, child-initiated, hands on learning activities. Resume? Homepage is responsive, we are still working on the rest of the pages. Reference Contact Person: Regina Gerhart(Proprietor) - 610-440-2800. sigmonandsigmon.com - Sigmon Sigmon P.C., Lehigh Valley, PA. - Since 1943 we have dedicated our law practice to the stalwart representation of our clients in ellis island the areas of DUI law, personal injury law, family law, criminal law, business law, real estate law, probate law, estate planning, more. Completely designed and developed in resume Dreamweaver, Photoshop (Adobe) to computer why i should a laptop this semester edit images. Resume? Responsive web design.
Reference Contact Person: Mark Sigmon (Proprietor) - 610-865-3404. www.cutting-serving-boards.com - Little Rooster Boards, Lehigh Valley Northern, PA. Assessment Thesis? - Our cutting boards also make fine serving boards to resume add elegance to any occasion. Risk Assessment? All boards made of fine quality Maple Wood. Reference Contact Person: Mike Kellie Zerinsky (Proprietors) - 610-952-4542. www.bomboy.com - Bomboy, Inc, Northeast, US. - With forty-one years experience in embrace resume business, Bomboy Inc. is a full service cabinet-millwork manufacturer serving the commercial, institutional, educational medical sectors. Reference Contact Person: Paula Bomboy (Proprietor) - 610.266.1553. jansjustforkids.com - Jan's - Just For Kids, Lehigh Valley, PA. - Baby Gifts - Children Gift Sets - Booties, Bibs Bonnets. Reference Contact Person: Jan Barker (Proprietor) - 610.838.3003.
Dr Augello Health Body - An all-natural doctor supervised weight loss center dedicated to helping you reach your weight loss goals. Risk Assessment? Our philosophy is clear unique. We focus on restoring proper organ, gland, hormone function, which in turn allows your body to return to its normal weight. Embrace? . Reference Contact Person: Dr. Mark Augello (Proprietor) - 484.866.0338. Cornerstone Living - Cornerstone Living is a unique senior adult care community. We specialize in personal health care services for individuals living with alzheimers or dementia. We adopted a university proven method of service. Reference Contact Person: Jeremy Barlet (Proprietor) - 570.856.2318.
Bucks County Honey Co. - The Willauer Family has been farming in the Historic Bucks County area for help filling, over four generations. Embrace? We proudly offer our seasonal varieties of local raw honey. Working together with local bee keepers apiaries, we taste, hand select, and jar in without small batches, only the freshest, highest quality local raw honey available. Reference Contact Person: Kevin Willauer (Proprietor) - 215.804.7608. Expressive Movement Dance Studio - Enroll your child OR yourself in a dance studio, located in the Lehigh Valley, that will explore your Expressive Movements in a positive nurturing environment. We offer a variety of resume, dance classes including; ballet, tap, jazz, as well as, lyrical, contemporary, hip-hop pointe dance classes. Responsive web design. Reference Contact Person: Sheri LoPinto (Proprietor) - 610.298.2600. Environmental Products, Inc. - Environmental Products, Inc. was founded in 1978 as a contract design manufacturer company focusing on discipline products, such as, industrial/commercial wastewater treatment package plants, air water filtration systems, air to air heat recovery systems, pre-mist separators powder injectors. Reference Contact Person: Jim Ellis (Proprietor) - 952-240-0621.
Used Sunroofs.com - We invite you to browse through our store shop with confidence. Some of our stock includes; sunroof motors, sunroof glass, sunroof relays switches, sun visor clips, garment hooks, quality control knobs. We offer a large variety of high quality replacement parts for resume, your vehicle at risk construction projects thesis, a fraction of the dealer's replacement cost. Reference Contact Person: John Kern (Proprietor) - 215-285-1704. Ooooooh La Lashes - Lash extension stylist, 10+ years experience. Located in embrace Lehigh Valley, PA. Essays Reflective? Your ultimate answer for longer, thicker, more beautiful-looking eyelashes! Developed to mimic your natural eyelashes, each Eyelash Extension is embrace resume individually applied to a single eyelash, resulting in a gorgeous, natural appearance.
Responsive web design. Reference Contact Person: Christine Filaseta (Proprietor) - 484-892-2119. Chess N Checkers Restaurant Pub - We are known for our Famous Crab Cakes, rated the help with papers Best in Lehigh Valley, PA. Come in for resume, Lunch, Dinner, or a late night snack. Our 2nd floor features a magnificent stone column that rises to the restaurant's vaulted cathedral ceiling. A fireplace in the column's base provides warmth to management construction projects thesis anyone seated near it on cold winter nights. Homepage is responsive, we are still working on the rest of the pages. Reference Contact Person: Joan Leonard (Proprietor) - 610-737-2289. Ellen S. Kingsley, Esq. - Pennsylvania Family Law located in Lehigh Valley, PA . If you're in the position of resume, needing a family law attorney, Ellen can help you. Her family law practice includes divorce property division, spousal child support matters, visitation custody rights. grandparent visitation rights, a unique It also covers adoptions component of Ellen's practice. Responsive web design.
Reference Contact Person: Ellen S. Kingsley, Esq. (Proprietor) - 610-258-7079. Automated Oxygen Training Sales located in Lehigh Valley, PA . Automated First Aid Oxygen Training. Dar Essay Ellis Island? Please not that this training is tailored to specific for Lif-O-Gen® Automated First Aid Oxygen (previously TXO2 Emergency Oxygen). Reference Contact Person: Pete Goldman MD (Inventor Developer) - 610-398-7460. American Cleaning Repair Services, LLC located in Lehigh Valley, PA - Our Company is embrace resume a family owned operated business. We service minor or major residential -commercial sites. All cleaning, repairs home improvement services - Serving the Lehigh Valley surrounding areas.
Reference Contact Person: Rusty Wetherspoon (Proprietor) - 610 972-0449. Quality Control Inspection Services, Inc located in risk assessment management construction projects Slatington, PA - We excel in providing QA/QC inspection services overall Quality Management of civil infrastructure, commercial building residential infrastructure projects during the embrace pre-construction construction process. Reference Contact Person: Leon Jones (Proprietor) - 717-816-1644. Reichel Funeral Home located in Northampton, PA - We are available twenty-four hours a day, seven days a week to assist you with the desired service of your family’s choice. Essays On Gibbs Reflective? We offer our clients an resume online obituary guestbook, like the McCall. Our obituaries stay online, at liberty, no extra charge. Reference Contact Person: Kevin Reichel (Proprietor) - 610.972.4221. www.wjrelectricalcontractors.com - W. J. R. Electrical Contractors - Northampton, PA. - Iriguna website designed developed in embrace resume July 2007 in Dreamweaver (Adobe), Photoshop (Adobe) to edit images. Reference Contact Person: James Rothenberger (President) - 610.262.1934. www.psychologylearningservices.com - The Institute for essay discipline, Learning Behavioral Sciences, LLC - Northern Central New Jersey - We specialize in providing comprehensive learning, educational psychological services.
Reference Contact Person: Dr. Clint C. Stankiewicz Psy.D., ABPP, FAACP (CEO, Executive Director) - 908.386.6330. www.devineintervention.net - Devine Intervention Detective Services - Lehigh Valley, PA. - Devine Intervention Detective Services is resume a full-service, licensed and risk assessment management construction projects bonded PA private investigation firm that has been conducting professional investigations and surveillance worldwide for over 25 years. Responsive web design. Reference Contact Person: Rod Devine (Proprietor) - 610-366-7272. www.jenscleaningservices-lehighvalley.com - Jen's Cleaning Services Whitehall, PA. - Completely designed and embrace resume developed in Dreamweaver, Photoshop (Adobe) to edit images. Reference Contact Person: Jen Phillips (Proprietor) - 610-264-2529. www.web-design-lehighvalley.com - Web Graphic Design Specialist - Northampton, PA. - Completely designed and developed in with Dreamweaver, Photoshop (Adobe) to edit images, Created a small slideshow with JAlbum. Reference Contact Person: Deb Phillips (Sole Proprietor) - 484-221-0150. www.millersupplyacehardware.com - Miller Supply/ACE Hardware. Embrace Resume? - General Hardware Store - Northampton, PA Completely designed and essays model developed in Dreamweaver, Photoshop, J Album to create Slideshows. Reference Contact Person: Dale Miller (Proprietor) - 610.262.4566.
www.odysseygreenenergy.com - Odyssey Management Group, Inc. - Green Renewable Energy Products - Northampton, PA. - Completely designed and developed in Dreamweaver, Created Slideshow with J Album. Reference Contact Person: George Acerra (CEO) - 610-739-6934. www.allentown-steel-fabricating.com - Allentown Steel Fabricating - Catasauqua, PA. - Completely designed and embrace developed in Dreamweaver (Macromedia), Photoshop (Adobe) to essay liberty edit images. Reference Contact Person: John Svaboda (Proprietor) - 610-264-2815. www.wjrelectricalcontractors.com - W. J. Embrace Resume? R. Projects? Electrical Contractors - Northampton, PA. Resume? - Completely designed and developed in computer essay why i a laptop this semester Dreamweaver (Macromedia), Photoshop (Adobe) to edit images.
Reference Contact Person: James Rothenberger (President) - 610-262-1934. www.ans-systems.com - ANS Business Forms Systems - Whitehall, PA. - ANS Business Forms Systems - We carry the embrace following items; business forms, continuous carbonless computer forms. Essay Why I? For example; some of embrace, our forms include; bill of essays on gibbs reflective model, ladings, inventory tags, invoices, cleaning, export, jewelry repair, service, landscape forms, statements, sales purchase orders, proposals, custom labels, continuous labels, laser labels. Homepage is responsive, we are still working on resume the rest of the pages. Reference Contact Person: Alan J. Essay For Children Day? Phillips (Proprietor) - 601-266-0899. May 1994 - May 1996 - Hycon Corporation - Allentown, PA - Head of Literature Deptartment. Reorganized department.Color coded shelves and had a color coded key to embrace resume make the literature easy to find when I was not there (this was a part-time position). Management Construction Thesis? There were over embrace resume 100 pieces of literature that compiled our company catalog. Provided salesman with necessary training manuals.
These manuals had to be assembled and manually bound on a spiral binding machine. I organized one set of shelves to stock 10 – 12 of each manual (15 different manuals). Help With Out Divorce? Since this position was part-time, I only embrace, worked until 1:00pm or 2:00pm. The salesman had access to the manuals even if I was not there. Corresponded with all customers and filled all literature requests. May 1994 - May 1996 - Treher Office Products - Allentown, PA - Accounts Receivable Department. Received all customer’s checks and matched to appropriate accounts. Applied all payments to dar essay island the accounts on the computer. Totaled daily deposits, reported deposits to a secured phone line and took the embrace daily deposit to ellis the bank. Computed daily deposits and ran daily reports.
I work well with others in team situations. I can fulfill the embrace roll of team player or team leader, depending on where I am needed. I enjoy the challenge of work projects, the opportunity to express myself creatively and the chance to work with the ellis public when the opportunity arises. Embrace Resume? I would like this to essays work for embrace, a company that I can establish a career and retire with, I am hoping that this company is hiring an employee who will be there for the long-haul. I am a fast-learner and ellis island I feel that I could be an embrace resume asset to anyone who hires me.
The links above to the testimonial's from my clients will vouch for out divorce, my work ethics.
Write My Essay : 100% Original Content -
How to Embrace the Most Embarrassing Parts of Your …
10 Things Smart PhDs Do NOT Put On Their Industry Resumes. Embrace Resume? Written by Isaiah Hankel, Ph.D. What are you supposed to do when you send hundreds of resumes out and get nothing back but a few automated responses? This is the assessment management construction, question I was trying to answer my last year of graduate school. I literally sent out embrace, hundreds of risk assessment management projects thesis, resumes. I posted my resume to Monster.com and embrace resume, waited for the tidal wave of industry job offers to roll in. Management? Yeah…that didn’t happen. I polished up a generic resume and embrace, uploaded it to dozens of industry job websites. Risk Assessment Projects Thesis? I remember getting on embrace resume Pfizer and Baxter’s websites, clicking the job opportunities tab, and seeing all the industry job openings. “Yes!” I thought. Piece-of-cake. I’ll just upload my resume and have an offer by the end of the week.
There couldn’t possibly be that many other PhDs out there applying to essay liberty without, the same PhD jobs. Wrong. Embrace Resume? I found out later that some companies receive over 2,000 resumes a day. 2,000 a day! I felt stuck and lost so I asked my academic advisor to help me write my resume. He sent me his CV and said “Here, look at this.” Great. Thanks for nothing. I knew that industry hiring managers weren’t interested in CVs.
How did my advisor not know this? That’s when I realized how little lifetime academics know about reflective getting an industry job. So, I asked one of the job counselors at the graduate school for resume advice. She told me the key to getting an interview was to write a very detailed cover letter, make sure that my education history was at the top of risk projects thesis, my resume, and to embrace, include a one sentence “objective” at the very top of computer essay recieve a laptop semester, my resume. Okay. Embrace Resume? That’s great advice.
Right? Nope. She was wrong too. It wasn’t until 3 months later that I found out just how awful her advice was. Over 427,000 resumes are posted to Monster.com each week—that’s just one job website.
Most companies use Applicant Tracking Software to automatically filter and eliminate 75% of the resumes sent to them. If your resume makes it to the desk of a hiring manager and recruiter, they will spend an average of just 5-7 seconds reading it. Seconds. That’s all you get. All the hours, days, months, and years you’ve spent getting your PhD will come down to just a few seconds. Think of how hard you’ve worked to get to where you are. Are you really going to essay liberty without discipline, throw it all away by not taking the time to get your resume just right? More is more. This is what most PhDs are taught. Triplicates are better than duplicates. An N of 200 is better than an N of 2. A CV with 10 first author publications is resume, better than a CV with one first author publication.
On and on. But, when it comes to creating a strong industry resume for a PhD job, less is dar essay ellis, more. Adding the wrong things or too many things to embrace resume, your resume will keep you from getting the industry job you want. Discipline? A better strategy is to simplify your industry resume down to only the embrace resume, things that industry hiring managers and recruiters actually want to see. Here are 10 things smart PhDs like you should remove from your industry resume: 1. For Children On Republic? Unprofessional email address. Embrace Resume? Three out of four resumes are discarded because they’re sent from an unprofessional email address or have an unprofessional email address attached to their resume or cover letter.
This means you can put yourself ahead of 75% of the other applicants simply by eliminating any references to essays on gibbs, unprofessional email addresses like firstname.lastname@example.org or similar. A lot of PhDs are afraid to use their University email address when applying to jobs because they think their PI is going to embrace resume, hack into their email account and dar essay ellis island, find out they’re trying to leave the lab. Embrace Resume? This won’t happen. PIs don#8217;t have access to risk management projects, your University email account. Embrace Resume? However, if you’re currently working in industry and computer essay why i recieve this, looking to change jobs, don’t use your work email because your boss can absolutely see your emails. Instead, create a very professional gmail address in this format: email@example.com. If this version of your name is taken, then simple insert your middle initial or middle name between your first and last names. 2. Impersonal greeting. Never use an resume impersonal greeting on your resume’s cover letter.
Greetings like #8220;Dear Sirs#8221; or #8220;To Whom It May Concern#8221; are creepy, distant, and outdated. Computer Semester? Most importantly, these greetings makes you seem lazy. Instead of taking the time to embrace resume, research who the hiring manager is, you just threw your hands up in the air and typed a general greeting that could be applied to essays on gibbs reflective model, anyone. As a result, your resume and candidacy were seen as mediocre at best. Smart PhDs always use a personal greeting. They know that over 50% of all top industry jobs are given to resume, referrals, but only help with filling 7% of applicants are referrals.
Let that sink in. Over 50% of the best positions are given to people who have networked and, as a result, have been introduced to a decision-maker or someone who will vouch for embrace them to a decision-maker. Yet, 93% of risk assessment management thesis, people applying to embrace, these jobs are just sending out their resumes blindly and impersonally on the Internet without knowing anyone at the company they want to work for. Essay Why I Should A Laptop This? Which side of the fence are you on? Before you send your resume in, find out who the hiring manager is. Or at least find out the name of someone who works on embrace the team you’re trying to crack into. At the very least, use the name of someone in human resources. Then, connect with people who work at for children on republic day the company you’re seeking employment at. Network on LinkedIn, network at face-to-face events, and do whatever it takes to embrace resume, get to essays on gibbs, know someone well enough to embrace resume, put their name on the first line of help with filling papers, your cover letter. Resume? In the end, your cover letter should be short and management construction, sweet, with a personal greeting (e.g.
Dear Jeremy, Dear Dr. Smith) and should start with a line like, “I have been in contact with Jason Jones , your Regional Sales Manager , who mentioned that your open Project Manager position would be perfect for me.” Putting an objective statement at the top of your resume will not help you get an industry job. Instead, it will paint you into a corner. A better strategy is to embrace resume, use a visual center . A visual center starts at 2 inches from the for children on republic, top of your resume and ends 2 inches below that. This center should be emphasized with graphics, such as textboxes, bullets, and bold fonts. Resume? Load the help with filling, visual center with the embrace, value you will offer the company, such as across-the-board accomplishments, industry-specific skills, a summary of a highly successful project you lead, or even a clipping from a recommendation letter or news article about your work.
Resumes with visual centers that are interesting and computer essay why i should this semester, catch the reader’s eye will be read much more carefully than they would be otherwise. A strong visual center will make you stand out without preventing you from embrace, being considered for additional positions. If you want employers to notice you and island, keep you in mind for resume other positions that you may also be qualified for, replace your objective statement with a visual center. Recruiters and hiring managers spend just a couple of essays reflective model, seconds looking at a resume before deciding whether it’s worth a full read. This means you should show them exactly what they want to resume, see first.
And guess what—they don’t care about the dates. They care about the essay why i should recieve a laptop, title of the position you held, the name of your employers, the location of your employer, and, most importantly, what you achieved. Don’t mistake your resume for a publication citation. It doesn’t need to embrace resume, list the essay why i recieve, dates first. Embrace Resume? When listing past employment, exclude the dates or at least list them last. If you really want to get your resume read, list your experience by relevance, not by essay why i should recieve this semester date.
Just like you can sort publications on PubMed by relevance to embrace resume, a specific topic, you can sort your work experience by relevance to a specific position. Always put your work experience above your education history. Smart PhDs never bury the lead on their resumes. Your lead is what employers want to read most on your resume. Dar Essay? Drop the dates and the dated mentality. Instead, create a strong visual center, followed by a list of work experience sorted by relevance to the position you#8217;re applying for. Industry employers do not want to read about your job duties. They care about the outcomes you achieved, not how you achieved the outcomes. Your resume does not need a methodology section. Delete any reference to “job duties” or “responsibilities included.” Instead, list key achievements as tangibly as possible. Unlike your typical CV, a good industry resume is always accomplishment-focused.
This means that within seconds of reading your resume, employers should be able to resume, see that the return on investment for hiring you is higher than the discipline, salary you are asking for. You must demonstrate that you can save your potential employer time and resume, make them money. Risk Construction Thesis? If you’ve spent your entire career in academia, you can still add tangible outcomes to embrace, your resume. For example, you could say, “Helped PI recognize over essay on republic day, $1,000,000 in grant funding by skillfully leading a team of scientists to complete all projects on time, resulting in embrace resume grant renewal every year.” Do not waste precious resume space on listing the on gibbs, contact information of three professional references. Don’t even waste space on writing “References Upon Request.” Employers know that you have references.
If you don’t, then you shouldn’t be applying for the job in the first place. You should be networking. 7. Typos and resume, grammatical errors. If you can’t spell #8220;Technical Specialist#8221; correctly, you shouldn#8217;t be one. At least that#8217;s what employers will think when they read a typo on your resume. Surveys and studies show that top companies care more about communication and interpersonal skills than anything else when interviewing new candidates. Risk Assessment Management Construction Thesis? One of the very first indicators employers will have of resume, your communication skills is your industry resume.
If it is riddled with mistakes, you will not move to the interview stage. Your industry resume must be absolutely perfect. If you’re not a good writer or if English is not your native language and you’re submitting your resume in English, make sure you have a professional editor proofread it for errors. You don’t need to pay hundreds of dollars for this. You can find worthy editors on eLance and Fiverr who will polish your resume for as little as $5. Essay? Once you’ve had your resume professionally proofread, go back and insert relevant keywords into embrace resume, it. Then have it proofread again.
This is the best and day, most successful sequence to follow. Resume? First, write your resume without considering keywords so it flows well. Then, have it proofread. Next, add keywords. And finally, have it proofread again. Using relevant keywords is critical to getting your resume past the Applicant Tracking Software checkpoint. It’s also important for getting your resume past recruiters and hiring managers who will use the “Find” function on on gibbs reflective their computers to do quick keyword searches on your resume.
The best place to find the keywords you should use is in resume the job description of the position you’re applying for. For example, if the description contains the phrase “project management” over discipline, and over againas in, project management experience requiredyou can bet the hiring managers entered it into their Applicant Tracking Software and that they will search for resume it themselves once they have your resume in hand. Publications don#8217;t matter in industry. Even hiring managers for industry RD positions don’t care about dar essay island your publications. This is especially true at the resume-reading stage of the resume, hiring process. I know—it hurts. I’m sorry. There may be a few outdated hiring managers or RD directors who will insist that publications should be listed on an applicant’s resume, but they’re simply wrong. Smart PhDs know that putting their publication record on an industy resume is a waste of time.
They know that industry employers want to dar essay, see work experience and results, not publications or education history. Embrace? You’ve worked hard on your publications and should be proud of them, but don’t let your pride get in the way of for children on republic, creating a sharp resume. Besides, your publication record isn’t going anywhere. Once you get to the interview stage, if hiring managers want to bring up the papers you’ve published, they will. Recruiters and hiring managers have mountains of resumes sent to them daily. Recall that some companies receive thousands of resume, resumes a day and most of these will be filtered out by essays on gibbs model Applicant Tracking Software. The remaining resumes will be further filtered out by embrace employers who are unwilling to read anything beyond a bullet point followed by a single sentence. Think of dar essay island, writing an industry resume as the opposite of writing an academic journal article.
Instead of using dense text and long paragraphs to construct a well-formulated argument, you want to simplify everything down into embrace, digestible nuggets of information. Avoid turnoffs like small, dense font styles and on gibbs reflective model, sizes. Avoid run-on sentences. Avoid paragraphs altogether. Smart PhDs put everything on their resume behind a bullet point, number, or header and never put more than two sentences together at resume a time. 10. Overly personal information. Industry resumes that are submitted with photos are rejected 88% of the time.
Why? Because submitting a photo is assessment construction thesis, too personal. Don’t make the mistake of getting too personal too soon. The most important rule of writing an effective industry resume is to leave off all personal information. If you’re smart and have followed the other points in this article, you know that networking and finding strong references is the most important thing you can do to embrace resume, get your resume read. The only personal information you should submit with your resume is a short cover letter with a personal greeting and a personal reference—a reference who works at the company you’re applying to.
However, don’t be afraid to management thesis, add a line (just one, single line) to your resume indicating a particular award you’ve received or leadership role you’ve held in the past, especially if it’s a non-academic award or leadership role. Things like “Captain of the swim team winning 3 consecutive awards for leadership” or “Four-time Habitat for Humanity project leader and Eagle Scout” will help differentiate you from the piles of resumes coming in from PhDs who having nothing but academic achievements to reference. Finally, it’s important to understand that almost every company you apply to (up to 93% of embrace, them) will Google your name and look up your social media profiles. Before you submit your resume, make sure your social media profiles are professional and display a unified message. To learn more about transitioning into a non-academic career, including instant access to ellis, our exclusive training videos, case studies, industry insider documents, transition plan, and private online network, join the Cheeky Scientist Association. Latest posts by Isaiah Hankel Ph.D. (see all) Industry Transition Spotlight: James Morris, PhD - October 5, 2017 Industry Transition Spotlight: Karin Weigelt, PhD - September 28, 2017 Climbing Career Ladders (Industry Careers For PhDs Podcast) - September 28, 2017.
Get Your Free Industry “Insider Booklet” Your First Step In Your Transition To Industry. Some good advice here. Embrace Resume? The visual centre is a good concept however if the organisation uses resume scanning software then graphics will cause problems. Keep it clean and readable by the software and then by a human if you are lucky enough to construction projects, make the first cut. Thanks for sharing your opinion Sally. Resume? Some very good points made and to stress the point on essays on gibbs model typos and resume, grammatical errors please take notice of the following: #8220;However, don’t be afraid to management construction projects thesis, add a line (just one, single line) to your resume indicating a particular award you’re received or leadership roll you’ve held in the past, especially if it’s a non-academic award or leadership roll.#8221; I believe you meant to resume, say #8220;you#8217;ve#8221; instead or #8220;you#8217;re#8221; and #8220;role#8221; instead of #8220;roll#8221; Thanks for the find Marwah, though you may have missed the point of the help with, article. No actually, I appreciate the article and I am implementing your suggestions accordingly. Embrace? #8220;7. Typos and without discipline, grammatical errors. If you can’t spell “Technical Specialist” correctly, you shouldn’t be. one. At least that’s what employers will think when they read a typo on your resume.#8221; ..condescends poster for being pedantic#8230; PS: this is resume, your resume for people you#8217;re convincing to take your advice.
Thanks a lot for this great article !. Where can i find a clear picture of the example shown in advice number 3.) Objective statement ? Thanks for on gibbs reflective the advice. The above are very handy. Should I even mention my PhD when applying for resume industry jobs? Sorry, it sounds like a stupid question, but sometimes I feel it quite awkward and out of papers, place given that my PhD topic is resume, totally unrelated to risk assessment construction, many of the resume, jobs I apply for anyway. Excellent advice. Any chance the #8220;After#8221; template is available for on republic day download somewhere? Are there any examples of how a resume should look like for recently graduated PhD?
Im curious, because I just don#8217;t know what to include in my resume if my publications does not matter (not that I have that many)? I only embrace have education and in my country a PhD is considered as work. Also, in my resume I have a section called key skills mentioning things like software, lab equipment etc. My PhD has been more of engineering type of work. I have been developing an optical sensor. I would prefer to go to industry now. so I am trying to increase my chances. Really enjoy reading your posts. Keep up the great work! I do not question your suggestion in point #8 to essays, remove publications from a resume. However, a first author publication on embrace resume a resume shows successful teamwork, strong communication skills, and conclusive results!
It would seem to me that those are exactly the qualities that companies would be looking for in prospective candidates. Can you explain why these qualities should be devalued? Suggestion for publications: just put a link to your MyNCBI publication list at the bottom of your resume. This will not eat up more than two lines of space. If a potential employer is really interested in you and your work, then everything that you#8217;ve done is there. Excellent advice. Anybody have an existing LaTeX template that is laid out according to these principles? These articles make me nauseous; not because they are untrue, but because they are very true. Just sad when even a PhD in a complete #8216;nerd#8217; position has to impress the former clothing sales girl with ADD, then the bean counter who needs to know how much money you can save the corporation.
If you#8217;re applying for a PR/marketing or finance position then fine, but seriously#8230; Does nobody care that #8216;getting hired#8217; is now the primary skill in why i today#8217;s job market? Could this conceivably not end well? In fact it already is. PS- also not knocking your advice, but on every page an embrace expert offers a different take; case in point the day, photo on a resume. Agree. I#8217;m not a PhD but a writer. I have taken a hint from the embrace, resumes of software engineers I#8217;ve worked with in tech. Write for essay should this the person who understands the resume, skills you bring, and try to get to that person directly.
As an industry RD hiring manager (currently hiring), this article frustrates me quite a bit. In my scan of resumes, one of the first things I look at is the dates of your education and work experience so I can understand your career path, and right after that I want to look at your publications. I don#8217;t want to hear how you got a $1M grant, I want to know that you were able to for children day, get a high quality scientific publication published because that was the primary output of your PhD. While I agree that industry hiring managers are looking for specific things and some of this post I agree with, I think some is plain bad advice. The biggest thing I want in your resume is clarity I want to see every major accomplishment in your career so far, including publications, as quickly and embrace, clearly as possible.
Thank you Yvar! I#8217;m currently looking for jobs and I was debating on if I should list my publication records (which is very good) on help filling papers my CV or not. And I saw this article, and I was so frustrated because I believe somebody who did their job well in his previous position is more likely to do their next job well. Embrace? Even that the publication record shouldn#8217;t mean everything, it should mean something. It#8217;s a representation of computer why i should a laptop, what you have achieved and what you are capable of as a Ph.D. or researcher. I#8217;m glad that as a hiring manager you think the same, that gives me quite a lot encouragement #128578; Hi, I am a recent PhD graduate and actively looking for embrace an industry job, though not really successful! I am looking for a professional Resume writer to help me with re-construct my industry CV.
Anyone here has a suggestion where I can find one? I too am in discipline the same fight and this person at top resume really gave me the almost exact advice and offers packages to help you with your overall industry profile. firstname.lastname@example.org. Ready To Get Started? Join Cheeky! Cheeky Scientist is a training platform for academics who want to transition into non-academic careers.
The Cheeky Scientist Association is our specialized training program for PhDs who want to embrace, transition into industry. The site is not a part of the essay liberty without, Facebook website or Facebook inc. Embrace? Additionally, this site is NOT endorsed by Facebook in any way. FACEBOOK is a trademark of FACEBOOK inc.
Pay for Essay and Get the Best Paper You Need -
Resume Isn't Perfect? Stop Worrying And Embrace Your…
Essay on embrace Rural Development in India. Read this essay to learn about Rural Development in India. After reading this essay you will learn about:- 1. Introduction to filling out divorce papers Rural Development 2. Activities and Experiments Undertaken for Rural Development 3. Embrace? The Rural Development Programmes 4. Institutions 5. Observations and Problems 6. Suggestions. Essay on the Introduction to Rural Development Essay on the Activities and Experiments Undertaken for Rural Development Essay on the Rural Development Programmes Essay on the Institutions for Rural Development in India Essay on the Observations and help filling out divorce, Problems of Rural Development Essay on the Suggestions for resume Rural Development in India. 1. Essay on liberty the Introduction to Rural Development: The definition of embrace, Rural is residuary become all over essays on gibbs reflective the world that is resume defined as an urban area and whatever is not urban known as rural. In India a settlement is defined as urban if it fulfils either of the dar essay island following conditions, were adopted in the 1991 census: (i) All statutory towns, i.e.; all places with a municipality corporation, municipality board, cantonment board or notified town area etc. (ii) A minimum population of 5,000. (iii) At least 75 per cent of the Male working population engaged in resume, non-agricultural and allied activity, (iv) A density of population of at help out divorce papers, least 400 persons per square kilometres. Thus, the term ‘Rural’ essentially means an area, which is characterised as non-urban style of life, occupational structure and embrace resume, settlement pattern.
‘Development’ in risk management construction thesis, general refers to the process of embrace, a general improvement in discipline, levels of living together, decreasing inequality in incomes and the capacity to sustain continuous improvements overtime. Embrace Resume? Thus the term Rural Development is viewed as an activity of a series of activities or a process, which either improves the on gibbs model immediate living conditions-economic, social, political, cultural and environmental or increases the potential for embrace resume future living or both of the rural people. The Royal commission on Agriculture defined Rural Development as: “We cannot too strongly state our conviction that the directorship of agriculture is one of the essay why i should recieve a laptop this key posts in Rural Development and that agricultural advance must in a very great degree depend upon the stability of the officer.” The taskforce appointed by the Planning Commission on Integrated Rural Development in 1972 defined Rural Development as: “After a careful consideration we have belatedly decided to take what might be considered a rather restricted view of the resume expression. ‘Rural Development’ we have chose to equate it with agricultural development in the widest sense so as to embrace besides crop husbandry, all the allied activities.” According to papers the view of World Bank “Rural Development as a strategy design to improve the economic and social life of a specific group of people – The rural (people) poor.
It involves extending the benefits of development to the poorer among those who seek a livelihood in rural areas. The group includes small-scale farmers, tenants and the landless.” Rural Development means a strategy to embrace improve the economic and social life of the rural poor and the rural weak in the overall spectrum of development and risk thesis, growth. It is embrace not only important to raise the agricultural productivity and the rate of overall economic growth in the rural areas, but also it is to ensure that the poor and weaker sections share the help with filling papers benefit. “Rural Development as a process in complex and involves the embrace interaction of economic, social, political, technological and other situational factors.
These have to be integrated with Government policies and plans with the essays on gibbs objective of improving the quality of life of the resume people in the villages”. Rural Development encompasses: (i) Improvement in levels of living, including employment, education, health and nutrition housing and a laptop, a variety of social services. (ii) Decreasing inequality in distribution of rural incomes and in rural-urban balances in embrace, incomes and economic opportunities and. (iii) The capacity of the essays on gibbs model rural sector to embrace resume sustain and dar essay ellis island, accelerate the pace of these improvements. The critical element in the Rural Development is improvement living standards of the embrace resume poor through opportunities for better utilisation of their physical and computer why i should this semester, human resources in the absence of this utilisation of rural resources has no functional significance.
Making the process of rural development self-sustaining of capital and use of technology for the benefit of the poor but their active involvement in the building up of embrace resume, institutions as well as functioning of these. There are a number of definitions of rural development. But that varies according to time, priority and nature of rural activities. Despite of differences, the academicians, planners and policy makers have always laid emphasis for the all-round development of the rural activities. However, Rural Development as a concept and as series of experiments in alternative methods of organising production, welfare and essay, exchange in rural activities has a long history and embrace resume, is not the monopoly of any single system or country. Its recent popularity however is mainly symptomatic of the failure of technocratic and growth strategies pursued by most developing countries in the 1950s and 1960s.
Academics, nationals and international policy makers are carrying out the search for computer should this semester solution to the twin problems of rural poverty and unemployment. The noted Western economists like, Kuznets, Gerschenkron, Floud and Mccloskey provide useful insights into embrace the history of economic development of the present day developed countries. The growth of output and productivity in on republic day, these countries during last 10 to 15 decades has been qualitatively different from that observed in earlier periods. Modern Economic growth since the late 18th century is different from periods of growth in earlier times in three specific respects. Firstly, the ownership and use of economic surplus were 34 Rural Development in India separated for the first time. Those who used this surplus as capital in the production process did not necessarily own it as they did in the land-based feudal pre-industrial system.
Secondly, extensive use of an acceptable unit of exchange called money helped in expansion of market, which made specialization and embrace, mobility possible. Lastly, mobility of both capital and labour in pursuit of higher gains to urban areas and construction projects thesis, distant lands occurred on an unprecedented scale. Resume? The consequent increase in output and productivity were substantial and sustained over a long period of time. These impressive increases were also accompanied by growth of population and large-scale migration from not only rural to urban areas but from nation to nation and from continent to continent. Historically experience suggests that, when seen in long-term perspective, economic growth has been accompanied by specialisation centralization, maximization, urbanization and industrialization. History shows that, poverty has been diminished by the growth of labour increased productivity in the agricultural sector and migration of labour to urban non-agricultural activities. The population movement occurred mainly because industry could offer the incentive of higher wages and better employment opportunities. The role of the State has been changing significantly since the dar essay ellis Eighteenth Century. Traditionally the Government’s activities could be divided into three departments namely, defense, Public works and internal administration. A healthy balance among the three ensured stable regimes with the advent of modern economic development; the “Public works” component has been an expanding area of State activity.
Modern development policy makers while, recognising the importance of infrastructure have been rather ambiguous about the contents of infrastructure is one of the embrace very few illuminating contributions on essay liberty discipline the subject. Embrace Resume? Infrastructure includes all things provided by the State, which promote directly or indirectly productive activities. Transport, irrigation, power, water supply, health, education and urban services are considered important elements of risk management construction thesis, infrastructure. In a mixed economy, with a relatively important public sector, provision of infrastructure has to be carefully planned and provided by the State. The State playing an important role in development. Policy makers and planners have started devoting more to “rural development’ in their declarations and documents on national planning policies. In various ways and for various motives they have attempted to relate to the problems of their own rural poor. Despite, substantial and impressive increase in growth of agricultural and food outputs in some regions of a number of developing countries the plight of small and marginal farmers, agricultural and landless labourers, artisans and small retailers has not been improved significantly. In India the term ‘Rural Development’ is not a very old phenomenon. Early in the century their exist the British rule. In that time, rural development was a minor symphony in resume, the governmental orchestra.
The functions of the Government were limited and even the spread of without, each function was narrowly restricted. Thus, Development cannot but be of minor meaning and significance in the structure of the priorities of colonialism, which was also reflected in the rural areas. The decade 1920-30 was very significant from the view of embrace resume, early pioneering efforts at rural development in India. The noted social Thinkers, Educationists, Politicians started such efforts in our country; in dar essay ellis island, early 20s. 2. Embrace? Essay on the Activities and Experiments Undertaken for Rural Development: Programmes and Projects in essay liberty without discipline, Pre-Independence Periods: The important activities and experiments undertaken for rural development in Pre-Independence periods are: (i) Sriniketan Experiments:
This programme was pioneered by noted scholar of the country Rabindranath Tagore. The important objective of the embrace experiment was Economic and Moral rehabilitation of the rural community. (ii) Martandum Project: One Rural Reconstruction Programme was initiated by Spancer Hatch at Martandum (South Travancore) in risk assessment construction projects thesis, 1921. Martandum rural reconstruction Centre was opened with a five- sided programme popularly called as “The Five Sided Triangle” Comprising Spirit, Mind, Body, Economic and Social side. The philosophy of rural reconstruction embraced principles known as “Pillars of Policy”. The principle of ‘Self Help’ was maintained.
The project became the centre of comprehensive programmes of rural development. (iii) The Gurugaon Experiment: The important village uplift movement was initiated by I.L.Brayne the Deputy Commissioner of Gurugaon district in 1920. Embrace Resume? This village development programme called as the “Gurugaon Scheme”. The Gurugaon Scheme claimed to deal with the whole life and the activity of the peasant and his family and to present a complete remedy from the terrible conditions in essay for children on republic, with they lived. (iv) Rural Reconstruction Movement in Baroda: The important rural reconstruction centre was set up in 1932 and the work commenced in a group of villages round Kosamba (Navasri district). The movement aimed at improvement in embrace resume, all aspect of rural life, changing the outlook of the agriculturists, the attainment of higher standard of living. (v) Sarvodaya Scheme of Bombay: This scheme was based on the Gandhiji’s idea of Sarvodaya. The important aim of the project is to why i should a laptop this semester stop migration of youths to embrace nearest towns and cities.
The supply of food for all, adequate medical facilities, free education, local self-Government, self-employment through cottage industries were highlighted in the programme. (vi) Firka Development Scheme: The Firka Development Scheme aimed at the attainment of the Gandhian ideal of “Village Swaraj” by brining about not only the education, economic, sanitary and other improvements of village along with the risk assessment management construction thesis revitalisation of the spirit if people and to make them self-confident and embrace, self-reliant. The schemes involved close coordination with the various Government services like, agriculture, veterinary, irrigation, industries, medical and communication departments. Assessment? The scheme was later merged with the National Extension Services in 1953-54. Programmes and Projects in Post-Independence Period: Programmes and resume, projects were also launched in post-independence and pre-planning periods. The important among them are: (1) The Pilot Development Project of help with filling, Etawah: The Project began under the embrace resume sponsorships of the provincial Governments of essay without discipline, Uttar Pradesh in late 1948. The important objectives of the project were to increase the degree of resume, productivity, social improvements, promotion of self-confidence and cooperation. The pilot project at Etawah treated as one of the most successful rural development project of the World.
The project also exhibited the exemplary Cooperation and Coordination of Government, volunteers and dar essay ellis, others. (2) The Nilokheri Experiment : India divided in 1947. Resume? The Rehabilitation of displaced persons coming from Pakistan gathered importance. In order to dar essay island provide them gainful employment a new township was developed at Nilokheri in 1948 with the efforts of Sri S.K.Dey. Sri Dey evolved a faith were to activate and support a triple charter of rights such as: (i) Right to embrace resume live, (ii) Right to work for living and. (iii) Right to receive what is earned. To give a practical shape to this charter or rights a new scheme known as the “Mazdoor Manzil” was drawn up. The basic concept of the Mazdoor Manzil was to stop the one-way traffic of help with filling out divorce, labour, material, skill and culture from villages to town. The township was intended to include institutions for medical relief and resume, sanitation, Higher Education, Technical and Vocational Training, Veterinary aid and agricultural extension embracing agriculture, horticulture, poultry, piggery, fishery, sheep breeding and other forms of essay recieve a laptop semester, animal husbandry. The project was highly appreciated by the then Prime Minister Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru.
The Planning for Rural Development have been received utmost attention by the planners and policy makers along with the National Plan for Economic Development. The rural development strategies were also adopted by resume planners as per essay for children, the methods and strategies adopted for the economic development of the country. Embrace Resume? India adopted both the centralised and decentralised planning models in the process of its planned economic development. The First Five Year Plan (1950-51 to 1955-56) adopted the Harrod-Domar model of capital accumulation and saving mobilisation as its methodological approach towards planning. Under this approach, the process of economic development must start from the villages.
In this context, the mobilization of peoples participation was required. In order to implement this ideology the Community Development Programme (CDP) was conceived. The Block administration was created as a centre of Rural Development activities. This programme failed as blocks were quite big and left the essays on gibbs reflective weaker section untouched. The programme was also implemented in Orissa. The State planning machinery followed the embrace objectives and guidelines fixed by Central Government.
The Second Five Year Plan (1955-56 to 1960-61) based on Feldman-Mahalnobis model of sectoral growth. Essay Without Discipline? This strategy emphasised investment in heavy industry to embrace resume achieve industrialization, which was assumed to be the basic condition for rapid economic development. A good deal of reliance was placed on cottage and small industries with the dar essay ellis island aim of reducing rural under employment, unemployment. As against this background no important specialised rural development programme was launched during the resume second plan period. However, steps were taken to strengthen the ongoing community development programme. In this respect the, need for viable institutional base was felt and the Panchayati Raj System was introduced during the computer essay should a laptop plan period. Besides, specialised rural economic development programmes like, Intensive Agricultural District Programme (IADP), Khadi and Village Industries Programme (KVI), Multi-purpose Tribal Development, Village Housing Projects/Schemes were also introduced in rural areas of the country. As a part of the Union, the specialised sectoral development programmes were also introduced in Orissa. In the Third Five Year Plan (1960-61-to-1965-66) all round agricultural development was envisaged. Increased agricultural production in the farm sector and activities allied to agriculture received topmost priority during the plan period.
The important agricultural development programmes bringing green revolution strategy like Intensive Agricultural Area Programme (IAAP) and embrace resume, High Yield Varieties Programme (HYVP) were implemented in the country. It is observed that, the benefits accrued only to rich and progressive peasants. Once again, landless and agricultural labourers were left untouched. Essay Day? Besides, rural industries project for the promotion of village industries was also launched during the said plan period. Health and Nutrition is regarded as important inputs required for improvement in the quality of life. To ensure appropriate and adequate nutrition to the children, for their growth Applied Nutrition Programme was introduced during the Third Five Year Plan. The Fourth Five Year Plan (1969-74) in the name of “Growth with social justice” initiated efforts towards uplifting the vulnerable sections of rural society. In this connection a number of ‘area development oriented’ and ‘Target Oriented’ programmes were introduced. Programmes such as Small Farmers Development Agency (SFDA), Small Farmers and Agricultural Labourers Development Agency (MFAL), Drought Prone Area Programme (DPAP), Tribal Area Development Programme (TADP) were introduced as the resume important rural development programmes.
These rural development programmes did succeed, but only in limited areas and numbers. This plan paved the path for a number of essay day, rural development and poverty alleviation programmes in resume, the country. These programmes were implemented through the essay for children on republic existing administrative apparatus at block and village levels. Employment generation programmes like, Crash Scheme for Rural Employment and Pilot Intensive Rural Employment Programme were also launched during the plan period. Embrace Resume? The Fifth Plan (1974-79) based on the Inter-sectoral transactions model of Leontief which emphasised on strengthening the inter-sectoral linkages for balanced growth in sectors. The most important objectives of the Fifth Plan Period was: (i) Removal of poverty and.
(ii) Achievement of self-reliance. In order to attain these objectives. Essay Why I Should Recieve A Laptop? The Programmes like, Command Area Development Programme (CADP), Hill Area Development Programme (HADP), Minimum Needs Programme (MNP), Food for Work Programme (FFW) were introduced, during the plan period. Besides, in order to embrace resume promote small-scale, village and cottage industries the District Industries Centres (DICs) were set up in all districts of the country. The 20-point Economic Programme was also introduced during the liberty without said plan period. The Sixth Five Year Plan (1980-85) aimed at the removal of poverty, growth, modernisation, self-reliance and social justice. In order to attain all-round development in rural areas, one single integrated programme called Integrated Rural Development Programme (IRDP) was conceived.
IRDP is regarded as a multi-level, multi-sector and multi-section concept of rural development. As a multi-level concept it encompasses rural development at various levels such as viable cluster of village communities, districts and blocks. Embrace Resume? As a multi- sector concept, it embraces development in various sectors and sub-sectors of the on gibbs reflective rural areas such as agriculture, industry, education, health and embrace, transportation etc. As a multi-section concept, it encompasses socio-economic development of various sections and sub-sections of rural population such as Small farmers, Marginal farmers, Landless and agricultural labourers, Artisans, Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes. Besides IRDP, the employment generation programmes like, National Rural Employment Programme (NREP), Rural Landless Employment Guarantee Programme (RLEGP), Economic Rehabilitation or Rural Poor (ERRP), Training of Rural Youth for Self-Employment (TRYSEM), Self Employment for on republic the Educated Unemployed Youths (SEEUY). Development of Women and embrace resume, Children in Rural Areas (DWCRA) etc. were also introduced during the said plan period. The important objectives of the on gibbs model Seventh Five Year Plan (1985-90) were; building an independent self-reliant economy, establishment of social system based on embrace equity and justice, reduction of regional imbalance and adoption of advanced technologies.
The plan intended; to continue the rural development programmes launched/implemented during the Sixth Five Year Plans. Besides, some rural infrastructural development programmes like, Indira Awas Yojana (IAY) Integrated Rural Energy Planning Programme (IREP), Jawahar Rozgar Yojana (JRY), Million Wells Scheme (MWS), etc. were implemented as the special rural development programmes during the plan period. The Eighth Five Year Plan (1992-97) aimed at generation of adequate employment opportunities, Universalisation of elementary education, provision of safe drinking water and primary health care facilities, and strengthening the computer a laptop this infrastructure. The special rural development and poverty alleviation programmes implemented in embrace, earlier plans were also intended to continue during the Eighth Five Year Plan. In order to boost earlier infrastructure and employment generation programmes the new and help with filling, culmination programmes like, Intensified Jawahar Rozgar Yojana (IJRY), Employment Assurance Scheme (EAS), Operation Black Board (OBB), and District Primary Education Programme (DPEP) were introduced. The Ninth Five Year Plan (1997-2002) aimed at generating employment opportunities in resume, the secondary sector, all-round development of agricultural sector, strengthening the rural economy through development of agro-based industries, small- scale village and cottage industries and elimination of poverty. As against these objectives, the programmes for self- employment, and supplementary wage employment and filling papers, other programmes intended to continue during the Ninth Plan with some modifications. These important antipoverty programmes include the IRDP, TRYSEM, JRY, IAY, IJRY, SFPP, DPAP and EAS etc. The IRDP, DWCRA, TRYSEM, MWS were in operation till the end of 1998-99. It was felt that; this fragmented approach with a multiplicity of schemes was not able to focus on the needs of the embrace resume rural poor in a coherent manner. Hence these schemes were amalgamated by Government of India and merged into a single new scheme called Swarnajayanti Gram Swarojgar Yojana (SGSY) with effect from 1.4.1999.
In order to create adequate infrastructural development the Jawahar Gram Samridhi Yojana (JGSY) was also implemented on the same date. All the plan strategies for rural development based on various approaches like, growth-based approach in first Three Five Year Plans (First Five Year Plan, Second Five Year Plan, Third Five Year Plan), which was popularly known as trickle down approach. The Fourth Five Year Plan based on Target group approach. The Fifth Five Year Plan highlights the target group approach with equal importance to Minimum Needs approach to rural development. The Sixth, Seventh, Eighth and Ninth Five Year Plan in our country adopt the target group approach for rural development. The important elements of rural development strategies are: (1) Appropriate Institutional Arrangements. (2) Labour – Intensive agriculture and Minor development works. (3) A hierarchy of development centres to bridge the wide gap between rural and urban areas and self- reliance.
(4) An active policy for social development, and. (5) Appropriate Organisational arrangements. The Rural Development Programmes based on various approaches and strategies. Essays Reflective? These are varies according to plan and the Nature of the programme. However, all the Rural Development Programmes have its own feature, objectives finance system, implementation and monitoring as well as success and failure. The discussion on resume some of the important rural development programme will throw light in this respect. 3. Essay on the Rural Development Programmes in India: India started her planned economic development through Five Year Plans in the year 1950-51. The economy of the Country has been dominated by the rural and traditional economic sectors.
The productivity of essay liberty, these sectors has not changed significantly over the period of 50 years. The existence of massive unemployment and poverty is the common feature of Indian economy in general and rural economy in particular. The infrastructure of the country has not developed up to the world standard. It is resume proper to mention here that, we have achieved little over the period of 50 years of planned economic development. The planners and policy makers have been laid best possible efforts for dar essay ellis island the development of the economy and rural development. Resume? Due to a number of factors, desired success has not been achieved so far. However, we would like to discuss some of the important rural development programmes implemented in our country as well as the essays reflective states and Union Territories from time to time. Resume? The aims and objectives of liberty without discipline, these programmes are national in nature and the progress and achievements are based on the secondary data available.
As one of the under developed state, the progress and achievements of embrace resume, rural development programmes of Orissa. Some comparative analysis of the R.D. Programmes implemented in the country and the State Orissa is also made. Since 1951 a number of essays on gibbs reflective model, rural development programmes have been implemented in our Country. Among such programmes/schemes, twenty five important rural development programmes considered for analysis. Embrace? These programmes covers all plan periods i.e.; First Five Year Plan (1950-51 to 1955-56) to computer why i recieve a laptop this Eighth Five Year Plan (1992-97). (i) Community Development Programme (CDP): India as an embrace resume, independent Country started its planned economic development process in the year 1950-51.
The First Five Year Plan 1950-51 to 1955-56 based on methodical approach. Computer Essay Why I Should Recieve A Laptop This? The noted Harrod-Domar Model of development was adopted in the said plan. Resume? The model emphasised on on gibbs model capital accumulation and saving. The process of economic development must start from the resume village was also emphasised in the first plan. In this context, the mobilisation of people’s participation is essential and to implement this ideology, the Community Development Programme (CDP) was conceived. The Community Development Programme was launched on 2nd October 1952.
A general village community in India can be divided into six main groups as follows: (i) The owners of land and ellis, those who have hereditary rights of tenancy. (ii) The sub-tenants or tenants at will. (iii) Landless Agricultural labourers. (iv) Village Artisans. (v) Money lenders and Shopkeepers. (vi) Persons in the professions or in personal services, e.g. doctors, lawyers, barbers, village officials. Taking all into embrace resume consideration the assessment construction objectives of embrace, Community Development Programme was framed.
The important objective of Community Development Programme is to create an urge among the essays reflective model rural people for embrace a better life and to on gibbs reflective show the way to satisfying this urge predominantly by means of self-help. Embrace Resume? This objective is to be attained by revitalising the existing village institutions and creating new ones where ever necessary. The programme emphasized to give effects to an intensive and comprehensive programme covering all aspects of rural life; i.e.; agriculture, rural industries, education, housing, health, recreation and services etc. and aimed at utilizing under a democratic set up the surplus labour force in rural areas for development purpose. It also aims at the largest possible extension of the help with out divorce papers principle of cooperation and every effort to made to make rural families credit worthy. The Community Development Programme as a people’s programmes introduced and implemented through Local-self Government and the rural people. The Local Self Government get further boost after the recommendation of Balwantrai Mehta’s formulation of Democratic decentralisation in the forms of village Panchayats, Panchayat Samities and Zilla Parishads. The Finance for the Community Development Programme is drawn both from the people and the Government. Being a people’s programme prescribes a qualifying scale of voluntary contribution from the people in resume, the form of labour as well as money. The State Government and the Central Government with due sharing basis meet the balance expenditure in a block. The Community Development Programme was launched in selected blocks of the State Orissa, as pilot programme.
The Community Development Programme received its momentum during Second Five Year Plan. The total expenditure of Rs. 822.91 lakhs was incurred during the Second Plan period for the said programme. By the essay liberty without discipline end of the Third Five Year Plan (1965-66) period there were 147 Stage I blocks, 139 Stage II blocks bringing the total number of blocks to 314. Thus, all the embrace resume blocks were covered under Community Development Programme. The total expenditure under this programme was Rs 1767 lakhs. The Community Development Programme has attained its pick during the Fourth Five Year Plan (1969-1974). During the said period all the assessment Stage I block converted to embrace resume Stage II and large number of stage II block to post-stage II blocks. It is observed that there were 43 CD blocks in stage II and the remaining 271 blocks in the post stage II or in stage III.
Total Fund of Rs 850 lakhs were earmarked for essay without discipline the programme. Besides, special development schemes on embrace irrigation, Agriculture extension, animal husbandry, horticulture, drinking water and communication were also implemented in seven backward districts of the State. In this respect a total sum of Rs 225 lakh has been earmarked. The contribution of Community Development Programme to the rural development are: (1) The setting up of a network of help papers, community development blocks covering the embrace length and risk management construction projects, breadth of the country, thus enabling the government to reach the rural population in embrace, almost any aspect of why i should recieve semester, their life, (2) The transfer of powers and functions for implementing the programme to the elected representatives at the village, block and resume, district levels, thereby paving the way for democratic decentralisation through a three-tier Panchayati Raj System. The National Institute of Community Development conducted a survey to assess the impact of CDP They concluded that “the process of modernisation has reached all strata, and going to do so at a faster pace in future, but this has not resulted in any violent reaction on the part of the lower classes”. The ideology of people’s participation through Panchayati Raj System, in absence of proper education and discipline resulted in assessment management construction projects, conspicuous alienation of the weaker sections of the rural communities by the privileged classes. The latter could secure the resume benefits of the programme because their contribution was not free but charged with consideration.
It is observed that the whole programme suffered from with out divorce papers lack of vitality, and was tending to generate only into embrace a number of material benefits for a limited few. The official agencies responsibility for implementation of development activities lacked in understanding the new climate because they were manned by those officials who were trained in the particular framework. Besides, their bureaucratic approach also appeared to be a hindrance in initiating the programmes. The critics complained that the Community Development Programme has given a ‘new look’ but not the ‘food’ to the rural poor. It is no denying a fact that the expenditure on building the institutions for social change was larger than the expenditure incurred on productive purposes. Thus, its social contents superseded the economic contents though it was assumed to the instrument of economic transformation.
(ii) Intensive Agricultural District Programme (IADP): The Intensive Agricultural District Programme (IADP) as a package programme was very strongly recommended by Agricultural Production Team of the Ford Foundation (USA) on 1959. This programme was put into liberty discipline action during 1960-61. The important objective of the embrace resume programme was to improve the agricultural production in essays on gibbs, a integrated and intensified manner. This programme was introduced in selected districts of the country. The selection of these districts was made on the basis of: (a) The district should as far as possible have assured water supply.
(b) It should have a minimum of natural hazards, (c) It should have well developed village Institutions like Cooperatives and Panchayats. (d) It should have maximum potentialities of increasing agricultural production within a comparatively short-time. Taking the criteria into consideration Sambalpur district was selected in Orissa. It was decided to implement for embrace resume the development of essay discipline, Rabi Crops in 1962-63. This programme was introduced in all the 29 blocks of the district. In the second phase of the programme main thrust was given on the increase of higher yielding paddy in the Khariff extending the area under various commercial and horticulture crops and on promoting efficient soil and embrace, water management practices. Required inputs, know how and financial provisions are made for the success of the programme. Sambalpur district not only self-reliant in Rice Production but also treated as a main rice-producing district of the State.
The IADP has been a ‘Path finder’ for successful programme. (iii) Intensive Agricultural Area Programme (IAAP): The Third Five Year Plan (1960-65) aimed to achieve self- sufficiency in food grains and essay liberty without discipline, increase agricultural production to meet the requirements of industry and exports. Besides, the mid-term appraisal of the Third Five Year Plan observed that “Much greater emphasis should be given to the development of scientific and progressive agriculture in an intensive manner in embrace resume, areas where a high agricultural production potentialities”. The Government of India formulated the Intensive Agricultural Area Programme (IAAP) with a view to cover at least 20 per cent to 25 per cent of the cultivated area of the with papers country and this area should be selected for the intensive development of import crops such as wheat, paddy, millets, cotton, sugarcane, potato, pulses etc. The programme was launched in 1964-65. The aim of IAAP was to bring about embrace a progressive increase in the production of main crops in island, selected areas by an intensive package approach i.e.; the use of inter-related factors – physical, social and institutional-in-strategic combination which were likely to exert an impact on agricultural production. It was decided to implement such programme in the selected blocks of the country as well as the state. The selection criteria were the embrace resume blocks having a minimum irrigated area of for children day, 5 thousand acres.
In Orissa a total of 86 blocks were covered under the Intensive Agricultural Area Programme during the period of Fourth Five Year Plan an additional 46 blocks were brought under the programme, taking total coverage of blocks up to 132. The required funds for the programme were met from the plan and non-plan expenditure of the embrace resume Agriculture and allied activities. The programme paved the way for the introduction of Green Revolution in India. The Introduction of High Yielding Varieties Programme (HYVP) reduced the importance of IAA Programme in the State as well in the country. (iv) High Yielding Varieties Programme (HYVP):
The High Yielding Varieties Programme (HYVP) was launched in the country from the kharif seasons of 1966-67 as a major plank of dar essay ellis island, new agricultural strategy under the economic planning system. The important objective of the programme was to attain self-sufficiency in food by the end of 1970-71. The programme envisages the introduction and spread over fairly large areas of the newly identified and evolved high yielding variety of paddy, wheat, maize, jowar and bajra. The HYVP proposes to make a technological break-through in Indian agriculture which consists of the introduction of new and high-yielding varieties of improved seeds, increased application of the right amount of fertilizers and extension of the use of pesticides so that the crop produced is not destroyed by insects. To enable the farmers to undertake this agricultural practice, the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) agreed to relax the embrace usual terms and conditions in respect of Central Cooperative Banks (CCBs) for the purpose of financing such cultivators. During the Fourth Five Year Plan about 742.6 thousand hectares of land was brought under the HYV programme in Orissa. This has increased to about 1860 thousand hectares of land during Fifth Five Year Plan with an dar essay, investment of about Rs. 2 Crores. This programme mainly confined to good land and to those farmers who have the resources and the adaptability to embrace the embrace resume progress of technology. This programme became successful in assessment management thesis, the states like Punjab, Haryana and a part of Gujarat, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu in general and Punjab, and Haryana in particular, where wheat is the main food crop.
The rice and other commercial crops reported insignificant improvement in their production. Orissa as non-wheat producing state received insignificant growth in food production. (v) Small Farmers Development Agency (SFDA): The Reserve Bank of India appointed All-India Rural Credit Review Committee on 1969, under the Chairmanship of Sri B.Venkatappiah. The committee in its-interim report recommended for embrace the establishment of island, Small Farmers Development Agency (SFDA) in following words: “The special efforts proposed are to be restricted to those cultivators who can be developed into surplus farmers if they adopt improved techniques on the basis of embrace, support in terms of supplies, irrigation, services of machinery etc. Appropriate schemes have to be drawn up by technical experts with reference to local resources and requirements, so that such cultivators can undertake specific lines of should recieve a laptop, investment (e.g. sinking of wells) adopt a suitable crop pattern, use modern inputs and so on.
It is to deal with this limited problem that in institutional setup in resume, the form a Small Farmers Development Agency may be established in ellis island, certain selected districts.” The important functions of the Agency was to: (i) Investigate and embrace resume, identify the problems of small farmers and endeavour to see that the provision of various services and supplies to reflective model small farmers is ensured, (ii) Help small farmer to secure loans from co-operative banks and other assistance like obtain improved seeds, fertilizers and other inputs, (iii) The agency is to provide various services such as spraying of insecticides, hiring out of embrace resume, tractors and land leveling to small farmers through the agro-industries corporations or other appropriate bodies and essay liberty, institutions including cooperatives and embrace resume, local authorities such as Zilla Parishad and extension services, (iv) To draw up plans for investment and risk construction, production activities to be undertaken by the cultivators participating in the programme, (v) To explore the possibility of adding to the income of the resume small farmers by assisting them in taking up animal husbandry activities such as dairy and poultry, (vi) It should endeavour to promote the flow of short-term, medium- term and liberty without discipline, long-term co-operative credit to small cultivators for embrace appropriate purposes from the Agricultural Credit Societies and Central Cooperative banks on the one hand and the land development banks on the other. Assessment Construction Thesis? The scheme was included in the Fourth Five Year Plan. However, the scheme actually started functioning on a significance scale in the year 1971-72. The schemes were implemented in selected districts by embrace resume a separate agency constituted under the Societies Registration Act.
The scheme was financed by for children day the State and Central Government on matching basis. The provision of subsidy was also made by the agency at embrace resume, the rate of 25 per cent to non-tribal small farmers, 33.3 per cent to non-tribal marginal farmers and liberty, 50 per embrace resume, cent to Tribal farmers in capital investments and inputs subject to out divorce papers maximum of Rs 3000 and Rs 5000 respectively for embrace resume any farmers. In Orissa, the Small Farmers Development Agency was implemented in three districts. They were Bolangir, Dhenkanal and Ganjam. During first two years of the programme, could not make much headway because of a number of initial difficulties. The loans were advanced to the farmers under this scheme were utilised mostly for productive purposes.
Orissa stand second in utilisation of essays reflective, loans in all-India basis after Kerala. The State utilised about 83.6 per cent of the loans sanctioned under the scheme. During the period between 1971-72 and 1980, about 272 lakh families in embrace, 115 blocks less than seven SFDA were benefitted. The total loans mobilised stood at Rs. 38.4 crores. A total expenditure incurred towards subsidies and help with, agency staff was Rs. 14.8 crores. The SFDA was the first rural development programme in the country where the Central Government, State Government and Financial Institutions maintained proper linkage for the success of the programme. However, the programme had been merged with the resume Integrated Rural Development Programme since 2nd October 1980. (vi) Marginal Farmers and for children day, Agricultural Labourers Development Agency (MFALDA):
The Marginal Farmers and Agricultural Labourers Development Agencies were set up along with SFDA on the recommendation made by embrace Rural Credit Review Committee (1969). The principal objective of the programme is to assist the marginal farmers and agricultural labourers in maximum productive use of help, their small holding and skills by undertaking horticulture, animal husbandry and other economic activities, like rural industries etc. The important functions of the programme were to: (i) Identify eligible beneficiaries and their problems. (ii) To formulate economic programmes for providing gainful employment to embrace resume the participants, (iii) To promote infrastructural facilities for computer why i should recieve a laptop production, processing, storage and embrace, marketing of products. (iv) To promote rural industries. The necessary credit for productive investment was provided by Institutional Financing Agencies like, Cooperatives and ellis island, Commercial banks. Besides provision of matching subsidies were also provided to resume the beneficiaries. The non-Tribal Marginal farmers and management construction, Agricultural labourers were eligible to embrace receive subsidies worth 33.3 per cent on the capital investments and computer why i should recieve this, inputs, whereas this was 50 per cent for tribal beneficiaries, subject to maximum of embrace resume, Rs 3000/- and Rs 5000/- respectively. The Marginal Farmers and Agricultural Labourers Development Agency was launched during the year 1971-72 in the districts of Cuttack and risk thesis, Keonjhar. During first two years both short and embrace resume, medium-term loans amounted to Rs 61.32 lakhs and Rs 45.97 lakhs respectively were advanced to about 9 thousands and 8 thousand Farmers respectively.
A total sum of Rs 1.6 cores was earmarked in should recieve a laptop this semester, the year 1974-75. This amount has increased to Rs 4.2 crores in the year 1975-76. Under the project 2.6 lakh Marginal farmers and 0.3 lakh Agricultural Labourers were identified and benefitted under the programme. Among them about 70 per cent of the beneficiaries were enrolled as members of cooperative societies. (vii) Drought Prone Area Programme (DPAP):
A Rural works programme was initiated in 1970-71 with the objective of providing development investment in drought prone areas. During the Fourth Five Year Plan the main emphasis of the programme was on labour intensive works such as medium and minor irrigation, road construction, afforestation, soil conservation and provision of embrace resume, drinking water. In the essays reflective Fifth Plan, this scheme was re-oriented as an area development programme. The strategy of this programme was to improve the economy of the areas covered, through a package of infrastructural and resume, on-farm development activities with the objective of optimum utilisation of land, water, human and livestock resources. Essay On Republic? This programme was also targeted the weaker sections of the society like, Small and Marginal farmers, Agricultural Labourers and other rural poor, who have no assured source of income. Co-operative societies were organised to act accordingly. This programme implemented in the areas where the monsoon is most unpredictable vis-a-vis it also laid emphasis for resume the inclusion of target group people. Thus, this programme was the computer essay why i should recieve first in its category, which included both the area approach and target group approach. The DPAP was implemented in the chronically drought affected districts of Orissa. Considering the concentration of embrace, weaker sections as well as drought prone area the programme was implemented in 11 blocks of Kalahandi and 14 blocks of Phulbani district in dar essay island, Orissa. During the embrace resume Fourth Plan the scheme was fully financed by the Government of India.
The Government of India revised the programme during Fifth Five Year Plan. As per the revision the programme was financed by Central State Governments on 50:50 matching basis. In Fourth Five Year Plan the Central Government sanctioned an amount of filling, Rs 3.4 Crores to Orissa for the programme. During the years 1974-80 expenditure on the programme was stood at Rs 14.2 Crores on different schemes. Embrace Resume? The programme has been extended to 14 more blocks of Bolangir and Sambalpur districts (8 blocks in Bolangir and 6 blocks in Sambalpur) bringing total blocks to 39 in 4 districts of the State. The State Plan allocation for the Sixth Plan was Rs 7 Crores against the anticipated expenditure of Rs 7.1 Crores. The total plan expenditure for DPA Programme during the Seventh Five Year Plan (1985-90) was Rs 26.5 Crores.
The launching of Eighth Plan was delayed by two years due to risk assessment construction political instability in the country. However the programme received Rs 12.7 Crores in 1990-91 and 1991-92. The Drought Prone Area Development Programme is being operated in 47 blocks (2 blocks each in Boudh, Sonepur, Dhenkanal, 12 blocks in Phulbani, 10 blocks in Kalahandi, 8 blocks in Bolangir, 6 blocks in Bargarh and 5 blocks in Nuapada districts) Spread over to 8 districts of the State during the Eighth Five Year Plan (1992-97). The Total expenditure incurred under the resume plan was Rs 36.9 Crores. The total Funds available during 1997-98 at; the all-India level was about Rs 913 lakhs.
The total Expenditure incurred during the year was Rs 436 lakhs. The expenditure was thus 47.8 per cent of the total funds available under the programme. The percentage share of total expenditure to total funds available was about 48.6 per cent. (viii) Integrated Tribal Development Agencies (ITDA): Next to for children Africa, India has the largest concentration of the tribal population in the World. Though all the states have tribal population in various degrees of concentration, majority of them is found in Bihar, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Orissa, Rajasthan and West Bengal. Economic backwardness of the tribal population has undoubtedly occupied considerable interest among our planners. The First Five Year Plan laid down its priorities for tribal development in resume, three broad categories namely education, economic uplift and health, housing and other schemes. Since then each five year plan has chartered new strategies for achieving these basic objectives. During the Second Five Year Plan, multi-purpose tribal blocks were set up which were later re-named as Tribal development blocks in the Third Five Year Plan. Expenditure on tribal development too, increased several fold over the plan periods.
However, these efforts did not bring about any substantive change among the majority of the tribal population. It is noticed that, in the first three plans emphasis was placed on sectorial plans under various subjects such as agriculture, industry, transportation, health and education etc. Most of these were conceived at help with papers, the National or at the State level. The Fourth Five Year Plan gave importance to planning at the district level and to experimental studies on growth centres for evolving a planning strategy at the grass-root level. In this context, the Government of India has sanctioned pilot projects for tribal development in the central agricultural sector. Among the Six projects sanctioned in All-India level, Ganjam and Koraput districts were selected in Orissa. The outlay on each of embrace resume, these projects was Rs 2 Crores. Under the Tribal Development Agencies (1972-73) the Tibetan Re-settlement scheme at Chandragiri of Ganjam district and a Saura Development Scheme in help out divorce, Koraput district were brought out.
A new strategy has been evolved for planning the development of the tribal communities during the Fifth Plan period. Embrace? The new strategy envisages the preparation of a sub- plan for the tribal areas. The first exercise in risk management construction projects thesis, this regard is to resume demarcate the recieve this semester tribal areas based on the tribal population. (i) Areas, where the embrace resume tribal concentration of 50 per cent or above. (ii) Areas of dispersed tribal population below 50 per cent. (iii) Extremely backward and isolated little communities.
In order to implement the help sub-plan programmes 21 ITDA’s were constituted covering 118 out of 314 blocks in the state. Each ITDA has a project level committee under the Chairmanship of Collector with official and non-official and Tribal women as members. Embrace? They have to draw up the plan and programmes at dar essay, ITDA level and review and monitor the developmental activities of different Department. Each ITDA is headed by a Class I officer with supporting staff like Special Officer, Assistant Engineer, Junior Engineer, Statistical Assistant, Soil Conservation/Agricultural Extension Officer and other clerical staff. 15 Project Administrators have been declared as Additional District Magistrates for exercising powers under different regulatory laws.
There were about 47 thousand villages in Orissa; out of that 18.7 thousand villages were in Tribal sub plan of which 14 villages were declared as ITDP villages. They were spread over to about 98 blocks of the State up to 1977-78. A total financial outlay of Rs 189 crore was earmarked for the programme in 1979-80 with a view to cover about 2 thousand families. The total estimated flow of resources during the sixth plan period was Rs 700 Crores. It is embrace resume observed that 36 per cent of the management thesis total outlay of the State during Sixth Plan Period was earmarked for investment as against 23 per cent during fifth plan period. About 5.0 lakh tribal families were assisted under various anti- poverty programmes (including IRDP ERRP) during Sixth Plan Period. During the Seventh Plan period, about 7.6 lakh families were covered under the plan with the plan expenditure of Rs 1440 Crores. The plan allocation for the sub-plan during the resume year 1990-91 and 91-92 was estimated at computer semester, Rs 391 crores and Rs 590 crores respectively. The proposed flow of funds for the Eighth Plan Period (1992-97) was estimated at Rs 3885 Crores. The Flow of funds during 1992-93 was of the order of Rs 459 Crores. This covered about 34 families.
The total funds for the year 1993-94 have increased to embrace Rs 466 crores. Further more the plan expenditure under the programme was Rs 568 Crores. Under the plan 43 thousand families were benefitted in the year 1993-94. Where as this stood at 41 thousand during 1994-95. During 1995-96 about computer why i should this 96 thousand tribal families were benefitted with a total financial investment of embrace resume, Rs 626 Crores. The total plan out lay for the year 1996-97 and 1997-98 was Rs 862 Crores and help with papers, Rs 749 Crores respectively. (ix) Modified Area Development Approach (MADA): Article 46 of the constitution enjoins up on the State to promote with special care the educational and resume, economic interest of the weaker sections and in particular Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes and to protect them from social injustice and all forms of exploitation. The approach for development of Scheduled Tribes was first laid down by the first Prime Minister of India, Late Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru in his “Tribal Panchseel” more particularly emphasised on the preservation of tribal culture. Risk Assessment Management Projects Thesis? The Tribal Sub-plan approach was operated in mid seventies.
The objectives of the Tribal sub-plan strategy have basically remained two fold: (i) Socio-Economic Development of S.Ts. and. (ii) Protection of tribals against exploitation. Integrated Tribal Development Programmes in the form of Integrated Tribal Development Agencies (I T D A) were implemented in the areas where the concentration of tribal population is embrace resume more than 50 per cent, and they live in extremely backward areas. For the all-round development of the Tribals outside the Sub-plan areas a new programme called Modified Area Development Approach (MADA) was launched in 1978- 79. Essay Without? The criteria for selection of this area was areas having a population of resume, ten thousand or more with at essay for children on republic, least 50 per cent tribal concentration.
The identified areas called as MADA Pockets. In these pockets individual family-oriented schemes as well as community benefit oriented programmes are to be implemented. Embrace? There is a MADA level Advisory Committee for each MADA Sub-Collector concerned with officials and non- officials like peoples representatives as members. This Advisory Committee is essay should recieve a laptop this responsible for drawn up programmes and overseas the resume implementation. During Fifth Plan Period 30 Modified Area Development Approach Pockets were identified and Rs 1.2 Crores was earmarked for the development of Tribal people living in those areas.
The number of pocket has increased to help with 37 during Six Plan period. A Total sum of Rs 5.5 Crores was allocated for the programme, where about 10 thousand Tribal families were received assistance. There are, 45 MADA Pockets covering about 47 blocks of the embrace State, during Seventh Plan Period. The total amount of Rs 7.2 Crores was earmarked for the implementation of different schemes. Under different schemes about 13 thousand Scheduled Tribe families were benefitted during the said plan period.
In two annual plans i.e.; 1990-91, and 1991-92 about Five thousand families benefitted under the programme. The total investment of risk construction projects, Rs 2.2 crores and Rs 2.5 crores were made for the year 1990-91 and resume, 1991-92 respectively. Help Out Divorce? The number of MADA pockets increased to embrace resume 46 during the Eighth Plan (1992-97) period. A total Fund of papers, Rs 16.4 crores was utilities for implementation of different programmes in the MADA Pockets. During the plan period about 20 thousand tribal families were covered in different programmes. (x) Command Area Development Programme (CADP):
The Command Area Development Programme was introduced in the Country in 1974-75 with a view to realising a fast and optimum utilisation of the irrigation potential created in the major irrigation projects. In Orissa, the programme was launched in 1976-77 covering 52 blocks in the districts of Cuttack, Puri, Balasore, Sambalpur and Bolangir. It was spread over to about 5.3 lakh hectares of land of three major Irrigation Projects of embrace resume, Mahanadi, Salandi and Hirakud. The basic concept of the Programme was to step up agricultural production by optimum utilisation of water by controlled irrigation and adoption of multi-cropping pattern on an extensive scale. The components of C A D Project which are given highest priority in reflective, realising these objectives are: (i) Construction of field channels. (ii) Warabandi i.e; regulated and embrace resume, assured water supply to the farmers. (iii) Consolidation and.
(iv) Adoption of Multi-cropping pattern. As against this background four Command Area Development Authorities have been registered as Societies under the Societies Registration Act 1860. On Gibbs? Funds sanctioned for embrace resume the various schemes by State and reflective model, Central Government are placed at their disposal in shape of grant-in-aid. A special loan account was also set up by the ARDC with 50% contribution from Central Government and 25% each by the State Government and ARDC to embrace finance on-farm development works for the ineligible and unwilling beneficiaries. During the Fifth Plan the help out divorce major achievement was, conducting of a large number of multi-crop demonstrations to make the farmers aware of the needs for embrace resume having three cropping patterns. Small and Marginal farmers were also involved themselves in the programme and became members of Cooperative Societies. A modest beginning was also made in demonstration of help out divorce papers, proper water Management by resume Construction of field channels to serve about 3 thousand hectares of computer why i should semester, land. A total financial provision of Rs 12.5 Crores was made for the programme. The principle components of the Command Area Development Programme during the Sixth Five Year Plan (SOBS) have been: (i) Construction of field channels including field drains. (ii) Topographical Survey.
(iii) Soil Conservation and Survey. (iv) Rotational water supply to the beneficiary farmers. (v) Multiple Crop Demonstration, including mini-kits and farmers training. During the said plan period about 1.5 lakh hectares field channel was constructed with the total expenditure of Rs 6.9 Crores. The Command Area Development Programme expanded to 58 blocks in the districts of Cuttack, Puri, Balasore, Sambalpur, Bolangir and Koraput. An area of 2.7 lakh hectare Culturable Command Area has been covered under field channels at the end of Seventh Five Year Plan. The Principal Component of CAD Programme during the Eighth Five Year Plan (1992-97) was: (i) Survey Planning and Design. (ii) Construction of field channels, drains and land leveling. (iii) Rotational water supply.
(iv) Adaptive Trails. (v) Farmers participation. (vii) Conjunctive use of surface and ground water. (viii) Marketing and Communication and. (ix) Monitoring and evaluation.
The programme has been extended to 83 blocks in 17 districts with a Culturable Command Area of 7.4 lakh hectares during Eighth Plan Period. A total sum of Rs 18.4 Crores was spending under the programme during said plan period. It is observed from the available data that, during the Seventh Five Year Plan about 11.14 million hectares field channels were constructed. About 1.93 million hectare of land leveling activities and 4.96 million hectare Warabandi work was also completed during the said plan period. The total achievement during the Eighth Plan Period on construction of field channels, land leveling and Warabandi was about 1.75 M.ha, 0.14 M.ha, and 2.75 M.ha respectively. The achievement of Eighth Plan reduced due to other alike rural development programmes introduced in the country. The introduction of specialized watershed scheme was one of the resume same programmes. 4. Essay on the Institutions for Rural Development: The Rural Development in India is a very old phenomenon. Social scientists and organisations had experimented this noble attempt in pre-Independence period.
Those programmes were not highlighting a unique problem of the rural poor and the necessary solution therein. However, the attempts so undertaken were focused mostly to the social, economic and cultural aspects of for children on republic day, human well-being. The noble attempts made by great and intellectual sons of the soil could not spread over to all part of the country due to lack of government attitude and patronage. The British Government had never felt the importance of rural development in the country. Resume? The rulers felt that, rural development was a part of essay for children on republic, social welfare, which is perhaps contradictory to the British ideology and embrace, policies. India became an independent nation in August 1947, from political point of view but attend its economic independence only on January 1950. After attaining the economic independence, India started its planned Economic Development Programmes with the why i should a laptop adoption of Five Year Plan. During the process of planned economic development, Rural Development received utmost attention by the rulers, planners and policy makers. Embrace? Since 1952, a number of rural development programmes were introduced, implemented and discontinued in the country. Filling Papers? The programmes are varied in nature and approach.
Some of the resume programmes proved to for children day be successful and some failures. The success and failure of the programmes governed by a number of factors important among them are: (i) Nature of the embrace programme, (ii) Approach of the programme, (iii) Finance for the programme, (iv) Implementation of the programme. Good nature, right approach, adequate finance and essay for children on republic, proper implementation may bring success to resume the programme. In this connection, the last factor, proper implementation gathers top most importance as it co-ordinates other factors of success. This can be achieved through good and right institutions. As against this background, we would like to discuss the structure and help filling out divorce, functions of the institutions established exclusively for Rural Development from time to time. These institutions can be classified into two such as: (i) Main institutions and. (ii) Ancillary institutions. The main institutions are those, which are directly responsible for the planning, implementing, monitoring and evaluation of the rural development programmes and permanent statutory in nature.
The ancillary institutions are those, which are indirectly responsible for embrace resume planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation and temporary in nature. In India, a structure of policy formulating and implementing institutions has been built up in the country for Rural Development. Some of them are at the national level, some are single purpose, some relate to a particular target groups, some relate to area, sector and computer this, commodity. However, all these institutions aim at fulfilling the national objectives of economic development in general and rural development in particular. The administrative organs of Central and embrace resume, State Governments involved in the process of rural development are at filling papers, the Centre of the Organisational Structure. Embrace Resume? The spatial structure of rural development administration mainly comprises Centre, State, District, Blocks, Gram panchayats and Village. At the Centre, the Ministry of Rural Development is in charge of all rural development a programme including those relating to land reforms, village and cottage industries, town and country planning and rural roads etc. This is the nodal responsibility for elementary education, adult education, rural health, rural electrification, rural water supply, housing for landless rural labour, nutrition and sanitation programmes. The ministry has also responsible for all aspects of for children, rural reconstruction and embrace resume, development. The Ministry lays down broad policies, devises suitable programmes and determines Central assistance etc.
In addition to essays on gibbs the Ministry of embrace, Rural Development, the ministries of Agriculture, Commerce and Civil Supplies, Energy, Irrigation and Industry also perform functions related to with filling rural development. The Ministry of Agriculture is in charge of agricultural extension, Ministry of Commerce and Civil Supplies has within its purview the Development Commissioner of embrace, Handlooms, several Commodity Boards and the public distribution system. The Ministry of reflective, Energy and Irrigation deals with all matters pertaining to water resources development and irrigation and accordingly has important functions pertaining to rural development. The Central Silk Board, Coir Board, Khadi Village Industries Commission are attached to resume the Ministry of help out divorce, Industry. Embrace Resume? The Ministry of Rural Development, for rural development with proper co-operation and coordination from dar essay island other ministries. The other ministries are also take active role in the rural development programmes so formulated. Besides, the Ministries, the Reserve Bank of India in the past and NABARD at present play the catalytic role for the success of rural development. NABARD as the apex level financial institution for rural development provide refinance to the financial institutions working at the state level.
At the State level, the State Governments have the primary responsibility for the administration of developmental programmes. Embrace Resume? The Departments of agriculture, animal husbandry, irrigation, forests, education, public health and sanitation, industries, power. Government has also take active part on the monitoring and implementation of rural development programmes in the State. The State Government also formulates State level special rural development programmes other than the Central Government’s Programmes. However, The State Level Organisational Committee is headed by the Secretary for Rural Development, who is in the rank of Commissioner of rural development is assisted by one Deputy Commissioner three Assistant Commissioners and why i a laptop this, a number of technical officers and subject specialists. Besides, a representative of the Ministry of Rural Development, Government of India is associated as a member of the embrace Committee.
There are a number of Statutory Corporations, Boards and other agencies providing infrastructural, promotional and supporting services for essays on gibbs reflective model rural development. Important among them are: (i) Rural Electrification Corporation, (ii) The Central Ground Water Board. (iii) Minor Irrigation and tube well Corporations. (iv) Central and State Warehousing Corporations. (v) Central and State Seed Corporations. (vi) Food Corporation of India.
(vii) The Jute and the Cotton Corporation of India. (viii) National Cooperative Development Corporation and Cooperative banks in the State. (ix) National Agricultural Cooperative Marketing Federation. (x) State Trading Corporations, (xi) The Handicraft and Handloom Corporations. (xii) The Boards for Coffee, Tea, Rubber, Cardamom, Tobacco, Cashew and Coconut etc. (xiii) The National Dairy Development Board. (xiv) The Khadi and Village Industries Commission. (xv) State Khadi and Village Industries Board. (xvi) The Central Silk Board. (xviii) The State Finance Corporation.
(xix) The Agro-Industries Corporation. (xx) The Marketing Regulation Boards etc. The statutory corporations and Boards works for the implementation of various rural development programmes to resume their expertise. At the essay recieve a laptop State level the Financial Institutions also play vital roles for formulation, implementation of various rural development programmes. They form one State Level Coordination Committee taking the representatives of resume, all financial institutions like, Cooperative banks, Nationalised Commercial banks and Regional Rural banks. Besides, the representatives of various government departments are also participate in the formulation and Implementation strategy of the rural development programmes.
The representative from computer why i should recieve a laptop this semester NABARD is also participating in the committee. One Nationalised Commercial bank acts as the embrace resume convener of the for children committee. The Third Stage of resume, Institutional Structure for Rural Development is the District Administration. The District Collector is responsible for law and essays on gibbs model, order, Revenue Collection and developmental activities. Embrace? In the ellis island past, the developmental programmes so formulated by the central and state governments were channelised through the embrace resume District Administration, known as the District Development Coordination Committee. This committee consisting of the Project Officer, the Managing Director of the Central Cooperative Societies, one/two representatives from Cooperative Societies and a Special Rural Credit Officer.
Prior to October 1980, the dar essay island rural development programme particularly beneficiary and area oriented programmes operated through specially constituted agencies. They are, Small Farmers Development Agencies, (SFDA) Marginal Farmers and Agricultural Labourers Development Agencies, Drought Prone Area Programme (DPAP) and embrace, Integrated Tribal Development Programme (ITDP), etc. In 1980 the integrated rural development programme was launched. In successive time period some special programmes related to projects rural development are also implemented. All the programmes are to be implemented by a single agency called as District Rural Development Agency (DRDA). The earlier agencies functioning at the district level are merged with the DRDA. Embrace? The District Collector/Deputy Commissioner heads the DRDA. Besides the agency has a full time Project Officers followed by Assistant Project Officers in agriculture, animal husbandry, and cooperation, a credit planning officer, rural industries officer and an economist/statistician. In addition there is one Research Officer, two senior economic investigators followed by regular supporting staff. The peoples representatives like, the Chairman Zilla Parishad, Member of Parliament, the risk assessment management construction projects thesis MLA and the representatives of Weaken Sections and women are also take active part in the planning process at the district level.
The representatives of the lead bank, financial institutions also take active role with the resume DRDA to formulate District Credit Plans. According to the Indian Constitution Amendment (74th) Act 1992 The State Governments constituted the for children on republic day District Planning and Development Board to provide necessary guidelines and direction to district planning units and to approve the district plans prepared by the planning units. The board consists of a Chairman, a Vice-chairman and other members, viz.; all Sub-divisional Officers, all Chairman of Panchayat Samities (Block) in the district, the resume head of help papers, lead Bank and Presidents of all Municipal Committees. The Chief Planning and Development officer acted as the embrace Member Secretary. The district-planning unit comprised the Chief Planning and Development Officer, an economist, a Planning Officer, a Credit Planning Officer and other supporting staff.
The position of the Chairman of DPB varies from state to state. Ellis? In some State a Minister of embrace resume, State Government chairs it and the district Collector is the Chairman in some other. The Block is the Fourth Important Institution for planning and implementation of rural development programmes. The overall resource situation, to identify human resource situation, particularly from the point of view of employment, to review the ongoing development activities to formulate a package of schemes/programmes to ellis optimize production and augment employment and income, to identify gaps in infrastructure and to devise measures for filling these gaps. The Planning Commission appointed an Expert group to frame guidelines on the basis of the recommendations of Prof. M.L. Dantewala working group. As per the guideline issued on 1978 the block level plan should have the following component: (i) Production programmes for the target groups in the rural areas. (ii) Manpower planning and skill development in relation to resume production programmes. (iii) A supplementary works programme, where necessary to clear off the backlog of on gibbs reflective model, unemployment. (iv) A programme for the self-employed in the trades and services sector.
(v) Programme for rural Infrastructure like, market, roads, rural electrification etc. (vi) A programme for the provision of Social Services, including basic minimum needs. (vii) A programme for Institutional support to embrace resume the rural poor. The Administrative setup of the filling papers Blocks was defined during the First Plan Period with the inception of Community Development Programme. With the implementation of Integrated Rural Development and other special developmental schemes/programmes in early 80s.
The Administrative setups of the blocks were revised accordingly. The Block Development Officer is intended to be the steering wheel of the new developmental administration. The BDO is to be assisted by extension officers from different fields like; agriculture, animal husbandry, irrigation and works, cooperation, Panchayats, social education, public health, village industries and women and child welfare etc. Below the extension officer there are about resume 10 village level workers (VLWs) or Lady Village Level Workers (LVLWs) working for the implementation or rural development programme. There is a Progress Assistant who coordinates the help filling out divorce development committee.
The people’s representatives like; Chairman Panchayat Samiti, MLA and embrace resume, representatives of Weaker Sections and women also participate in essay for children, the Developmental Planning at the block level. The representatives of the financial institutions also take part in the committee while undertaking credit plans at the Block level. Village Panchayat is the last recognised institution responsible for planning and embrace resume, implementation of rural development programmes. The village Panchayat as an executive body implements the policies and help with filling out divorce, decisions of the Gram Sabha comprising the entire population of the village. The social sanctions of the people generally strengthen the hands of the Panchayat and act as a deterrent to arbitrariness. The Panchayat organise local manpower for the developmental purposes. In almost all the states; the Gram Sabhas have been statutorily recognised and assigned the specific functions to direct and supervise the activities of the Village Panchayat and to some extent to the Blocks. The important functions performed by the Panchayats are: (i) Civic amenities.
(ii) Social welfare activities and. (iii) Development works. The broad functions of the Panchayat are: The people’s representatives like Ward Members; Sarapanch also took part in decision-making and implementation of the resume programmes. The village level worker represents the block in village committee. Besides, the Panchayat Secretary, Secretary of the Cooperative Societies, the Revenue Inspectors also play active role in the village committee. Thus village committee comprises of the: (i) Village level worker. (ii) Panchayat Secretary. (iii) Secretary of the Cooperative Societies. (iv) Revenue Inspector.
(v) The Sarapanch. (vi) The ward members. (vii) The villagers are the General body members. It is to conclude that, the ellis island planning and Implementation of the rural development begins from the embrace root i.e.; village and essay for children, flows upward to the national level. Experience shows that the rural development programme decisions in respect of formulation, strategy approach are undertaken at resume, the national level and with filling out divorce, that flowing downward to the village in a “Trickle down approach”. The “Bottom up” approach although exist in the country does not exist in practical sense of planning and implementation. However, the embrace institutions for rural development are closely connected with each other, whether there exists “Trickle down” or “Bottom up” approach of help with filling, planning and implementation of the rural development programmes in our country as well as the state.
5. Essay on the Observations and Problems of Rural Development : India is an economically underdeveloped country. The condition of rural economy is worse. The economic activities and people employed therein have not also achieved required development/growth. In order to break the embrace resume jinx of rural economic sector, Government through its different plans introduced a number of rural development programmes. The programmes are also varied in nature. They are of sector, area and dar essay ellis, target oriented programmes. The Formulation, Implementation of the programmes has also undertaken by some specialised Agencies of Government.
In addition the NGOs, the Panchayati Raj institutions, financial institutions involved themselves in embrace resume, the success of the programmes. In course, of their function they also encountered a good number of without, problems. The problems were also varied in resume, nature. As the dar essay book/based on the macro level information/data. The problems so encountered by both the embrace resume implementing agencies and the beneficiaries of the why i should a laptop this programme are highlighted based on the general observations and embrace, macro-based data/information available. The problems mainly highlights the problems encountered by the Government as the planning and implementing machinery the Associated/ancillary agencies inevitable for the fruitful implementation of such rural development programmes, they are the essay for children on republic day Rural Development agencies/institutions/Departments, Financial Institutions, Non-Governmental Organisations, working as intermediary agencies for the implementation of rural development programmes/schemes. The last agencies are the people likely or receive benefits from the rural development. They can also belong to embrace the area and sector approach rural development programmes.
Thus, we can classify the rural development agency into three as; Government, Intermediary/Ancillary agencies and essays, the targeted people/beneficiaries. All the resume problems and observation based on the facts, information and literatures available from the secondary sources. These may not hold good in all respects. Rural Development Programmes have been conceived for the all-round development of the rural areas. However, the rural development programmes are launched in the context of general problems of the on gibbs model rural areas. It fails to give importance to some particular and area issues. The rural development programmes should be micro in nature and growth oriented based on real values. As per the Guidelines all the developmental programmes in the rural areas are to be planned/formulated by the DRDA in cooperation and coordination of other departments and financial institution, agencies of peoples representatives etc. It is resume often observed that these agencies, organisation failed to essay for children on republic day maintain proper coordination among each other.
All the agencies/organisations are trying their best to embrace stick to risk construction projects thesis their own principles and ideologies. In the process cooperation and coordination are not maintained. The Agencies responsible for the formulation, Implementation and evaluation of the Rural Development Programme is required to resume maintaining good coordination among them. (iii) Based on Ruling Party Principles and Ideologies : In India, the rural development programmes are conceived/launched as per the principles and ideologies of the essay ruling party. Besides, in the participation for embrace resume planning, formulation and implementation through their representatives tried to on gibbs reflective maintain such principles and ideologies. The said representatives often interested to fetch more benefit to resume their party affiliated peoples/workers. This does not cover the problems of all class people. The Rural Development Programmes should be based on reality and filling out divorce papers, highlight the real problems of the rural areas as well as the people. Resume? The political personalities are required to change their attitudes in this respect. The rural development programmes require more capital investment.
The Economic Sectors of essays on gibbs, rural areas remain more or less traditional. These sectors also adopt traditional methods of production. In order to attain rural development the embrace transformation of technologies is for children on republic required. The conditions of weaker sections people are not improved after 50 years of planned economic development. The upliftment of their socioeconomic condition also require high dose of investment. In our country, a fixed amount of funds are allocated for a particular rural development Programme.
These are distributed among the States/District as per the importance, such as geography, concentration of weaker section population etc. The share of the Fund to cope with the local problems seems to be inadequate. Contributions from the embrace resume public or other viable private organisations are not seeked by the Government. Thus inadequate fund is a major concern for the attainment of the why i should a laptop this rural development. India’s rural economy being primarily land-based, all major developmental programmes of rural India are linked with agricultural developments. It is also evident that most of the available resources are controlled by resume few, this reinforces the day hegemony of the few over embrace resume many and the benefits do not tickle down to those who need them most. Besides, the precarious land and dar essay island, man ratio suggests that by introducing radical land redistribution in rural India very limited egalitarian goals can be achieved and if done so, that will mean only sharing of poverty and no real development. Rural development plan implementation is required to be accepted by the local level functionaries who attend the District consultative committee meetings and that they are in a position to mobilise financial and organisational resources to fulfil accepted commitments. It is observed that the authority structure in the administration and the banks is such that those who attend such meetings are neither in a position to embrace accept firm commitments on behalf of computer essay why i semester, their departments, banks without reference to higher authorities not to act accordingly. Although some powers are conferred to the officers to exercise but these are seems to be very limited.
All the resume decisions are required due approval from the higher authorities. It is observed that, there is considerable leakage of benefits to liberty non-target sectors and groups. Most of the rural development programmes are conceived to improve the Socio-Economic condition of the weaker sections like small, marginal farmers, agricultural and non-agricultural labourers, rural artisans, scheduled castes, scheduled tribes and deprived women etc. Embrace Resume? It is observed that the benefits are not properly reaching to these classes. It is often found, that, the vulnerable class of the society enjoys the real benefits. The subsidy components of the rural development programmes tend to for children allow to non-target groups, specially the programme implementing bureaucratic class, rather than including expansion of production base of the beneficiaries. Due to illiteracy and ignorance the real benefits sometimes enjoyed by the Third party commonly speaking the middlemen and the village touts including the petty personnel having a little political affiliation. It is observed that a considerable number of embrace, rural development programmes/schemes having no or little sustaining impact for changing the socio-economic status of the beneficiaries. The assets created from the credit assistance of financial institutions and subsidies of the risk assessment projects thesis development/administrative agencies are short lived (Particularly in-case of resume, livestock assets) failed to push the computer essay should recieve a laptop beneficiaries up on the scale of resume, production and productivity. This is perhaps due to the existence of low or no developmental approach/thoughts.
This factor again dominated by the lack of essays on gibbs reflective, awareness about the programmes. (ix) Dominance of Welfare over embrace Productivity: In India, most of the rural development programmes are based on the basic welfare principles. These schemes are backed by risk projects thesis both credit and subsidy components. Besides, development of infrastructure facilities is also emphasised under these programmes. It is also evident that provision of long-term credit and based on the principle of write off by political parties also have adverse effect on the productivity of economic sectors. It is embrace resume observed that the subsidy component is often extending up to 100 per cent in some selected schemes and class of beneficiaries. This reduces the productive motive, attitude of the beneficiaries.
(x) Based on ellis the Principles and Policies of Political Parties : In our country most of the rural development programmes are either based on the principles of the political parties or biased by their ideologies. Besides, the programmes again ruled/governed by cheap popular slogans or election; manifestos. Due to these, causes the programmes failed to attain the expected success. It is also observed that after the completion of one political party’s rule the next political party, which assumes power, hesitates to resume carry out the same. Besides, the new party is also don’t hesitate to wind up the ongoing programme despite of its importance and success.
In India, due to these problems, the rural development has not attained after five decades of the planned economic development. 6. Essay on the Suggestions for for children Rural Development in India: 1. Embrace? In India, the rural people in computer essay, general and the weaker section people in particular are to depend upon traditional rural economic sectors for their livelihood. The rate of literacy in rural areas is very low in comparison to urban areas. Due to low literacy level, most of the rural people are not aware about the ongoing rural development programmes. The steps taken by the government in order to enhance the awareness level of the beneficiaries is not adequate. The Government should open special cells for the publicity of the rural development programmes. The Government is required to adopt the embrace resume publicity method, which is conducive to the nature and requirement of the why i should rural people.
The people are to embrace resume be provided with adequate instruments for enhancement of awareness level. Help With Filling Out Divorce? The existing system of publicity about the rural development is required to be re-considered and should be based on rural realities prior to the Selection of the Scheme as well as the Beneficiaries, the embrace resume implementing agencies should provide details of the programme to semester the rural people, who are likely to be benefitted serious endeavour is, therefore, needed to make the embrace resume rural people aware about the resources earmarked for rural development in various Government departments. 2. Discipline? In our country a number of rural development programmes have been launched, implemented since 1952. It is often said that, the rural development programmes failed to attain its desired goal due to improper identification of the programmes, schemes and the beneficiaries therein. The Implementing Agencies attitude to implement the programme is target oriented. The target-oriented approach of the identification in different levels is embrace believed to be made in a hurry. This approach forced the agencies for wrong identification of programmes, schemes and beneficiaries.
As against this, the Government should lay more emphasis on the reality rather than the target. The schemes should be appropriate to the rural conditions and the beneficiaries therein are to be selected by the villagers or the effectively functioning Gram Sabha. Should Recieve This? The implementing agencies should take the matter seriously, while selecting the scheme as well as the beneficiaries. The selection of the embrace schemes is needed to be made by the beneficiaries. Emphasis to be given to the interest, intention, and attitude of the beneficiaries towards the scheme for rural development programmes. It is to conclude that, A realistic programme on rural development with the potentiality of the successful implementation, can only be prepared if rural poor are taken into confidence and island, are assisted to draw the development programme, taking the village as unit. Outsiders, as technocrats, Economists etc. should only assist them as Friends to make their own decision. 3. Embrace Resume? The important objective of rural development programme is to eradicate poverty, reduce imbalance and increase productivity of rural economic sectors.
Thus, the why i recieve a laptop this semester beneficiaries of rural development programmes are rural poor living below the poverty line. The poverty line in India determined by the relative standards. A less importance has been laid on absolute standard of poverty determination. Whatever, emphasis laid again converted to money terms, which appears to be unrealistic. Embrace Resume? A household earning income more than Poverty line income level may be poor in relation to island the calorie intake. Thus, the determination of poverty line required reconsidered. Besides the identification of beneficiaries living below the poverty line (BPL) should be fixed at the realistic level. 4. The beneficiaries of the Self-employment programmes need training and education prior to their involvement in the programmes. The implementing and monitoring agencies is resume required to impart required training to the selected beneficiaries, before the developmental activities undertaken. Besides, rural people should be provided with the scope of expressing their own felt needs and need to be provided with an opportunity to choose economic activities for their own development. 5. The wage employment programmes can be fully focused on ellis island rural infrastructure development and local natural resources development.
This approach will not only embrace resume improve the infrastructure network but also help village people to improve their farm as well as non-farm production for dar essay which a favourable environment exists. 6. The working of the Rural Development Programme in the last decades has shown that the initiative for implementing the programmes is vested on DRDA. The role of resume, DRDA is more or less confined to the planning and release of subsidies for rural development programmes. The DRDAs should play an important role for the Implementing and Monitoring of rural development programmes. Regular monitoring and evaluation of rural development programmes in with filling papers, real manner could solve the ongoing problems encountered therein and embrace resume, can also helpful to solve the problems. Computer Why I Should Recieve Semester? This will pave the path of success to the rural development programmes and attainment of rural development. 7. The village plans would have to be dovetailed into the district plan, which would prepare by the DRDA. Proper appraisal of the rural development schemes is needed. Besides, for the success of Rural Development Programmes it should be ensured that the embrace resume Project Directors of the DRDA are given tenure of not less than three years so as to inculcate in essay liberty without, them a sense of commitment to the programme. The other staff in the key posts should not be disturbed frequently.
8. The various Government departments with specialised expertise and banks should work in close co-operation with the district planning unit in order to embrace have a coordinated and scientific plan, the availability of local resources, the potential for alternative productive works and of viable schemes, to be looked into. 9. Voluntary effort will no doubt continue to grow in the coming years but it can accelerate if the environment is more congenial to its growth. Liberty Without? Voluntary Organisations with professional and Managerial Capabilities can act as a catalyst and can organise beneficiaries, involve people in planning and development and provide the necessary support to embrace resume make development a reality. In this respect, the Government should provide required assistance to the Voluntary Organisations. 10. The prosperity of the rural economy depends directly upon the development of agriculture and industry. Essays Model? These to resume dependent variables for island development again controlled by a number of independent variables. These are, power, credit, transport facilities, which include railways, roads, waterways, market, communication, information facilities etc. All these facilities and services constitute collectively the infrastructure.
The development and expansion of these facilities are an essential pre-condition for attainment of resume, economic development and liberty, rural development. The link between infrastructure and development is not once for all affair. It is a continuous process and progress in development has to be preceded, accompanied and followed by progress in infrastructure, if we are to fulfill our declared objectives of a self-accelerating process of economic development. Embrace? Despite its importance the desired infrastructural development has not been achieved due to resource constraint. In view of the resource constraint, further expansion of facilities may be secured by a shift of priority from essays high cost technology to low cost technology, from public funding to private financing and from large-scale public management to small-scale private/cooperative/community management in appropriate areas required for rural development. 11. The planning, implementing, monitoring of embrace, rural development programmes has been made by the Planning Commission and its subsidiaries. In the process they have been facing a number of difficulties. Political interference is one of the difficulties faced by the Planning and Implementing agencies.
This undue interference seems to risk be one of the important causes of embrace resume, failures of rural development programmes. In order to essay liberty attain rural development the Planning and Implementing agencies in our country should perform independently like the Judiciary System. Before publishing your articles on this site, please read the following pages: