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Essay about who am i

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College Essay: Who Am I | zreid804

bilography Dissertation on New Woman Novelists (preliminary stage to Ardis's later book, see Ardis 1990). Assumes an early beginning of the modernist era. Attempts a diachronic arrangement of i, literary works. Provides many textual references. Ardis, Ann. 1990.

New Women, New Novels: Feminism and Early Modernism . New Brunswick London: Rutgers UP. And Equipment Thesis? Batchelor, John. 1986. The Edwardian Novel. London: Duckworth. Beauman, Nicola. 1983. A Very Great Profession: The Woman's Novel 1914-39 . London: Virago. Beetham, Margaret. 1996. A Magazine of essay i, Her Own?: Domesticity and Desire in of confederation, the Woman's Magazine, 1800-1914 . London New York: Routledge.

Study on the development of (conservative) women's magazines in the time of 1880-1914. Boom in the 1990s: New Journalism . Change of images of women to a limited degree and in essay who am, opposition to the New Woman : discussion of middle-class working women, modification of the image of the housewife, division of the reading public into mothers , girls , fashionable women , women at home , ladies. Culture of advertisement. Beddoe, Deirdre. 1989. Back to Home and Duty: Women Between the Wars, 1918-1939 . London etc.: Pandora. Study on the situation of women between the wars. Key words: misogynist trends in society, female education as an enclave of emancipation, professions for women, health, leisure, reading, cinema, radio. Images of Women, influence on women writers.

Bjorhovde, Gerd. 1987. Pocket Wisely Essay? Rebellious Structures: Women Writers and the Crisis of the Novel 1880-1900 . Oslo: Norwegian UP. One of the few books specifically focusing on interpreting fin-de-siècle highbrow texts by women. Textual material: four representative authors of the late 19th century - Olive Schreiner, Margaret Harkness, Sarah Grand and essay about i, George Egerton. Forerunners of modernism, prepared the grounds for modernist change in terms of content and form: Authors address matters of female concern gained importance in the public consciousness at the turn of the century and in the village, shortly before.

Tension between positive and negative evaluation of the New Woman as an interesting topic to narrate. Foci of New Realisms: Scepticism, questioning of conventional values, transgression of conventional Victorian conception of genre. 'Crisis' of the essay i, novel: Breaking of conventional structures of time, plot, content and style. Fragmentarization of destiny persuasive essay, plot, anachronisms, subjectivity, internal focalization, no explicit narrator. Bjorhovde provides very detailed analyses of texts. Bland, Lucy. 1995. Banishing the Beast: English Feminism and Sexual Morality, 1885-1914.

Harmondsworth: Penguin. Bland's book is a comprehensive study on about who am the subject of spend essay, feminism and sexual morality around the turn of the (19th to 20th) century. Her aim is to sketch the contemporary (and, at least from a 21st-century point of view, often problematical) feminist discourse in its interdependence with the restrictive cultural context of the time. Essay Who Am I? The study therefore provides a wealth of biographical material. Fall Cultural Collision Essay? Part One: historical and scientific background of the essay, topic (constructions of femininity in dominant patriarchal discourses such as medicine, religion, evolutionary theory and things fall apart essay, their feminist reception). Parts Two and who am, Three: discussion of the how to pocket money, concrete practical difficulties in realising feminist sexual politics, focusing on essay i the fields of prostitution, marriage, eugenics, sexology and alternative forms of stranger village, sexual identity. Brokoph-Mauch, Gudrun. 1995. Salome and Ophelia: The Portrayal of Women in Art and Literature at the Turn of the Century. In: Christian Berg, Frank Durieux Geert Lernout, eds.

The Turn of the Century: Modernism and Modernity in Literature and the Arts . Berlin New York: de Gruyter. 466-474. Burmeister, Tereza. 1994. In Search of the Lost Woman-Time: Cross-Biographical Studies on i the Construction of (Post-)Modern Gender Identity. History of plant, European Ideas 19: 837-844. Chinitz, David. 1997. 'Dance, Little Lady': Poets, Flappers, and the Gendering of Jazz. In: Lisa Rado, ed. Modernism, Gender, And Culture: A Cultural Studies Approach. New York London: Garland Publishing.

319-335. Feldman, Jessica. 1989. Gender on about i the Divide: The Dandy in Modernist Literature. Ithaca London: Cornell UP. Papers? Felski, Rita. 1995. The Gender of Modernity . Cambridge, Ma.: Harvard UP. Study on gender and modernity, proceeding from cultural theory and about who am i, cultural history.

Considers different discourses: philosophy, history, natural sciences, psychology, sexology, social history, conditions of publication. Focus on things apart cultural collision essay one author: Marie Corelli. Essay I? Finney, Gail. 1989. Women in Modern Drama: Freud, Feminism, and European Theatre at the Turn of the Century . Village Essay? Ithaca London: Cornell UP. Flint, Kate 1993. The Woman Reader, 1837-1914. Oxford: Oxford UP. Study on female identity and readership.

Key words: motivation to read, responses to essay who am i books, effects of reading on body and mind, reading in different contexts (e.g. advice manuals, periodical press, fictional reading, reading practices). Considers various discourses: chapter on medical, physiological and psychoanalytic theory. Provides information on manifest destiny essay the material read: helpful source for lesser known primary literature (novels and documentary texts). Gale, Maggie B. 1996. West End Women: Women and the London stage 1918-1962 . London New York: Routledge. Study on women and the theatre. Describes the significant participation of female authors in the theatrical world between 1918 and essay who am, 1962. After winning the vote, women were on the advance in fall collision essay, every sector. Essay Who Am I? Gale addresses women questions, but not from a feminist theoretical background.

Topics of interest: profession and essay articles vs constitution, family, working class women, mother role, relationship mother-daughter. Gardiner, Juliet, ed. 1993. Women's Voices 1880-1918: The New Woman. London: Collins Brown.

Essay collection on literary representations of the New Woman. Analysis is not limited to who am i the genre of the New Woman novel , covers a wide range of textual examples: poetry, drama, travel literature, letters and other cultural-historical documents. Deals with established and less established writers. Hall, Lesley. A. 1991. Hidden Anxieties: Male Sexuality 1900-1950. Cambridge: Polity Press. Study on men and sexuality. Depicts different perspectives on how male sexuality is constructed.

Grounds on biographic material: letters to Marie Stopes written by different men as a response to Stopes's Married Love. Addresses male sexual inhibitions, problems and sexual enlightenment. Horn, Pamela. 1995. Women in the 1920s. Stroud: Alan Sutton Publishing.

Jeffreys, Sheila. Manifest? 1985. The Spinster And Her Enemies: Feminism and sexuality 1880-1930 . London etc.: Pandora. Study on the image of the spinster. Pays critical attention to the so-called sexual liberation in modernism from a gender-oriented perspective. Main point: sexual liberation applied for men, could be counter-productive for women - negative effects on women: enormous pressure to do sexually well, blurred boundaries between sexual liberation (for men) and sexual obligation (for women). Ergo: diverse feminist reactions to sexual liberation: Purity Movement: postulated the spiritual nature of love, chastity as liberty (images of women: spinster , frigid women , lesbian ), Free Love: Sexuality increases in who am, value, this became especially true for extra-marital love. Yet the problem of sexual obligation remained. Revolt against male harassment: prostitution, child abuse. Joannou, Maroula.

1994. 'Nothing Is Impractible for a Single, Middle-Aged Woman with an Income of her Own': The Spinster in Women's Fiction of the 1920s. In: Sybil Oldfield, ed. This Working-Day World: Women's Lives and Culture(s) in papers, Britain 1914-1945 . London: Taylor Francis. 175-191. Paper on essay about who am i the 1920s image of the thermography research papers, spinster in English culture and literature (May Sinclair, Katherine Mansfield, Ivy Compton-Burnett, Sylvia Townsend Warner, F.M. Essay I? Mayor). Discusses fears of society's feminisations through the demographic 'redundancy' of thermography, women and contrasts these with the actual economic and familial situation of the majority of English spinsters.

Joannou, Maroula. 1995. 'Ladies, Please Don't Smash These Windows': Women's Writing, Feminist Consciousness and Social Change 1918-38 . Oxford Providence: Berg. About Who Am? Study on women writers between 1918 and 1938. Covers a wide spectrum of female authors, some established and some less established. Less established writers: Vera Brittain, Leonora Eyles, Radclyffe Hall, Sylvia Townsend Warner, E.H. Young.

Established writers: Virginia Woolf, Dorothy Richardson, Elizabeth Bowen, Rosamond Lehmann, Rebecca West. Further textual material considered: Anti-fascist writings. Study contains a detailed chapter on the image of the thermography research, spinster and who am i, gives relevant textual examples. Kent, Susan. 1987.

Sex and Suffrage in Britain, 1860-1914. Princeton, NJ: Princeton UP. Study on the role of sexuality in first wave feminism and its ideological context. Foci: stereotypes of femininity (overview). Women's vote as a symbol of sexual liberation. Manifest Destiny Essay? Further foci: sex war, prostitution, marriage, medicine, legislation. Laity, Cassandra. 1996. H.D. and the Victorian Fin de Siècle : Gender, Modernism, Decadence . Essay About Who Am? Cambridge: Cambridge UP.

Ledger, Sally. 1997. The New Woman: Fiction and feminism at the fin de siècle. Manchester New York: Manchester UP. Study on the New Woman: supplementary to Ardis (1990). Essay Articles Of Confederation Vs Constitution? Complex and contradictory definition of New Woman: New Woman as a textual phenomenon in magazines and novels, as a trigger of controversial public debate. Detailed contextualization: women's liberation movement in its relation to socialism, imperialism and about i, the debate over sexuality ( purity movement vs. Property Plant And Equipment Thesis? decadence), theories on lesbian love, New Woman as a phenomenon of the city.

Classification of the New Woman novel in literary-historical terms: shows a multitude of literary forms, only partially to be classified as modernist. Melman, Billie. 1988. Women and the Popular Imagination in the Twenties: Flappers and Nymphs . London: Macmillan. Study on images of women in the 1920s.

Images dominating the public consciousness: flapper and surplus woman. Analysis of essay who am i, a very broad spectrum of popular literature (broad in terms of reception rather than sales figures). Key words: best-seller, serial fiction, book business and magazines. Milgram Knapp, Shoshana. Stranger A 1953 Essay By Baldwin? 1996.

Revolutionary Androgynity in the Fiction of 'Victoria Cross'. In: Kaplan, Carola M. Anne B. Who Am I? Simpson, eds. Seeing Double: Revisioning Edwardian and Modernist Literature . New York: St. Martin's Press. 3-19. Miller, Jane Eldridge. 1994. Rebel Women: Feminism, Modernism and the Edwardian Novel . London: Virago. Persuasive? Study on the feminist movement in the context of the modernist era. Revision of the literary canon: Provides a discussion of women's novels between 1900 and essay, 1914, a period often neglected in literary criticism.

Describes the spend money essay, transitional period of literary modernism: Thematic innovations and formal modification of traditional narration. Attempts of independent female development and criticism of women's role in society replace the traditional courtship plot. Critical reflection of marriage. Discussion of (new) images of women. Genre: predominantly suffragette novels.

Considers the socio-cultural context of the literary texts. Ouditt, Sharon. 1994. Fighting Forces, Writing Women: Identity and Ideology in the First World War . London New York: Routledge. Study on women and World War I. Starts out essay who am i focusing on a description of women at work (medical duty, agricultural work, work in munitions factories).

Continues to approach the apart cultural, topic by about looking at manifest destiny essay different texts: magazines, autobiographies and novels (partly popular literature). Literature (fictional and non-fictional) is granted a major role in this context. Areas of discussion: images of women: stereotypical Red Cross Nurse (active role of hero, yet female) - the ordinary housewife at the home front as angel in the house in war literature. Critical reflection on the war and women's roles in postwar fiction. Image of the essay about who am, mother as a preserver of life. Feminist pacifism. The shock experience of war and the temporary allocation of roles as a danger to identity. Discussion of the influence of World War I on society and essay, literature as part of modernism. Pumphrey, Martin. About I? 1987.

The Flapper, the Housewife and the Making of Modernity. Cultural Studies 1.2: 179-194. Pykett, Lyn. 1992. The Improper Feminine. The Woman's Sensation Novel and spend pocket money wisely, the New Woman Writing. London: New York: Routledge. Study on femininity and women's writing. Genre: Sensational novel and New Woman novel between 1860 and 1900.

Points to their subversive and emancipatory aspects. Canon-revisionary impact: Pykett stresses the importance of the sensational novel and the New Woman novel for essay who am, literary history. Forerunners of modernist authors such as Woolf and Richardson. Essay? Considers formal aspects of subversion: Sensational novel depicts female stereotypes, yet subverts them by introducing female protagonists deviating from traditional gender norms. New Woman novel subverts on the level of narration and plot: non-realistic, impressionist, episodic. Pykett's study is a source for less established primary literature. Pykett, Lyn.

1995. Engendering Fictions: The English Novel in the Early Twentieth Century . London etc.: Edward Arnold. Study proceeds from who am, literary history focusing on novels. Introduces established modernist writers on the basis of the gender crisis at articles vs constitution the time (relatively selective). Deals with New Woman writing, psychological theories, Dora Marsden's The (New) Freewoman / The Egoist and the phenomenon of degeneration as a result of mass society.

Defines literary modernism quite restrictively: modernism as a programme of literary aesthetics, experimentation and essay, formation of a canon, period beginning in 1890. Provides critical discussion of arguments against a feminist revision of the modernist canon. Showalter, Elaine. Essay Articles Of Confederation Vs Constitution? 1990. Sexual Anarchy: Gender and Culture at the Fin de Siècle. London: Bloomsbury. Study on gender concepts at the fin de siècle . Breaking of traditional roles. Key words: theories on sexuality, naming of homosexuality, multiple personalities (Jekyll/Hyde), reflection on physicality in terms of about i, dissecting bodies (Jack the Ripper), venereal diseases, aestheticization of sexuality, concepts of destiny persuasive essay, decadence, images of women (New Woman, surplus woman). Simpson, Anne B. 1996. Who Am? Architects of the Erotic: H.G. Wells's 'New Women'.

In: Kaplan, Carola M. Anne B. Simpson, eds. Seeing Double: Revisioning Edwardian and Modernist Literature . New York: St. Martin's Press. 39-55. Stern, Katherine. 1987.

The War of the Sexes in British Fantasy of the Suffragette Era. Critical Matrix 3.1: 78-109. Study dealing with differences of male and female utopian fiction. Genre: drama and novel. Focus is on women's concerns: 'female' defence and stranger in the village a 1953, 'male' rejection. White, Cynthia L. 1970. Women's Magazines 1693-1968 . London: Michael Joseph. A seminal account of the development of essay i, women's magazines. One of White's foci is the literature published in these magazines. Pages 77-117 are of particular interest.

Chinitz, David. 1997. Dance, Little Lady': Poets, Flappers, and the Gendering of Jazz. In: Lisa Rado, ed. Modernism, Gender, And Culture: A Cultural Studies Approach.

New York London: Garland Publishing. 319-335. Plant? Gitter, Elizabeth G. 1984. The Power of Women's Hair in the Victorian Imagination. Essay? PMLA 99: 936-954. Analyses the significance of women's hair as fetish and instrument for essay of confederation, hypnosis in the poetic and visual imagination of the Victorians. Kaplan, Joel H. Sheila Stowell. 1994. Theatre and about who am i, Fashion: Oscar Wilde to the Suffragettes . Cambridge: Cambridge UP. Study on the interrelationship of theatre and fashion: reciprocal influence.

Function of showing fashionable women's clothes on stage: attracting and stimulating for audience (except in performances of Ibsen or Shaw). Semantic function of dress: social status of a character and its alteration in the course of the play ( Pygmalion ; from flower girl to lady). Symbolization of stereotypes of femininity: Woman as sex object, New Woman and thermography research papers, Suffragette emphasize masculine markers (e.g. boots, umbrella) and reject female markers (e.g. I? skirts, sashes, puffed sleeves) - this is true for the stage as well as social reality. Marvin, Carolyn. 1988. When Old Technologies Were New: Thinking about money essay Electric Communication in the Late Nineteenth Century . New York, Oxford: Oxford University Press. Cultural studies approach. Analyses technological innovations (the 'new media') of the late 19th century and their medial and communicative impact in essay, Anglo-American culture.

Ch. 3: Focuses on the gender-specific functionalization of the body for promoting new electronic technologies. Articles Of Confederation? Müller-Tamm, Pia Katharina Sykora, eds. Essay Who Am I? 1999. Puppen. Körper. Automaten: Phantasmen der Moderne. Kunstsammlung NRW, Düsseldorf: Oktagon.

Collection of stranger village essay by baldwin, essays discussing modernist representations of the puppet, the body and about i, the automaton. The book includes a picture catalogue with short explanatory texts. The ten essays go beyond the discourse of fine arts: they show different perspectives on the subject reflecting both the boundary position of the artificial human being between art and cultural history and its transformation within contemporary art. Reynolds, Dee A. 1997. Dancing Free: Women's Movement in Early Modern Dance. In: Rado, Lisa, ed. Modernism, Gender, And Culture: A Cultural Studies Approach . New York London: Garland Publishing.

247-279. Sennett, Richard. 1994. Flesh and Stone: The Body and the City in Western Civilization . New York London: W.W. Norton. Study on vs constitution space and bodily experience.

Key words: sensory perception, movements, analogies of city and body, allocation of meaning to certain areas (public, private etc.), historical change of cities, interior rooms, increasing dimension of the private in interior rooms. Whiteley, Nigel. 1997. Whitewash, Ripolin, Shop-Girls, and essay who am, Matière : Modernist Design and property plant thesis, Gender. In: Rado, Lisa, ed. Modernism, Gender, And Culture: A Cultural Studies Approach . New York London: Garland Publishing. 199-228.

Bland, Lucy. 1995. Banishing the Beast: English Feminism and about i, Sexual Morality, 1885-1914. Harmondsworth: Penguin. How To Money? Bland's book is who am, a comprehensive study on the subject of feminism and apart cultural essay, sexual morality around the turn of the (19th to 20th) century. Her aim is to sketch the contemporary (and, at least from a 21st-century point of view, often problematical) feminist discourse in its interdependence with the restrictive cultural context of the about who am, time. Essay? The study therefore provides a wealth of biographical material. Part One: historical and scientific background of the topic (constructions of essay who am, femininity in dominant patriarchal discourses such as medicine, religion, evolutionary theory and their feminist reception). Parts Two and Three: discussion of the concrete practical difficulties in realising feminist sexual politics, focusing on the fields of prostitution, marriage, eugenics, sexology and alternative forms of sexual identity.

Castle, Terry. 1993. The Apparitional Lesbian: Female Homosexuality and Modern Culture. New York: Columbia UP. Things Fall? Felski, Rita. 1995. The Gender of Modernity . Cambridge, Ma.: Harvard UP. Study on gender and modernity, proceeding from cultural theory and cultural history. Considers different discourses: philosophy, history, natural sciences, psychology, sexology, social history, conditions of publication. Focus on one author: Marie Corelli.

Gilman, Sander L. 1985. Essay About? Difference and Pathology: Stereotypes of Sexuality, Race and Madness. Ithaca London: Cornell UP. Hall, Lesley. A. Essay? 1991. Hidden Anxieties: Male Sexuality 1900-1950. Cambridge: Polity Press. Study on men and about who am, sexuality. Depicts different point of things apart cultural, views on essay about i how male sexuality is constructed. Grounds on biographic material: letters to Marie Stopes written by different men as a response to research papers Stopes's Married Love. Who Am I? Addresses male sexual inhibitions, problems and sexual enlightenment.

Jeffreys, Sheila. 1985. The Spinster And Her Enemies: Feminism and sexuality 1880-1930 . London etc.: Pandora. Study on the image of the spinster. Pays critical attention to the so-called sexual liberation in in the a 1953, modernism from a gender-oriented perspective. Essay About Who Am I? Main point: sexual liberation applied for property plant and equipment thesis, men, could be counter-productive for women - negative effects on who am women: enormous pressure to do sexually well, blurred boundaries between sexual liberation (for men) and sexual obligation (for women).

Ergo: diverse feminist reactions to sexual liberation: Purity Movement: postulated the spiritual nature of love, chastity as liberty (images of women: spinster , frigid women , lesbian ), Free Love: Sexuality increases in value, this became especially true for extra-marital love. Yet the problem of sexual obligation remained. Revolt against male harassment: prostitution, child abuse. Kent, Susan. 1987. Sex and Suffrage in Britain, 1860-1914. Princeton, NJ: Princeton UP. Study on the role of sexuality in first wave feminism and its ideological context. Foci: stereotypes of femininity (overview).

Women's vote as a symbol of sexual liberation. Further topics: sex war, prostitution, marriage, medicine, legislation. Ledger, Sally. 1997. The New Woman: Fiction and feminism at the fin de siècle. Manchester New York: Manchester UP. (ch. 5 on lesbian identity) Study on the New Woman: supplementary to Ardis (1990). Complex and contradictory definition of New Woman: New Woman as a textual phenomenon in magazines and novels, as a trigger of stranger in the by baldwin, controversial public debate. Detailed contextualization: women's liberation movement in its relation to about i socialism, imperialism and the debate over sexuality ( purity movement vs. decadence), theories on articles of confederation lesbian love, New Woman as a phenomenon of the city. Classification of the i, New Woman novel in literary-historical terms: shows a multitude of literary forms, only partially to be classified as modernist.

Lucas, John. Stranger A 1953 Essay By Baldwin? 1997. The Radical Twenties: Aspects of Writing, Politics and Culture. Nottingham: Five Leaves. One field of analysis are theories of who am i, sexuality and their portrayal in 1920s English literature (D.H. Lawrence, Joyce), the legal situation concerning homosexuality, psychology's impact on sexual 'liberation' and the attitude of the Bloomsbury Group towards sexuality. Mort, Frank. 1987 [2000].

Dangerous Sexualities: Medico-moral Politics in England since 1830. London: Routledge. Study on sexuality as represented in a medico-moral discourse. Discourse-theoretical approach. Depicts the interaction between morality and medicine in the field of sexuality. Key words: Debate on social hygiene: purity vs. decadence. Sexuality in research papers, the context of the city. Moscucci, Ornella. 1990.

The Science of essay i, Woman: Gynaecology and Gender in England, 1800-1929. Cambridge: Cambridge UP. Plant And Equipment? Comprehensive study on the conception of female sexuality, proceeding from cultural history. Focus: 19th century. Important points: Historicity of gender and gynaecology, dependence on essay who am cultural context. Concepts of femininity in medical discourse. Destiny? Gender difference explained physically and psychologically.

Discussion of bisexuality and hermaphroditism. Further foci: Darwinism, environmentalism, degeneration, anthropology. Rado, Lisa. 2000. The Modern Androgyne Imagination. A Failed Sublime. Charlottesville and London: UP of Virginia. Showalter, Elaine. Essay Who Am I? 1990. In The? Sexual Anarchy: Gender and about who am, Culture at the Fin de Siècle.

London: Bloomsbury. Study on gender concepts at the fin de siècle . Spend Pocket Money Wisely Essay? Breaking of essay about i, traditional roles. Key words: theories on sexuality, naming of homosexuality, multiple personalities (Jekyll/Hyde), reflection on physicality in terms of dissecting bodies (Jack the Ripper), venereal diseases, aestheticization of sexuality, concepts of decadence, images of of confederation, women (New Woman, surplus woman). Weeks, Jeffrey. 1985. Sexuality and its Discontents: Meanings, Myths Modern Sexualities . London: Routledge Kegan Paul. Study on the development of the scientific discourse on sexuality. References to psychoanalysis, Darwinism and eugenics. A very useful collection of articles from the perspectives of natural science, social science and the humanities which provides an overview on the degeneration debate in the 19th and the early 20th centuries.

The institutionalisation of the essay i, degeneration debate is essay, reflected in the light of the discourses of about who am, medicine, anthropology, and the theatre. Premises: degeneration as a counterpart to the nineteenth-century belief in progress; degeneration and regeneration as two poles of a rhetoric strategy and logical order - fact and fiction at the same time. Cf. Siegel for essay articles of confederation vs constitution, specific strategies of representation. Carpenter, Edward. [1889] 1903. Die Civilisation, ihre Ursachen und ihre Heilung , transl.

Karl Federn. Leipzig: Hermann Seemann Nachfolger. [engl. Essay Who Am I? Civilization: Its Cause and Cure ] Cultural criticism with a socialist orientation. Characterised by a harsh criticism of civilisation in which cultural and bio-medical discourses intermingle: contemporary English civilisation as infectious disease either culminating in death following various stages of degeneration or culminating in social stagnation. The socialist form of society as utopian potential. Dijkstra, Bram. 1986. Idols of Perversity: Fantasies of Feminine Evil in the Fin de siècle. New York, London: Oxford UP. Study on stranger village a 1953 by baldwin representations of femininity in the late 19th century, proceeding from about who am, art history. References to literature and research papers, other cultural discourses of the time.

Of particular interest in essay, this context: motif of the self-sufficient Narcissa , a degenerate/deviant woman (due to in the essay by baldwin her auto-eroticism) subverting the conventional image of altruistic femininity. Reference to her criminal disposition (Lombroso), Narcissa as a potential danger to male identity in sexological theory (Moll, Feré, Krafft-Ebing). I? Doyle, Laura. 1994. Bordering on the Body: The Radical Matrix of Modern Fiction and Culture . New York Oxford: Oxford UP. Fuchs, Stefan F.-J.

1992. Dekadenz: Versuch zur ästhetischen Negativität im industriellen Zeitalter anhand von Texten aus dem französischen und englischen Fin de siècle. Heidelberg: Winter. Philosophically oriented dissertation on decadence. Rejects an historical approach to property the literary texts of decadence, rather, uses them as a basis for historical and philosophical reflections on pre-modern developments in the 19th century. Crucial points: the radically negative connotation of the term decadence, as opposed to its appropriation as a means to counter an optimistic bourgeois belief in progress.

Greenslade, William. 1994. Degeneration, Culture and the Novel, 1880-1940. Cambridge: Cambridge UP. Hurley, Kelly. 1996. The Gothic Body: Sexuality, materialism, and degeneration at the fin de siècle. Cambridge: Cambridge UP. Kline, Salli J. 1992.

The Degeneration of Women: Bram Stoker's 'Dracula' as Allegorical Criticism of the 'Fin de Siècle' . Rheinbach-Merzbach: CMZ-Verlag. Study of Bram Stoker's Dracula analysing the novel in relation to Nordau's cultural criticism and i, Lombroso's theory on atavism, degeneration, innate criminal disposition and 'moral insanity'. Main thesis: Stoker's novel shows a constant blotting out of the sensus literalis by destiny persuasive essay a sensus allegoricus with the latter serving as an instrument of an ultra-conservative (also in terms of gender), reactionary polemic against ongoing changes of consciousness and social changes of the period. Link-Heer, Ursula. 1986. 'Le mal a marché trop vite.' Fortschritts- und Dekadenzbewußtsein im Spiegel des Nervositäts-Syndroms.

In: Wolfgang Drost, ed. Fortschrittsglaube und Dekadenzbewußtsein im Europa des 19. Jahrhunderts: Literatur - Kunst - Kulturgeschichte . Heidelberg: Winter. 45-67. Essay I? Valuable historical overview on fall apart cultural the cultural significance and medical diagnosis and treatment of nervous illnesses in the 19th century. Main theses: a) these kinds of diseases have always been read as cultural pathologies, i.e. as symptoms of cultural crisis; b) there has been no clear-cut temporal succession of notions of progress and of decadence but both have always been closely interwoven. The study places degeneracy (nervous exhaustion) in the cultural context of the time, as one of the illnesses of the peripheral nervous system. Investigates modern nervousness as a syndrome and manner of self-description of an industrial culture striving after expansion and progress. Considers psychiatric writings of the 19th century (Erb, Morel, Beard). Mehnert, Henning.

1986. Zur Bedeutung der Begriffe 'symbolisme', 'décadentisme' und 'dégénerescence' im 19. About Who Am? Jahrhundert. In: Wolfgang Drost, ed. Fortschrittsglaube und Dekadenzbewußtsein im Europa des 19. Jahrhunderts: Literatur - Kunst - Kulturgeschichte . Heidelberg: Winter. 75-84. Study traces concepts of decadence back to Montaigne and Rousseau and analyses the later tendency to individualise and psychologize these notions (starting with Morel).

Focus on Morel's prototypical study: the medico-psychiatric component of degeneration, which is also analysed in Magnan, Lombroso, Gobineau, Nordau and, as a literary premise, in Baudelaire and Huysmans. Nordau, Max. 1993. Degeneration . Lincoln, New York: University of Nebraska Press. [Original: Entartung , 2 vols. Berlin: Carl Duncker, 1892/93]. Study in two volumes by Max Nordau, a doctor and cultural theorist, first published in German, from 1895 onward also available in an English translation. A scandalous success at the time, one of the best known works in the debate on degeneration. It is a poignant, and at times openly polemic attack against certain tendencies in in the village a 1953 by baldwin, the arts: Decadence, aestheticism, symbolism (among others) are classified as degenerate (in a physiological and mental sense). Nordau's argumentation is based on his medical knowledge and on essay about i the criminological theories of Lombroso. In The A 1953 Essay By Baldwin? Criticism of civilisation is expressed in the form of essay about, apocalyptic scenarios ('the dusk of nations') and, for the first time, presented as a concern of doctors and, especially, psychiatrists. Phenomena of degeneracy (intellectual, moral or physical) become the research, object of psycho-pathology.

For Nordau, mysticism and about who am i, egomania count as typical symptoms of the degenerate artist, for which he offers methods of diagnosis and even suggestions for therapy. Nordau's study is an attack in scientific disguise against intellectuals and is directed against how to spend pocket money wisely, personalities like Wagner, Nietzsche, Ibsen, Swinburne, Huysmans or Wilde. Pick, Daniel. 1989. Faces of Degeneration: A European Disorder, c. 1848-c. 1918 . Cambridge: Cambridge UP. A sociological study, well-documented and about, thoroughly researched. Provides important information on the concept of degeneration in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Pick predominantly analyses scientific and pseudo-scientific documents of the manifest destiny persuasive, time, but also considers literary examples. Study covers texts from all over essay who am i Europe but lacks any explicit reflection on the interrelation between degeneration and gender. Pykett, Lyn.

1995. Engendering Fictions: The English Novel in the Twentieth Century . London, etc.: Edward Arnold. Feminist study on the interdependence between constructions of femininity and degeneration: The New Woman as cause and symptom of how to spend pocket, cultural degeneration and essay who am, as 'cure for social evils'; like the homosexual, the New Woman is an example of the transgression of gender boundaries (illustrated also in manifest destiny, exterior appearance: body and style); effects: pathological allocations of about i, sexual excess, degeneration, denial of femininity. Urban mass culture and society as a product of feminisation. Feminism as a symptom of degeneration. Emerging concepts of regeneration within the feminist debate. Rose, Jonathan.

1986. The Edwardian Temperament 1895-1919. Athens/Ohio, London: Ohio UP. Study on the change of in the village a 1953 by baldwin, values in the Edwardian period, proceeding from cultural and literary history (however, literary texts are generally only discussed on essay about i a surface level, and the category of gender is reflected in a rather uncritical manner, if at all). Aspects of interest: religious (and moral) crisis, the things collision, secularisation of spirituality and the emergence of surrogate religions, the 'quest for essay about who am, otherness', the idealisation of fall collision essay, interpersonal relations and in particular homoeroticism, the cult of vitality as a reaction to late Victorian decadence, the motif of the illegitimate child and the unmarried mother, the efficiency movement and eugenics, the Edwardian culture of leisure and fun. Who Am I? Schulte, Christoph. 1997. Psychopathologie des Fin de siècle : Max Nordau: Der Kulturkritiker, Arzt und Zionist. Frankfurt/M.: Fischer. Revised postdoctoral thesis based on the unpublished works of Nordau (mainly letters, researched for the first time).

A comprehensive study, structured biographically. Theoretical approach: rejects deconstruction, favours Foucauldian discourse analysis. Content: Analysis of the interconnected strands within intellectual history 1870 to 1920. Property And Equipment Thesis? Shows the essay about who am i, lasting effects of scientific positivism on social theories, psychology and medicine as well as the transfer of psycho-pathological findings into the field of civilisation and art criticism through terms like decadence and degeneration. Shaw, George Bernard.

1932 [1908]. The Sanity of Art: An Exposure of the Current Nonsense about Artists Being Degenerate. In: Major Critical Essays . London: Constable. 281-332. Polemic response to Nordau's Degeneration from the perspective of the artist. Shaw refutes Nordau's arguments by showing up their inherent paradoxical and unscientific nature and manifest destiny, thus attacks Nordau at his weakest point, i.e. his attempt to legitimise his theories with the essay i, help of medical science. Siegel, Sandra. 1985. Literature and Degeneration: The Representation of 'Decadence'.

In: Edward J. Chamberlain Sander L., Gilman, eds. Degeneration: The Dark Side of Progress. New York: Columbia UP. 199-219. Trotter, David. 1993. The English Novel in essay, History . London, New York: Routledge. (ch.7) Short outline of the history of degeneration theory focusing on the origins of degeneration in the natural sciences and essay, medicine, its Darwinist basis, the classification of degenerative symptoms, the articles of confederation, emergence of a discourse of who am, degeneration in the cultural and literary theory of the late 19th century. Important points in wisely, the literary context of degeneration: popularity of a 'plot of decline, of physical and moral exhaustion' in naturalistic fiction (also in so-called slum fiction). Degeneration as a topic in the new woman novel and likewise in popular fiction.

Bland, Lucy. 1995. Banishing the essay about who am, Beast. English Feminism Sexual Morality. 1885-1914. London et. al: Penguin Books. Bland's book is a comprehensive study on cultural the subject of feminism and sexual morality around the turn of the (19th to essay about who am 20th) century. Her aim is to sketch the contemporary (and, at least from a 21st-century point of view, often problematical) feminist discourse in its interdependence with the restrictive cultural context of the time. The study therefore provides a wealth of how to spend pocket wisely essay, biographical material. Part One: historical and scientific background of the topic (constructions of femininity in dominant patriarchal discourses such as medicine, religion, evolutionary theory and essay about who am i, their feminist reception).

Parts Two and Three: discussion of the concrete practical difficulties in how to spend money, realising feminist sexual politics, focusing on the fields of prostitution, marriage, eugenics, sexology and essay about who am, alternative forms of manifest persuasive, sexual identity. DiQuinzio, Patrice Iris Marion Young, eds. 1997. Feminist Ethics and Social Policy . Bloomington, Indianapolis: Indiana UP. A slightly heterogeneous collection of essays focusing on examples of practised (feminist) morality. Requires knowledge of the theoretical discussion. Provides articles on the following topics: politics, medicine, health system, military, immigrants, AIDS, pornography and abortion. Main focus: the situation in the United States. Dreitzel, H.P. 1972. Die gesellschaftlichen Leiden und das Leiden an der Gesellschaft: Vorstudien zu einer Pathologie des Rollenverhaltens.

Stuttgart: Ferdinand Enke. A study on subjectively perceived marginality and its psycho-pathological and socio-pathological causes from the perspective of social psychology. Suggested approach: role theory. Of particular interest: Dreitzel's notion of essay about who am, 'Anomie' (= total lack or confusion of norms), which he derives from the history of sociology and supplements with his own concepts of interaction and role identity. Gilligan, Carol.

1982. Essay Of Confederation? In a Different Voice: Psychological Theory and Women's Development . Cambridge, Mass. London: Harvard UP. Probably the most influential feminist study on the topic of morality. Takes Lawrence Kohlberg's model of moral development as a starting point. About Who Am? Exposes Kohlberg's argumentation as male-centred. Modifies his theory with the help of object relations theory to account for gender differences. Gilligan's work is based on empirical studies. Her main thesis: due to research papers disposition and experiences of essay who am, socialisation, men/boys tend to an ethic of justice whereas girls/women typically internalise an ethic of care . Gilman, Sander L. Thermography Research? 1985. Essay? Difference and Pathology: Stereotypes of Sexuality, Race and Madness.

Ithaca London: Cornell UP. Plant And Equipment Thesis? Hall, Lesley. A. 1991. Hidden Anxieties: Male Sexuality 1900-1950. Cambridge: Polity Press. Study on men and sexuality. Depicts different point of views on how male sexuality is constructed.

Grounds on essay about i biographic material: letters to Marie Stopes written by different men as a response to Stopes's Married Love. Addresses male sexual inhibitions, problems and fall apart collision essay, sexual enlightenment. Harrison, Beverley Wildung. 1985. Making the Connections: Essays in Feminist Social Ethics, ed. Carol S. Robb. Boston: Beacon Press.

A collection of essays (written between 1972 and 1985) on the feminist discourse of ethics and Christianity. Approach: theologically oriented social history. Harrison's ethics is characterised as feminist socialist Christian in Robb's preface. Harrison sets a universalist Christian ethics against the ideas of Carol Gilligan. Advocates an equality feminism pleading for 'objectivity' of the about who am i, feminist perspective. Hekman, Susan J. 1995. Moral Voices, Moral Selves: Carol Gilligan and Feminist Moral Theory . Cambridge, Oxford: Polity Press. In-depth discussion of the work of Carol Gilligan offering various readings of her work. The study also provides a critical analysis of the meaning of morality in a poststructuralist context (Foucault, Lyotard et al.). Of Confederation? Documents a significant conceptual shift in essay about, the morality debate, which has lost theoretical impact through the influence of other academic disciplines. Hekman favours a gender-oriented reconceptualization of moral theory that would take its pluralistic approach from discourse analysis.

Jakobsen, Janet R. 1998. Working Alliances and the Politics of Difference: Diversity and Feminist Ethics . Bloomington, Indianapolis: Indiana UP. Plant And Equipment? Study on essay about who am feminist practices of alliance politics . Articles Vs Constitution? Rejects notions of about i, female unity as an axiomatic base. Discards the thermography research, feminist difference hypothesis. Argument proceeds from essay about who am i, postmodern theoretical debates: ethics as a field of complex negotiations; agency as a basis for alliance politics. Jeffreys, Sheila. 1985. The Spinster And Her Enemies: Feminism and Sexuality 1880-1930 . London etc.: Pandora. A very useful study which questions critically the general presumption of sexual liberation in the modernist period, a development which continues to be regarded as one of the how to money wisely, most characteristic and influential within the about who am, modernist context. Jeffreys shows that the wisely essay, emergence of sexology by no means meant that women experienced sexual liberation. Quite the opposite, according to Jeffreys, it helped to force women into male-dominated heterosexual patterns.

Mort, Frank. 1987 [2000]. Dangerous Sexualities: Medico-moral Politics in England since 1830. London: Routledge. Study on sexuality as represented in a medico-moral discourse. Essay I? Discourse-theoretical approach. Depicts the interaction between morality and medicine in the field of sexuality. Key words: Debate on social hygiene: purity vs. decadence. Research Papers? Sexuality in the context of the about i, city. Moscucci, Ornella.

1990. The Science of Woman: Gynaecology and Gender in England, 1800-1929. Cambridge: Cambridge UP. Comprehensive study on the conception of manifest persuasive essay, female sexuality, proceeding from cultural history. Focus: ed. century.

Important points: Historicity of gender and about i, gynaecology, dependence on cultural context. Stranger In The Essay? Concepts of femininity in medical discourse. Gender difference explained physically and psychologically. Discussion of bisexuality and hermaphroditism. Further foci: Darwinism, environmentalism, degeneration, anthropology.

Nunner-Winkler, Gertrud, ed. 1995. Weibliche Moral: Die Kontroverse um eine geschlechtsspezifische Ethik . About I? München: dtv. Essay collection which discusses critically and systematically Carol Gilligan's notion of a gender-specific morality (female ethics of care vs. male ethics of justice ). Covers work by Butler, Gilligan, Harding, Habermas. Some of the articles were previously published. Singer, Mona.

1996. Weibliches Subjekt und Gastfreundschaft: Ende und Anfang einer Moral. In: Ruthard Stäblein, ed. Moral: Erkundungen über einen strapazierten Begriff. Property And Equipment Thesis? Frankfurt/M.: Fischer. 118-139. Stäblein, Ruthard, ed. 1996. Moral: Erkundungen über einen strapazierten Begriff. Frankfurt/M.: Fischer.

Relatively heterogeneous collection of essays, partly in form of interviews. Includes articles by Baudrillard and Blanchot. Points of interest: morality's myths of origin, gender difference and morality (Nitzschke, Singer), Foucault's notion of morality. Essay I? Weeks, Jeffrey. 1985. Fall Apart Collision Essay? Sexuality and its Discontents: Meanings, Myths Modern Sexualities . London: Routledge Kegan Paul. Study on the development of the scientific discourse on sexuality. References to psychoanalysis, Darwinism and eugenics.

Bland, Lucy. 1995. Banishing the Beast: English Feminism and Sexual Morality, 1885-1914. Harmondsworth: Penguin. Bland's book is about who am i, a comprehensive study on the subject of feminism and sexual morality around the turn of the (19th to 20th) century.

Her aim is to papers sketch the contemporary (and, at least from a 21st-century point of view, often problematical) feminist discourse in its interdependence with the restrictive cultural context of the time. The study therefore provides a wealth of biographical material. Part One: historical and scientific background of the essay who am, topic (constructions of femininity in dominant patriarchal discourses such as medicine, religion, evolutionary theory and their feminist reception). Parts Two and Three: discussion of the concrete practical difficulties in realising feminist sexual politics, focusing on the fields of spend money, prostitution, marriage, eugenics, sexology and alternative forms of sexual identity. Byles, Joan Montgomery. 1985. Women's Experience of World War I: Suffragists, Pacifists and Poets. Women's Studies International Forum 8.5: 473-487. Article on the suffrage movement in the context of World War I. Key words: division - militarist suffragettes vs. pacifist suffragettes. Example: conflict between Emmeline and Sylvia Pankhurst.

Textual material: war poetry by women. Dyhouse, Carol. 1989. Feminism and the Family in England 1880-1939 . London: Blackwell. Essay About? Study on family and marriage from a woman-centred perspective.

Textual material: basically (auto)biography, but also some novels. Felski, Rita. 1995. The Gender of Modernity . Cambridge, Ma.: Harvard UP. Study on gender and stranger in the village a 1953 essay by baldwin, modernity, proceeding from cultural theory and cultural history.. Considers different discourses: philosophy, history, natural sciences, psychology, sexology, social history, conditions of about, publication. Focus on one author: Marie Corelli. Fall Cultural Essay? Garner, Les. 1984.

Stepping Stones to Women's Liberty: Feminist Ideas in the Women's Suffrage Movement 1900-1918. Rutherford, NJ: Fairleigh Dickinson UP. Kent, Susan. 1987. Sex and Suffrage in Britain, 1860-1914. Princeton, NJ: Princeton UP.

Study on the role of sexuality in first wave feminism and its ideological context. Foci: stereotypes of femininity (overview). About? Women's vote as a symbol of sexual liberation. Further topics: sex war, prostitution, marriage, medicine, legislation. Stranger In The A 1953 Essay By Baldwin? Lyon, Janet. 1992. Militant Discourse, Strange Bedfellows: Suffragettes and Vorticists before the War. differences: A Journal of Feminist Cultural Studies 4.2: 100-133.

Article on the suffrage movement and developments in art before World War I. Discusses analogies and who am, interactions between militant suffragettes and radical artists of the thermography research, avant-garde (e.g. vorticists, futurists). Key words: militancy, iconoclasms, feminist delimitation and self-marginalisation, polarizing tendencies and linguistic unambiguity in feminist pamphlets and manifestos. Lyon, Janet. 1994/95. Essay? Women Demonstrating Modernism. Discourse 17.2: 6-25. Stowell, Sheila. 1992. A stage of their own: Feminist playwrights of the suffrage era . Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.

Stowell, Sheila. 1996. Suffrage critics and political action: a feminist agenda. In: Michael R. Booth Joel H. Kaplan, eds. The Edwardian Theatre: Essays on performance and the stage . Cambridge: Cambridge UP. 166-184. Bjorhovde, Gerd. 1987. Rebellious Structures: Women Writers and the Crisis of the Novel 1880-1900 . And Equipment Thesis? Oslo: Norwegian UP. One of the few books specifically focusing on interpreting texts of high literary One of the few books specifically focusing on interpreting fin-de-siècle highbrow texts by women. Textual material: four representative authors of the late 19th century - Olive Schreiner, Margaret Harkness, Sarah Grand and George Egerton.

Forerunners of modernism, prepared the essay who am i, grounds for property and equipment, modernist change in terms of content and form: Authors address matters of female concern that emerged in essay who am i, the public consciousness at the turn of the century and shortly before. Tension between positive and negative evaluation of the New Woman as an interesting topic to narrate. Foci of New Realisms: Scepticism, questioning of conventional values, transgression of conventional Victorian conception of genre. 'Crisis' of the novel: Breaking of conventional structures of time, plot, content and style. Things Fall Apart? Fragmentarization of plot, anachronisms, subjectivity, internal focalization, no explicit narrator. Bjorhovde provides very detailed analyses of texts.

Burke, Carolyn. 1984. Getting spliced: Modernism and essay, Sexual Difference. Property And Equipment? American Quarterly 39.1: 98-121. Burmeister, Tereza. 1994. In Search of the Lost Woman-Time: Cross-Biographical Studies on who am i the Construction of (Post-)Modern Gender Identity. History of European Ideas 19: 837-844. DeKoven, Marianne. 1991. Rich and Strange: Gender, History, Modernism . Princeton, NJ: Princeton UP.

Study on Gender, History and Modernism (DeKoven's periodization: 1890-1930). Based on Derrida's concept of two co-existing paradoxes ( sous-rature ). Main point: male and female authors are afraid of revolutionary literary changes for different reasons: on the male side it is fear of losing one's power position, on the female side it is fear of and equipment, being punished. Textual material: analysis of canonized texts. Criticism: DeKoven's study is partially difficult to essay about who am i comprehend. Felski, Rita.

1995. Research Papers? The Gender of Modernity . About? Cambridge, Ma.: Harvard UP. Study on gender and spend pocket wisely essay, modernity, proceeding from cultural theory and cultural history. Considers different discourses: philosophy, history, natural sciences, psychology, sexology, social history, conditions of essay who am i, publication. Focus on one author: Marie Corelli. Friedman, Ellen G. Miriam Fuchs, eds. 1989. Spend Pocket? Breaking the about who am i, Sequence: Women's Experimental Fiction . Princeton, N.J.: Princeton UP. Gale, Maggie B. Destiny Persuasive Essay? 1996. West End Women: Women and the London stage 1918-1962 . I? London New York: Routledge. Study on things apart women and the theatre.

Describes the essay who am i, significant participation of female authors in and equipment, the theatrical world between 1918 and essay i, 1962. After winning the vote, women were on the advance in every sector. Manifest Persuasive? Gale addresses women questions, but not from essay i, a feminist theoretical background. Topics of interest: profession and family, working class women, mother role, relationship mother-daughter. Gardiner, Juliet, ed.

1993. Women's Voices 1880-1918: The New Woman. London: Collins Brown. Essay collection on literary representations of the New Woman. Analysis is spend wisely, not limited to the genre of the New Woman novel , covers a wide range of textual examples: poetry, drama, travel literature, letters and other cultural-historical documents. Deals with established and less established writers. Gardner, Viv Susan Rutherford, eds. 1992. The New Woman And Her Sisters: Feminism And Theatre 1850-1914 . Hemel Hempstead: Harvester Wheatsheaf.

Gilbert, Sandra M. Susan Gubar, eds. 1986. The Female Imagination and the Modernist Aesthetic . New York etc.: Gordon Breach. Gilbert, Sandra M. Susan Gubar. 1988.

No Man's Land: The Place of the Woman Writer in the Twentieth Century. Essay About? Vol. I: The War of the Words . New Haven: Yale UP. Gilbert, Sandra M. Stranger In The Village A 1953 Essay? Susan Gubar. 1988.

No Man's Land: The Place of the Woman Writer in the Twentieth Century. Vol. II: Sexchanges . New Haven: Yale UP. Gilbert, Sandra M. Susan Gubar. 1988. No Man's Land: The Place of the Woman Writer in the Twentieth Century. Vol. Essay About Who Am I? III: Letters from the Front . New Haven: Yale UP. Griffin, Gabriele, Ed.

1994. Difference in View: Women and Modernism . London: Taylor and articles of confederation, Francis. Ingram, Angela Daphne Patai, eds. 1993. Rediscovering Forgotten Radicals: British Women Writers, 1889-1939 . Chapel Hill London: The University of North Carolina Press. Essay collection on radical feminist socialist women writers between 1889 and 1939.

Textual material: novels in general (special focus on i popular literature by forgotten female authors), a multitude of fall apart essay, biographical information, New Woman novel , Romance, Utopian fiction. Distinction between middle-class and working-class authors and who am i, readers. Topics of social criticism: birth control, marriage, alcoholism, venereal disease. Formal aspects: Modification of plot with feminist impact. Joannou, Maroula.

1995. 'Ladies, Please Don't Smash These Windows': Women's Writing, Feminist Consciousness and Social Change 1918-38 . Oxford Providence: Berg. Study on women writers between 1918 and 1938. Covers a wide spectrum of female authors, some established and and equipment thesis, some less established. About I? Less established writers: Vera Brittain, Leonora Eyles, Radclyffe Hall, Sylvia Townsend Warner, E.H. Young. Established writers: Virginia Woolf, Dorothy Richardson, Elizabeth Bowen, Rosamond Lehmann, Rebecca West. Further textual material considered: Anti-fascist writings. Study contains a detailed chapter on the image of the spinster and gives relevant textual examples. Plant And Equipment? Light, Alison. Essay Who Am I? 1991.

Forever England: Femininity, literature and conservatism between the wars . London New York: Routledge. Laity, Cassandra. 1996. H.D. and the Victorian Fin de Siècle : Gender, Modernism, Decadence . Cambridge: Cambridge UP. In The Essay By Baldwin? Liska, Vivian.

1995. From Topos to Trope: Feminist Revision of Modernism. In: Christian Berg, Frank Durieux Geert Lernout, eds. The Turn of the Century: Modernism and Modernity in Literature and the Arts . Berlin New York: de Gruyter. 66-76. Miller, Jane Eldridge. 1994. Rebel Women: Feminism, Modernism and the Edwardian Novel . London: Virago.

Study on essay about the feminist movement in the context of the modernist era. Revision of the literary canon: Provides a discussion of women's novels between 1900 and 1914, a period often neglected in literary criticism. Describes the transitional period of literary modernism: Thematic innovations and formal modification of traditional narration. Attempts of stranger village a 1953, independent female development and essay i, criticism of women's role in society replace the traditional courtship plot. Critical reflection of marriage. Discussion of (new) images of women. Genre: predominantly suffragette novels. Considers the in the village a 1953, socio-cultural context of the essay about, literary texts. Montefiore, Janet. 1996.

Men and plant and equipment thesis, Women Writers of the 1930s: The dangerous flood of history . London New York: Routledge. Who Am I? Useful study on lesser known authors and manifest destiny persuasive essay, texts. Textual material: works by left-wing women writers, antifascist texts, novels, autobiography and poetry. Pykett, Lyn. 1992. The Improper Feminine.

The Woman's Sensation Novel and the New Woman Writing. London: New York: Routledge. Study on femininity and women's writing. Who Am? Genre: Sensational novel and New Woman novel between 1860 and 1900. Points to their subversive and emancipatory aspects. Canon-revisionary impact: Pykett stresses the importance of the sensational novel and property and equipment, the New Woman novel for literary history. Forerunners of modernist authors such as Woolf and essay about who am, Richardson. Considers formal aspects of subversion: Sensational novel depicts female stereotypes, yet subverts them by introducing female protagonists deviating from traditional gender norms.

New Woman novel subverts on the level of narration and plot: non-realistic, impressionist, episodic. Pykett's study is a source for less established primary literature. Pykett, Lyn. 1995. Manifest? Engendering Fictions: The English Novel in the Early Twentieth Century . London etc.: Edward Arnold. Study proceeds from literary history focusing on novels. Essay About Who Am I? Introduces established modernist writers on the basis of the gender crisis at the time (relatively selective). Deals with New Woman writing, psychological theories, Dora Marsden's The (New) Freewoman / The Egoist and the phenomenon of degeneration as a result of mass society. Defines literary modernism quite restrictively: modernism as a programme of literary aesthetics, experimentation and formation of a canon, period beginning in property plant thesis, 1890. Provides critical discussion of arguments against a feminist revision of the who am, modernist canon. Quinn, Patrick J., ed.

1996. Recharting the Thirties . Selinsgrove: Susquehanna UP. Essay collection on the effects of World War I on society and particularly on literature. Considers neglected authors: Irene Rathbone, R.H. Mottram, but also Rosamond Lehmann and persuasive essay, Elizabeth Bowen.

Rado, Lisa, ed. 1994. About Who Am I? Rereading Modernism: New Directions in Feminist Criticism . New York London: Garland. Articles Of Confederation? Feminist collection of essays on modernism. Essays address the following topics: Dorothy Richardson as a modernist, Rebecca West as a critic, Left Bank Women and lesbian life, the work of Sylvia Townsend-Warner, women's magazines, Wyndham Lewis's Tarr (as a misogynous text). Of particular importance is Felski's article on the term 'modernism' (see above Felski 1994). Schabert, Ina. 1997. Englische Literaturgeschichte: Eine Darstellung aus der Sicht der Geschlechterforschung . Stuttgart: Kröner. Srebrnik, Patricia.

1994. The re-subjection of 'Lucas Malet': Charles Kingsley's daughter and the response to essay about who am muscular Christianity. Plant And Equipment Thesis? In: Donald E. Hall, ed. Muscular Christianity: Embodying the Victorian Age . Cambridge: Cambridge UP. 194-214. Canon-revisionary article on Lucas Malet (pseudonym of Charles Kingsley's daughter). Questions traditional concepts of masculinity in Malet's Novels. Stowell, Sheila. 1992.

A stage of their own: Feminist playwrights of the suffrage era . Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. Stowell, Sheila. 1996. Suffrage critics and essay about i, political action: a feminist agenda. In: Michael R. How To Spend Essay? Booth Joel H. Kaplan, eds. The Edwardian Theatre: Essays on performance and the stage . Cambridge: Cambridge UP.

166-184. Waters, Chris. 1993. New Women and Socialist-Feminist Fiction: The Novels of Isabella Ford and Katherine Bruce Glasier. In: Angela Ingram Daphne Patai, eds. Rediscovering Forgotten Radicals: British Women Writers, 1889-1939 . Chapel Hill London: The University of North Carolina Press. 25-42.

Altick's seminal account of the development of the reading culture in England from the 15th to the early 20th century. Especially his chapter on Periodicals and Newspapers 1851-1900 (chapter 15) is important for an understanding of the background of publication practices in i, the modernist period. Benstock, Shari. 1986. Women of the Left Bank: Paris, 1900-1940 . London: Virago.

An important study on women writers of the Left Bank in general. Of special interest is stranger in the village essay by baldwin, chapter 10: At the Sign of the Printing Press: The Role of Small Presses and Little Magazines. Unfortunately Benstock remains on a biographical and anecdotal level, introducing editors, publishers and contributors. She says very little about the actual contributions. Beetham, Margaret. 1996.

A Magazine of Her Own?: Domesticity and Desire in the Woman's Magazine, 1800-1914 . London New York: Routledge. It is Parts III and IV (New Woman, New Journalism, the 1880s and essay who am i, 1890s, The reinvention of the domestic English woman: into destiny persuasive the twentieth century) that are of particular interest. Beetham concentrates on magazines that offer alternative and reactionary discourses on women to the innovative trends of the time. She also comments on the literature that appeared in these magazines and essay about who am i, its function. She thus offers an important view of this area of how to spend essay, public culture that many of the modernist women reacted against. Dennison, Sally. 1984. [Alternative] Literary Publishing: Five Modern Histories . About Who Am? Iowa City: University of things fall collision, Iowa Press.

Dennison demonstrates how all sorts of non-commercial publishing - from self-publishing to small presses, university press publishing, little magazine publishing, publishing through a bookstore, and publishing through patrons - helped to further modernist literature and to make it accessible to a wider audience. In most cases such alternative publishing was the only means for young authors to get their works published at all. Dennison uses Eliot, Joyce, Woolf, Nin, and Nabokov as examples. What she fails to notice is that alternative publishing can have commerical interests, too (see Rainey 1989, 1997, 1998). Essay About Who Am? Dettmar, Kevin J.H. Stephen Watt, eds. Collision Essay? 1996. About Who Am? Marketing Modernism: Self-Promotion, Canonization, Rereading . Ann Arbor: University of how to spend pocket wisely, Michingan Press. An important essay collection by young American scholars presenting a new perspective on and evaluation of essay, modernist literature. They distance themselves from the traditional view of modernism as an awe-inspiring solitary fortress against a growing mass culture by showing that it was clearly rooted within commodity culture, too.

Today it is difficult to imagine that some senior scholars refused to contribute to this collection because they considered it inappropriate to discuss financial interests and commodity culture in connection with modernist literature. Of particular interest are the a 1953, introduction and the essays by Diepeveen, Materer, and Murphy (see the respective entries). Eliot, Simon. 1994. Some Patterns and Trends in British Publishing, 1800-1919 . London: The Bibliographical Society. A statistical survey of book and magazine publications in the period of 1800-1919. The data is covered in six sections: Section A The Annual Pattern of Publication; Section B The Monthly Pattern of Publication 1800-1919; Section C Subject Publishing; Section D Price Structure; Section E Periodical Publication; Section F The Background. Unfortunately Eliot focuses mainly on the 19th century. He has nothing to say on essay i the magazine and newspaper market in the 20th century, for example, so that his survey is only of very limited value for the modernist period.

Feather, John. 1988. A History of British Publishing . London: Croom Helm. Feather offers important background information about the how to spend pocket money, development of the publishing trade in Britain. Although he only focuses on commercial publishing the study offers some useful background information about the essay about who am i, book market in general. Of particular interest is Part IV: The Trade in the Twentieth Century in which Feather uses Stanley Unwin, Victor Gollancz and Allen Lane as examplary publishers. Garrity, Jane. 1999. 'Selling Culture to the Civilized': Bloomsbury, British Vogue , and the Marketing of National Identity. Modernism/modernity 6.2: 29-58. Garrity shows that the connection between commodity culture and 'high culture' was much closer than has been previously thought by demonstrating how readily the various members of the essay, Bloomsbury group published in Vogue . Hanscombe, Gillian and Virginia L. Smyers.

1987. Writing for their Lives: The Modernist Women 1910-1940 . London: The Women's Press. Hanscombe and Smyers's seminal study on modernist women writers, editors and publishers. Of special interest for modernist publication practices in general are Chapter 12 'The public is a stupid beast. ' Book publishing I and about, Chapter 13 'There is a climax in sensibility' Book publishing II in which they particularly stress the close connection between little magazines and the book market. Stranger In The A 1953 By Baldwin? They argue that in most cases of experimental writing only publication in little magazines made a later book publication possible.

Jensen, Robert. 1994. Marketing Modernism in Fin-de-Siècle Century Europe . Princeton: Princeton UP. Jensen does not deal with modernist literature but with art. It is nevertheless an interesting study to compare developments in the art world (especially the marketing of avant-garde artists) and the book market. Who Am? Kaufmann, Michael. 1998. A Modernism of One's Own: Virginia Woolf's TLS Reviews and Eliotic Modernism. In: Beth Carol Rosenberg Jeanne Dubino, eds. Virginia Woolf and of confederation, the Essay . New York: St Martin's Press. 137-155.

Kaufmann shows how the place of publication can be indicative of an author's conception of literature and her or his readership by comparing Virginia Woolf's and T.S. Who Am? Eliot's essays. He argues that Woolf's reviews in spend essay, the TLS address a much more 'common reader' than Eliot's essays in ephemeral and about, elitist little magazines such as The Egoist and The Little Review . Keating, Peter. 1989. The Haunted Study: A Social History of the thesis, English Novel 1875-1914 . London: Secker Warburg. A seminal social historical account of the development of the contemporary bookmarket. Essay I? Keating shows what influence the essay articles, conditions and changes in the bookmarket had on writers. Leavis, Q.D. Essay About? 1932.

Fiction and the Reading Public . London: Chatto Windus. Leavis's still interesting study of British reading habits in the 1920s. It is how to spend pocket, not only an important document because of the empirical data she offers but also as a New Critical position taking within the intellectual and literary field of the early 1930s. Essay About Who Am? Lee, Hermione. 1998. 'Crimes of Criticism': Virginia Woolf and Literary Journalism. In: Jeremy Treglown Bridget Bennett, eds. Grub Street and the Ivory Tower: Literary Journalism and Literary Scholarship from Fielding to the Internet . Oxford: Clarendon Press. 112-134. Lee not only gives an overview of Virginia Woolf's journalistic work but also shows how she used journals and literary and little magazines in order to advertise her own and research papers, her friends' work as well as the Hogarth Press. McDonald, Peter D. 1997. British Literary Culture and Publishing Practice 1880-1914 . Cambridge: Cambridge UP.

Unfortunately a misleading title. McDonald does not analyse the publication system in the age of about who am i, transition but rather in essay articles vs constitution, late Victorianism. He hardly pays any attention to essay about the authors of the 1890s. His case studies focus rather on Joseph Conrad, Arnold Bennett, and Arthur Conan Doyle without making clear why he chose these authors. Thermography Papers? Ohmann, Richard. 1996. Selling Culture: Magazines, Markets, and Class at the Turn of the Century . New York: Verso. Rainey, Lawrence. 1998.

Institutions of Modernism: Literary Editors and Public Culture . New Haven: Yale UP. A seminal contribution to the argument that the alleged gap between modernism and public (or even mass) culture was not as great as the who am, modernists claimed themselves. As example cases Rainey uses the publication history of Pound, H.D., Joyce's Ulysses and Eliot's The Waste Land. One rather irritating 'flaw' of stranger village essay by baldwin, this otherwise important study is Rainey's discussion of H.D. Here he leaves his seemingly disinterested position and tries to show that H.D.'s recanonisation by about who am feminist critics was a mistake since H.D.'s work does not deserve it at all (a judgement of the value of an author he does not give with respect to any of the male authors!). Wexler, Joyce Piell. 1997.

Who Paid for Modernism? Art, Money, and the Fiction of Conrad, Joyce, And Lawrence . Fayetteville: The University of Arkansas Press. Using the careers of Conrad, Joyce and Lawrence as examples Wexler demonstrates that the modernist artists' image as oppositions to how to pocket wisely financially oriented bourgeois artists is a myth and that authors made use of essay about who am i, this myth to persuasive essay further their success. She also shows that in modernism the writer's position became particularly complicated because s/he was wedged between the Romantic ideal of the genius who shows no interest in essay i, his or her market value and an interest in acknowledgement (because no recognition at all is still regarded as a sign of failure) and being able to live on one's writing. White, Cynthia L. 1970. Women's Magazines 1693-1968 . London: Michael Joseph. A seminal account of the development of women's magazines. One of White's foci is the literature published in these magazines. Pages 77-117 are of particular interest. Willison, Ian, Warwick Gould and Warren Chernaik, eds. 1996.

Modernist Writers and village a 1953 by baldwin, the Marketplace . Basingstoke London: Macmillan. About Who Am I? An essay collection that deals with the conditions of publication for modernist writers, focusing on thermography research papers the publication histories of about who am i, individual (canonised) authors (James, Yeats, Conrad, Lawrence, Woolf, Eliot, Pound, Lewis). Only Edward Bishops essay on in the village essay by baldwin little magazines (see above) offers a more general overview on about avant-garde publication practices. 291 (1915-1916, American magazine) The (New) Adelphi (1923-1955) Art and Letters (1917-1920) Blue Review (1913) Broom (1921-1924, American magazine) The Calendar of Modern Letters (1925-1927) The Chapbook (1919-1925) The Criterion (1922-1939) The Dial (1880-1929, American magazine; especially the era of Scofield Thayer's and Marianne Moore's editorship 1920-1929) The Egoist (1914-1919) The Enemy (1927-1929) (New) English Review (1908-1937) The (New) Freewoman (1911-1914) The Golden Hind (1922-1924) Life and Letters (1923-1924) Life and manifest, Letters later Life and Letters Today (1928-1950) The Little Review (1914-1929, American magazine) The London Aphrodite (1928-1929) The London Mercury (1919-1939) The Masses (1911-1917, American magazine) New Age (1894-1938; especially the years of A.R. Orage's editorship, 1908-1922) The New Coterie (1925-1927) The New Masses (1926-. Essay About? American magazine)

Others (1915-1919, American Magazine) Open Window (1910-1911) (New) Oxford Outlook (1919-1932) Oxford Broom (1923) The Palatine Review (1916-1917) Poetry (1912-present, American magazine; especially the phase of Harriet Monroe's editorship, 1912-1935) Poetry and Drama (1913-1914) The Poetry Review (1912-present) The Scottish Chapbook (1922-1923) Secession (1922-1924; exile-American magazine published in various European cities) Time and Tide (1920-1979) [in its first phase 1920-1928 it was a little magazine] Transatlantic Review (1924-1925) transition (1927-1938, published in France and Holland) The Tyro (1921-1922) Wheels: An Anthology of Verse (1916-1921) One of the first overviews of British and American modernist little magazines and one of the bases for Hoffman, Allen and Ulrich's (1946) bibliography. Allen especially stresses the importance of little magazines as almost the stranger in the village essay by baldwin, only medium of publication for experimental young authors. Anderson, Margaret. [1930] 1971. My Thirty Years' War . Westport: Greenwood Press. Margaret Anderson's famous autobiography in essay about who am i, which she not only describes her unconventional life but also the development of The Little Review under her editorship.

This is, of course, a very subjective account, but it nevertheless contains important information for fall apart essay, any study on little magazines. Anonymous. 1941. Little Mags, What Now?. The New Republic 104.13: 424.

A state-of-the-art article on little magazines. The author discusses the essay about who am i, development of a little-magazine culture in essay articles, America from the 1920s to the late 1930s and argues for a revival of little magazines in a 1920s fashion in order offer new authors a forum for publication. Baker, Denys Val, ed. 1943. Little Reviews Anthology . London: Allen Unwin. An anthology of about, what Baker himself calls the fall apart collision, best writing which has appeared in the little reviews and literary magazines of Britain since the outbreak of war (v).

His introduction offers some theoretical reflections on little magazines. Interesting is his choice of little magazines from which he takes the stories and i, poems: The Bell , Horizon , Indian Writing , New Writing , Oasis , Opus , Our Time , Now , Poetry (London), Poetry Quarterly , Poetry Review , The Bell , New Vision , Wind and the Rain , Oasis , Opus , Scythe (formerly Townsman ), and Seven . Barash, Carol. 1987. Dora Marsden's Feminism, the of confederation vs constitution, Freewoman , and the Gender Politics of essay, Early Modernism. Princeton University Library Chronicle 49.1: 31-56. One of the first essays on the development of The (New) Freewoman / Egoist from a feminist to a literary little magazine. Barash presents this development as the story of Pound's take-over. How To Spend Essay? This assessment has changed, though (see especially Clarke 1996; Ferrall 1992a; Morrisson 1997, 2001; Thacker 1993). Bennett, David. 1989. Periodical Fragments and Organic Culture: Modernism, the Avant-Garde, and the Little Magazine.

Contemporary Literature 30: 480-502. I? The author sees in research, little magazines an example for a distinction between avant-garde and modernism as proposed by Peter Bürger (1974). Publications in the ephemeral medium of essay, little magazines are still part of an of confederation vs constitution, avant-garde culture, but they become modernist texts by being published in book form. This distinction has been convincingly questioned by Bishop (1996) and Rainey (1998). Benstock, Shari Bernard Benstock. 1991. The Role of Little Magazines in about who am, the Emergence of apart collision, Modernism. Library Chronicle of the University of Texas 20: 68-87. An important overview of the copies of about who am i, (American) little magazines at the Harry Ransom Humanities Research Center at the University of Texas, Austin. Unfortunately the authors remain on a merely biographical level. The editors of the little magazines and property, their aesthetic ideas are introduced.

Benstock and Benstock say very little about the exact content of these magazines. van den Berg, Hubert Ralf Grüttemeier, eds. 1998. Manifeste: Intentionalität (Avant Garde Critical Studies 11). Amsterdam Atlanta: Rodopi. A rather heterogeneous essay collection on literary manifestos (mainly European modernist ones). Theoretically the authors base their contributions on the intentionality debate (Eco, Searle, Fish, Knapp Michaels, Hirsch).

The authors' claim that a manifesto is necessarily intentional and that its authors' intentions can be gauged from it is quite problematic. Of particular interest are the contributions by Wolfgang Asholt (on intentional strategies in futurist, dadaist and surrealist manifestos) and by Martin A. Kayman (on Pound and imagism). Bishop, Edward. 1996. Re:Covering Modernism - Format and Function in the Little Magazines. In: Willison, Gould and Chernaik, eds. 287-319. Essay I? An important overview of little magazines from the 1890s to things cultural essay the 1920s.

Bishop pays special attention to the connection between visual and typographical design and the literary contents of these magazines. He sees the different magazine as a representation of the increasing institutionalisation of modernism (in this he argues against Bennett's (1989) postulation that little magazines represent the avant-garde and not modernism). Bishop covers The Yellow Book , The Savoy , The Dial , The Little Review , Poetry , The Egoist , Blast , and Criterion . Bloomfield, B.C. 1976. An Author Index to Selected British Little Magazines 1930-1939 . London: Manssell. An additional (but by far not as comprehensive) reference to Sader, ed. (1976). Essay I? Bradbury, Malcolm. Essay Articles? 1958. The English Review . Essay Who Am I? London Magazine 5: 46-57. One of the first accounts of The English Review with a special focus on the period of Ford Madox Ford's editorship.

Bradbury stresses that this was one of the few Edwardian magazines where new and experimental could publish alongside more traditional ones. Bradbury, Malcolm. 1961. The Calendar of Modern Letters : A Review in Retrospect. London Magazine n.s. 1.7: 37-47. Bradbury's attempt to revaluate The Calendar of Modern Letters as an important literary-critical review alongside The Criterion and The Adelphi . He points out that the Calendar served as model for F.R.

Leavis's Scrutiny (a series of critical articles in the Calendar , called Scrutinies actually gave Leavis's magazine its name). Unfortunately the Calendar 's importance is still not recognised today. Bradbury, Malcolm. 1971. The Social Context of Modern English Literature . Oxford: Blackwell. Bradbury, Malcolm. 1976. London 1890-1920. In: Malcolm Bradbury James McFarlane, eds. Modernism 1890-1930 . Harmondsworth: Penguin.

172-190. Destiny? This chapter is about i, of interest because Bradbury introduces some of the important contemporary British little magazines such as Rhythm / The Blue Review , The Poetry Review , a Poetry and Drama , The (New) Freewoman / The Egoist , and Blast . Bradbury, Malcolm. 1995. The Criterion. A Literary Review in Retrospect. The London Magazine 5.2: 41-54. Fall Essay? Bradbury, Malcolm. 1999. Modernism and the Magazines. In: Heinz Antor and who am, Kevin L. Cope, eds. Transcultural Encounters - Studies in English Literatures . Essay Articles Of Confederation? Heidelberg: Winter.

187-313. A survey of little magazines which mainly remains on a positivist level, listing names of magazines, editors, and contributors. Bradbury demonstrates the who am i, interconnection of the a 1953 by baldwin, development of modernism and of little magazine. He manages to essay i give an idea of the diversity of magazines, but because he covers so many he does not have much space for detailed discussions of how to pocket wisely, specific examples. Bradbury, Malcolm James McFarlane. 1976. Movements, Magazines and Manifestos: The Succession from Naturalism.

In: Malcolm Bradbury James McFarlane, eds. Modernism 1890-1930 . Essay? Harmondsworth: Penguin. 192-205. The authors show how much the essay, various European modernist movements (especially Imagism, Vorticism, Futurism, Surrealism, Expressionism, and about who am i, Dadaism) depended on little magazines as an outlet. Things Fall Collision? Casford, E. Leonore. About I? 1929. The Magazines of the 1890's: A Chapter in the History of English Periodicals; Being a Critical Study of fall apart essay, The Albemarle, The Yellow Book, and The Savoy, with a Brief Description of Other Literary Magazines of the 1890's (Language and Literature Series 1). Eugene: University of Oregon Press. An important overview of little magazines of the 1890s which shows how early the concept of little magazines received literary critical attention.

Apart from essay about i, The Albemarle , The Yellow Book and The Savoy Casford also discusses The Anti-Philistine , The Butterfly , The Dome , Hobby Horse , The Pageant and The Quarto . Clarke, Bruce. 1985. Dora Marsden's Egoism and Modernist Letters: West, Weaver, Joyce, Pound, Lawrence, Williams, Eliot. Works and Days 2.2: 27-47. An early version of parts of his seminal study on Dora Marsden (1996). Clarke, Bruce.

1992. Dora Marsden and manifest destiny persuasive essay, Ezra Pound: The New Freewoman and 'The Serious Artist'. Contemporary Literature 33.1: 91-112. An early version of parts of his seminal study on Dora Marsden (1996). Clarke, Bruce. 1996. Dora Marsden and Early Modernism: Gender, Individualism, Science . Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. An important revaluation of essay who am i, Dora Marsden's role in the cultural field at the beginning of the 20th century. Clarke argues that Marsden's intellectual development from suffragism to fall apart cultural collision egoism mirrors in a nutshell the direction literature took at the time (a turn from personal politics to an individualistic literary practice, 1). He provides a detailed account of Marsden's philosophical, political and literary influences. Other than Barash (1987) Clarke sees Marsden's change of name of essay, her little magazine from The (New) Freewoman to things fall cultural collision The Egoist as a voluntary one.

He thus reduces the influence Pound allegedly had on her (see also Barash 1989; Ferrall 1992a; Morrisson 1997, 2001; Thacker 1993). Clooney, J.P. Essay About I? 1938. Among the Magazines. The Phoenix 1.2: 134-150. A very critical review of a number of literary magazines of the in the essay by baldwin, time with quite different literary and essay about, political positions ( The Townsman , Purpose , Life and Letters Today , Poetry , The Examiner ). Interesting as a document of how little magazines were received and discussed in the contemporary literary field. Diepeveen, Leonard.

1996. 'I Can Have More Than Enough Power to Satisfy Me': T.S. Eliot's Construction of His Audience. In: Kevin J.H. Dettmar Stephen Watt, eds. Marketing Modernism: Self-Promotion, Canonization, Rereading . Ann Arbor: University of Michingan Press. Things Fall Apart Cultural Collision? 37-60. An interesting discussion of how Eliot created his own elitist audience through his essays. Essay Who Am I? Diepeveen shows the importance the ephemeral form of publication of little magazines had in plant thesis, this.

Eliot argued that only in these smaller but literary more 'elitist' media of publication could he find what he termed the qualified reader Eliot explicitly differentiated himself from editors of about, larger - and thus to his mind more commercial - magazines such as The London Mercury (see also Kaufmann 1998 on the difference between Eliot's and Virginia Woolf's conceptions of their readership). Dupee, F.W. 1938. British Periodicals. Partisan Review 5: 45-48. A very critical review of collision, British little magazines.

Dupee criticises their apolitical stance (which is not surprising considering the political position of the essay i, Partisan Review ) and at the same time stresses their ideological heterogeneity. He also finds fault with the - to his mind - poor literary quality. He discusses The Criterion , Scrutiny , Purpose , Arena , Colosseum , Left Review , Life and Letters Today , and New Verse . Eliot, Thomas S. 1926. The Idea of a Literary Review. The New Criterion 4: 1-6. Eliot's own outline of an ideal little or literary magazine. It not only collision essay, offers a contemporary perspective on little magazines but also reveals important information about his own conception of literature. Emmart, A.D. 1923. The Limitations of American Magazines. Modern Quarterly 1.3: 17-26.

A very conservative critique of American little magazines and the literature published in them. He particularly finds fault with an alleged lack of moral and too much experimentation in the field of psychological realism. Emmart is especially critical of The Dial and The Little Review . Ferrall, Charles. 1992a. Suffragists, Egoists, and essay who am, the Politics of Early Modernism. English Studies in thermography research, Canada 18.4: 433-446. Ferrall tries to show that Pound's 'take-over' of the New Freewoman and the change of name into The Egoist was not just an appropriation of a feminist magazine through 'phallocratic' and misogynist men but that this change reflects Marsden's development, too. He examines her turn from suffragism to a Nietzschean and Stirnerian egoism and essay about who am i, points out some analogies between her political and philosophical writings and that of the papers, imagists, especially Pound (see also Barash 1989; Clarke 1996; Morrisson 1997, 2001; Thacker 1993). Ferrall, Charles.

1992b. The New Age and the Emergence of essay i, Reactionary Modernism Before the Great War. Modern Fiction Studies 38: 653-667. Ferrall counters the notion that the New Age was one of the central magazines in propagating modernism in general. In contrast to property plant thesis Martin (1967) he argues that A.R. Orage, the editor at the time only supported politically reactionary authors such as Ezra Pound and Wyndham Lewis and thus contributed to essay about i the development of a 'reactionary modernism' only.

Fletcher, John Gould. 1934. The Little Reviews: Yesterday and To-Day. Space 1.8: 84-86. An contemporary account of American little magazines (1914-1929). Fletcher observes a tendency towards a proletarisation and a decentralization of American literature and research, culture through these new little magazines (85). About Who Am I? He does, however, acknowledge that some of the new authors would have had no other possibility of publication. Garner, Les.

1990. A Brave and Beautiful Spirit: Dora Marsden 1882-1960 . Aldershot: Avebury. The first book-length biography of Marsden. An attempt at a revaluation of Marsden's role in the suffragette movement and in modernism. At times a little too subjective and anecdotal.

Of special interest are chapters 4 The Freewoman , 1911-1912; 5 The New Freewoman , June-December 1913; 6 The Egoist , January 1914-December 1919. Görtschacher, Wolfgang. 1993. Property Thesis? Little Magazine Profiles: The Little Magazines in Great Britain 1939-1993. Salzburg: Salzburg University. Although Görtschacher focuses on little magazines of the essay who am, second half of the 20th century his comments on the nature of how to pocket money wisely, little magazines in general are quite useful. What he offers is a descriptive discussion of various magazines and who am, their editors (sometimes with interviews). It is a little odd, though, that he restricts the term 'little magazine' to poetry magazines only; his typology of little magazines is thus not very convincing. Graham, Walter.

1930. English Literary Periodicals . New York: Thomas Nelson. A very early survey of British periodical culture from the 18th century to the 1920s. He only pocket wisely essay, briefly touches on little magazines, though. Of particular interest in this respect are Chapter 9 The Later Reviews and about i, the Fortnightly , Chapter 11 The weekly journal of belles-lettres , and Chapter 12 (in which he discusses among other magazines The (New) Adelphi , The Athenaeum , The Criterion , The English Review , Life and Letters The London Mercury , and the TLS ). Grant, Joy. 1967. Harold Monro and the Poetry Bookshop . London: Routledge Kegan Paul.

A biography of one of the lesser known editors of little magazines ( The Poetry Review , Poetry and Drama , The Chapbook ) and a discussion of his own poetry. Manifest Essay? Hamilton, Ian. 1976. The Little Magazines: A Study of about i, Six Editors . London: Weidenfels and Nicolson. A much quoted study in which Hamilton focuses on an anecdotal and research, biographical account of The Little Review , Poetry , The Criterion , New Verse , The Partisan Review , and Horizon . Hamilton's ironical comments on contributions that he regards as inferior can be quite irritating. One severe disadvantage is that he neither gives any bibliographical information about the quotations he uses nor offers a bibliography. Hanscombe, Gillian and essay who am, Virginia L. Smyers. Papers? 1987. Writing for their Lives: The Modernist Women 1910-1940 . London: The Women's Press.

Hanscombe and Smyers's seminal study on modernist women writers, editors and publishers. Of particular interest for little magazines are Chapter 10 'The stand of the individual against immensities. ' - Periodical publishing I and Chapter 11: 'Life for Art's sake. ' - Periodical publishing II in about, which they discuss the role of women in little-magazine publishing. Magazines they cover include The (New) Freewoman / The Egoist (here they hold the early feminist opinion that Pound forced Marsden into a change of name and conception of her magazine, cf. In The Village A 1953? Barash), The Little Review , The Dial , Poetry , Contact , The Transatlantic Review , The Quarter , Close-up , and transitions . Hayman, Ronald. 1975. The Calendar of Modern Letters.

New Review 1: 14-19. Heyl, Lawrence. 1940. Little Magazines. The Princeton University Library Chronicle 2.1: 21-6. An early attempt at a definition and description of (American) little magazines. Essay? Interesting as a historical document. Hoffman, Frederick J. 1943. The Little Magazines: Portrait of an Age.

The Saturday Review of Literature 26.52: 3-5. One of the first overviews of thermography, British and American modernist little magazines and one of the bases for Hoffman, Allen and Ulrich's (1946) bibliography. Allen especially stresses the importance of little magazines as almost the only medium of publication for experimental young authors. Hoffman, Frederick J., Charles Allen and essay who am i, Carolyn F. Ulrich. 1946. Things Fall Apart? The Little Magazine: A History and a Bibliography . Princeton: Princeton UP. Still the authoritative annotated bibliography of British and American little magazines. I? The introductory chapters are also of interest. Hoffman, Allen, and Ulrich even attempt a typology of little magazines, but mostly they remain on essay a positivist and anecdotal level listing dates of essay about who am i, publication, names of editors and contributors, etc.

Homberger, Eric. 1976. Chicago and New York: Two Versions of American Modernism. In: Malcolm Bradbury James McFarlane, eds. Modernism 1890-1930 . Harmondsworth: Penguin. 151-161. Only of marginal interest for little magazines, but at least Homberger mentions the great influence of little magazines on the New York literary scene (e.g. The Liberator , Smart Set , Others , Glebe , Seven Arts , New Republic , The Freeman , Nation , Masses , The Little Review , The Dail ). Howarth, Herbert.

T.S. Eliot's Criterion : The Editor and His Contributors. Comparative Literature 2: 97-110. Johnson, Abby Arthur. 1973/74.

The Politics of a Literary Magazine: A Study of The Poetry Review , 1912-1972. Journal of Modern Literature 3: 951-964. Joost, Nicholas. 1967. Years of Transition: The Dial 1912-1920 . Barre, Mass.: Barre Publishers. A detailed study of the development of The Dial from a rather conventional (literary) magazine to in the village essay a platform for experimental literature under Scofield Thayer and Sibley Watson. Joost, however, argues that the literature that appeared in the Dial has been overestimated and that more radical magazines such as The Little Review did much more to further modernist writings. Joost, Nicholas Alvin Sullivan. 1970. D.H.

Lawrence and 'The Dial'. Carbondale, Ill.: Southern Illinois UP. A detailed account of Lawrence's involvement with The Dial in the course of essay about who am i, his career. A bit too anecdotal at times, but still readable. Kadlec, David. 1993. Pound, Blast , and Syndicalism.

English Literary History 60.4: 1015-1031. Kadlec argues that the design of BLAST was informed by the development of syndicalist miner's actions in Wales under Tom Mann before WW I. According to him not only the magazine's name is indebted to the worker's movement but also its visual aggressiveness and aesthetic militancy. He also attributes Pound's radical aesthetics in this period to his interest in syndicalism (introduced to him mainly via A.R. Orage's The New Age ). Kenner, Hugh. 1971. Apart Cultural? The Pound Era . Berkeley: University of California Press. Kenner's book is interesting as an account of Pound's involvement with The New Freewoman / The Egoist - especially if you compare it with more recent studies of this little magazine. It is amazing how Kenner manages to leave out Dora Marsden's entirely! Knight, Melinda. 1996.

Little Magazines and i, the Emergence of Modernism in the Fin de Siècle . American Periodicals 6: 29-45. Knight convincingly demonstrates that little-magazine culture in America did not begin in 1912 with the appearance of Poetry , The Poetry Journal , The Smart Set and The Masses , but much earlier with fin-de-siècle magazines such as The Chap-Book , M'lle New York , The Fly Leaf , The Lark , The Philistine and and equipment thesis, others. Essay About Who Am I? She argues for a revaluation of these magazines' influence in the development of modernism. Lewis, Wyndham. 1927. Editorial notes: Art and 'Radical' Doctrines. The Enemy 2: xxiii-xxviii. Lewis's own 'position taking' in the literary field. His editorial mainly consists of a biting critique of transitions and Gertrude Stein's - to his mind - negative influence on papers it. Implicitly, of course, this is indicative of his own conception of literature and little magazines. Lidderdale, Jane Mary Nicholson.

1970. Dear Miss Weaver: Harriet Shaw Weaver, 1876-1961 . London: Faber Faber. A still seminal biography of Harriet Shaw Weaver with a special focus on her role as Joyce's patron. But Lidderdale and Nicholson also touch upon her role as editor of The Egoist and publisher of The Egoist Press. Who Am? Little Magazine. 1997. Britannica CD: Version 97 . Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc. A valuable first source of information on little magazines providing a definition, a list of the essay of confederation, most prominent British and American little magazines, and a classification into different periods. MacKendrick, Louis K. 1972. New Freewoman : A Short Story of Literary Journalism. English Literature in Transition 15.3: 180-187.

MacKendrick, Louis K.. 1975. T.S. Eliot and the Egoist : The Critical Preparation. Dalhousie Review 55: 140-154. MacShane, Frank. 1961. I? The English Review . South Atlantic Quarterly 60: 311-320. Marek, Jayne E. 1995. Women Editing Modernism: Little Magazines and Literary History . Lexington: The UP of Kentucky.

A very important feminist contribution to the history of manifest destiny, little magazines. Essay Who Am? Marek tries to show that in the function of publishers and editors more women were involved in the development of stranger in the a 1953 by baldwin, modernism than traditional accounts convey. The question, however, remains why there were not more women contributors (especially in a British context). With the exception of Bryher, Marek focuses on American women editors and publishers (Harriet Monroe, Alice Corbin Henderson, Margaret Anderson, Jane Heap, Bryher, Marianne Moore) and has an essay who am, additional chapter on Ezra Pound's role in little magazine culture. Marek concentrates on the editors' own writings in and equipment thesis, their magazines and their personal contacts. She says hardly anything about the set-up of particular issues or the norms and values conveyed in other contributions. Marks, Peter.

1997. Illusion and Reality: the Spectre of Socialist Realism in who am i, Thirties Literature Williams, Keith Steven Matthews, eds. Rewriting the Thirties: Modernism and research, After . London New York: Longman. 23-36. In his essay on who am i British literature of the 1930s Marks also discusses the role of little magazines. Papers? He distinguishes between left-wing magazines that explicitly engage in essay, the relationship between literature and politics (such as The Left Review , New Signatures , The Adelphi , and Cambridge Left ) and those magazines that are their unpolitical or conservative ( New Verse , The Criterion , Scrutiny ). Interesting for an analysis of the development of little magazine culture. Property Plant And Equipment? Martin, Peter A. 1977. The Short Story in England: 1930s Fiction Magazines. Studies in Short Fiction 14: 233-240.

An account of the role of little magazines ( New Writing , New Stories , Lovat Dickson's Magazine , Penguin Parade ) in the development of essay i, prose writing - especially the short story - in the 1930s. Martin, Wallace. 1967. The New Age Under Orage: Chapters in English Cultural History . Manchester: Manchester UP. Fall? One of the first studies on the role of the New Age in the modernist period. Essay About Who Am I? Martin is a little too enthusiastic in portraying The New Age as a platform for innovative and experimental authors alongside BLAST and The Egoist (see for manifest destiny persuasive, example Ferrall 1992b for a more critical evaluation of the magazine). Masteller, Richard N. 1997.

Using Brancusi: Three Writers, Three Magazines, Three Versions of Modernism. American Art 11.1: 47-66. Materer, Timothy. Essay About Who Am I? 1996. Make It Sell! Ezra Pound Advertises Modernism. In: Kevin J.H. Dettmar Stephen Watt, eds. Marketing Modernism: Self-Promotion, Canonization, Rereading . Ann Arbor: University of Michingan Press. 17-36.

Materer shows how Pound took over advertising schemes from commodity culture in order to make Imagism and Vorticism popular. He thus discloses the allegedly unbridgeable gap between the avant-garde and consumer culture as a mere modernist self-stylisation. Stranger Village A 1953 By Baldwin? He demonstrates how Pound used little magazines such as The Egoist , The Little Review and BLAST for his purpose and how these magazines themselves adopted methods from about who am i, commodity culture advertising. Morrisson, Mark S. 1996. The Myth of the Whole: Ford's English Review , The Mercure de France and Early British Modernism.

ELH 63: 513-533. Morrisson argues that Ford turned to France, i.e. the Mercure de France in his outline of The English Review because he saw no English equivalent that could bridge the gap between 'high' literary standards and a broad audience. He wanted neither a typical coterie magazine nor one of the persuasive essay, typical mass papers such as the Daily Mail . Morrisson, Mark S. 1997. Marketing British Modernism: The Egoist and Counter-Public Spheres. Twentieth Century Literature 43.4: 439-469. An analysis of the development from The Freewoman as a suffragist magazine to The Egoist as a magazine of the literary avant-garde. Morrisson shows that this change not only had an essay, influence on the readership of the magazine but on advertisers as well. He argues that The Egoist folded up because in contrast to The Freewoman it failed to destiny address a homogeneous audience (see also Barash 1989; Clarke 1996; Ferrall 1992a; Morrisson 2001; Thacker 1993).

Morrisson, Mark S. 2001. The Public Faces of Modernism: Little Magazines, Audiences, and Reception 1905-1920 . Madison: The University of Wisconsin Press. A seminal study of little magazines. Morrisson not only about, gives the typical account of little magazines' central role in the development of spend pocket money essay, modernism but also analyses their relationship to essay who am i what he calls the 'public sphere'. He thereby manages to demonstrate convincingly that the alleged gap between mass culture and the avant-garde is not as great as has been posited. Spend Money Wisely Essay? He focuses on four British ( The English Review , Poetry and Drama , The Egoist , Blast ) and two American ( The Little Review , The Masses ) magazines (see also Barash 1989; Clarke 1996; Ferrall 1992a; Morrisson 1997; Thacker 1993). Munson, Gorham. 1937.

How to Run a Little Magazine. The Saturday Review of Literature 15.22: 3-4, 14, 16-17. A contemporary discussion of little magazine culture. Munson interestingly already claims to have noticed a decline of and loss of interest in little magazines as compared with the 1920s. About Who Am I? Murphy, Michael. 1996. 'One Hundred Per Cent Bohemia': Pop Decadence and the Aestheticization of Commodity in the Rise of the Slicks. In: Kevin J.H. Dettmar Stephen Watt, eds. Marketing Modernism: Self-Promotion, Canonization, Rereading . Ann Arbor: University of Michingan Press. 61-89.

Murphy demonstrates that the village, connection between commodity culture and about i, avant-garde culture was much closer than has been previously thought. He uses Vanity Fair to show how quickly commodity culture picked up some of the features of the avant-garde. Not only did modernist authors publish in magazines such as Vanity Fair but also the advertisements in these magazines show clear influences of modernist art. Nelson, Cary. 1989. Repression and Recovery: Modern American Poetry and the Politics of Cultural Memory, 1910-1945 . Property And Equipment? Madison: University of Wisconsin Press. About I? In his study on American poetry of the first half of the 20th century Nelson also briefly discusses the role little magazines (including left-wing magazines and magazines of the Harlem Renaissance) played in the publication and, ultimately, canonization of some of the best known authors. He also provides an impressive variety of things essay, illustrations from essay about who am, little magazines.

Nelson's canon debate originates in a Marxist rather than a gender-oriented position, but he discusses some lesser-known women authors, too. One great disadvantage is the structure of the book: Nelson deliberately designed it as one long essay without chapter divisions so that the reader is left with the detective work of deducing from the implicit information given in the course of the study what organisational principle underlies the study. Pollack, Felix. 1976. Manifest Persuasive Essay? Elitism and the Littleness of Little Magazines. Who Am? Southwestern Review 61: 297-303. Pound, Ezra. 1930. Small Magazines. The English Journal 19.9: 689-704.

Pound's own position on research papers the role and functions of about who am, little magazines. He discusses almost exclusively the magazines he was involved with (and, of course, he is very critical of those he has left, such as Poetry ). He covers Poetry , The Egoist , The English Review, The Little Review , The Dial , and briefly The Criterion , transatlantic review , and transition . Rainey, Lawrence. 1989. The price of modernism: reconsidering the publication of The Waste Land . Critical Quarterly 31.4: 21-47. Essay Of Confederation? Rainey's seminal first contribution to the discussion of modernism's economic interests. He demonstrates that the question of where to who am i publish The Waste Land was guided by manifest destiny persuasive essay financial interests. Eliot ultimately chose the magazine ( The Dial ) that offered the most and essay about who am i, actually made quite a lot of money.

The modernists' self-stylization as artists who had no interest in thermography papers, financial success whatsoever thus has to be modified. Rainey, Lawrence. 1997. The real scandal of Ulysses : How literary modernism came to retreat from the public sphere. TLS (January 31): 11-13. Rainey argues that Sylvia Beach's decision to publish Ulysses was not just a selfless act of support for an avant-garde author, but was guided by financial considerations as well. She consciously chose to essay who am publish Ulysses as a deluxe and not as a limited edition. The book thus immediately became a collector's item rather than a book for a limited audience. The attention was diverted from the content to the book as object.

Rhondda, Viscountess, Margaret Haig. 1933. This Was My World . London: Macmillan. Lady Rhondda's highly interesting autobiography in which she also briefly mentions the foundation and development of Time and Tide . Rosenberg, Harold. Articles Vs Constitution? 1938. Literature Without Money. About Who Am I? Direction 1.3: 6-10. Property And Equipment? A contemporary discussion of the role of little magazines in the development of modernism in i, America.

Rosenberg stresses that the little magazines often served as a first step in the publication history of an research papers, author and that commercial magazines and publishing houses latched on when they considered her or him financially promising. He notices a difference in reception with regard to the three genres (decidedly less interest in poetry with the commercial publishers). Essay About I? Sader, Marion, ed. 1976. Comprehensive Index to English Language Little Magazines 1890-1970 . Millwood, NY: Kraus-Thomson-Organization. A six-volume author index to over one hundred - mainly American and British - little magazines. The entries include information on articles of confederation works by and about authors who were published in these magazines (interviews, articles, essays, poems, drama, fiction). Schwartz, Delmore. 1939. The Criterion , 1922-1939. Kenyon Review 1: 437-449.

Selver, Paul. 1959. Orage and The New Age Circle: Reminiscences and Reflections . London: Allen Unwin. This is more an autobiography than an account of The New Age and its editor A.R. Orage although he tries to improve Orage's reputation with his book. Who Am? Selver describes his own (rather marginal) function in the magazine. His comments on destiny some of the avant-garde authors reflects his own conservative literary values. Singer, Herman B. 1940.

The Modern Quarterly 1923-1940. Modern Quarterly 11.7: 13-19. A characterisation of Modern Quarterly from a political perspective. Singer focuses on the editor's (V.F. Calverton) position with respect to who am i marxism and the Soviet Union and its influences on spend pocket essay the magazine. He hardly says anything about the literature in Modern Quarterly . About? Spender, Dale. 1984. Time and Tide Wait for No Man . Things Apart Cultural Collision? London etc.: Pandora Press. One of the i, few accounts of Time and Tide . Unfortunately Spender concentrates on giving biographical information about the most important (political) contributers (Lady Rhondda, Elizabeth Robins, Rebecca West, Cicely Hamilton, Helena M. Essay Of Confederation? Swanwick, Winifred Holtby, Very Brittain, and Crystal Eastman) and on reprinting some of their articles. Apart from naming some of the most prominent authors that appeared in Time and Tide she says very little about the magazine's literary contents. Sullivan, Alvin, ed.

1984. British Literary Magazines: The Victorian and Edwardian Age, 1837-1913 . Westport, Conn. London: Greenwood Press. To date one of the most important reference work on literary and little magazines. The magazines are arranged in alphabetical order. Each magazine is introduced in an essay (whose length depends on the assumed importance of the magazines), including bibliographical references, information on publishers, editors, location sources as well as possible indexes and reprint editions, Sullivan, Alvin, ed.

1986. British Literary Magazines: The Modern Age, 1914-1984 . Westport, Conn. London: Greenwood Press. To date one of the most important reference work on who am literary and little magazines. The magazines are arranged in alphabetical order. Each magazine is fall apart, introduced in i, an essay (whose length depends on the assumed importance of the magazines), including bibliographical references, information on publishers, editors, location sources as well as possible indexes and reprint editions, Symons, Julian. 1967.

The Cri. London Magazine n.s. 7: 19-23. A description of The Criterion . Symons presents the stranger in the village a 1953 essay, magazine as an odd combination of a conservative and overly academic literary criticism and an interest in literary innovation, revealing T.S. Eliot's own position. This also becomes apparent in Eliot's conservative social criticism. Symons notes some of the poetry that was published in The Criterion as remarkable, the prose less so and he complains that some genres such as history and biography were ignored altogether. Tell, Waldo. About Who Am I? 1934. Review of research papers, Radical Magazines. Partisan Review 1: 60-63.

An early account of a new turn to the left in (American) little magazines of the 1930s. Tell introduces Left Front , The Anvil , Dynamo , and who am, Blast (not Wyndham Lewis's London magazine of 1913). Thacker, Andrew. 1993. Dora Marsden and The Egoist : 'Our War Is With Words'. English Literature in Transition, 1880-1920 36.2: 178-196. Plant Thesis? Another attempt to revaluate Marsden's position as editor of The (New)Freewoman / The Egoist and her role in the development of literary modernism (see also Barash 1989; Clarke 1996; Ferrall 1992a; Morrisson 1997, 2001) Todd, Ruthven. 1939. Essay Who Am I? The Little Review. Twentieth Century Verse 15/16: 159-162.

An early account of The Little Review focusing mainly on its early years. Todd criticises Margaret Anderson's indiscriminate choice of literature and how to spend pocket, stresses that her only i, real 'find' was Ulysses . He sees the most important improvement of the magazine in Pound's employment as foreign editor. Trilling, Lionel. 1951. The Function of the Little Magazine. The Liberal Imagination Essays on essay of confederation Literature and Society . London: Secker and essay who am, Warburg.

93-103. Originally published as an individual essay in 1946 in an anthology on and of stranger a 1953 essay, The Partisan Review this is another quite early literary-critical account of the function of little magazines, especially with respect to the development of modernism. Trilling criticises that the intellectuals of his time have lost interest in literature but sees a new hope in politically oriented little magazines such as The Partisan Review . Troy, William. 1930. The Story of the Little Magazines. The Bookman 70: 476-481, 657-563.

Vondeling, Johanna E. 2000. Essay About Who Am? The Manifest Professional: Manifestos and property plant thesis, Modernist Legitimation. College Literature 27.2: 127-145. Vondeling's notion of the manifesto is a little too vague, including essays and programmatic poetry, but she offers an essay i, interesting analysis of the function of little magazines in an author's self-legitimation. She focuses on Marinetti's Futurist Manifesto, Pound's essays in how to spend pocket wisely, BLAST , and Loy's Feminist Manifesto and her essay International Psycho-Democracy. Wall, Alan. 1976. About? Little Magazines: Notes towards a methodology. In Francis Barker et al., eds.

Literature, Society and the Sociology of Literature (Proccedings of the Essex Conference of the Sociology of Literature). Essay? Colchester: University of Essex. 105-117. Wall provides some genereal sociological reflections from a typical 1970s marxist position on the status of little magazines. His main focus is on The Calendar of Modern Letters , though. In spite of Wall's today rather outmoded political stance he offers a valuable attempt to who am i go beyond a mere positivist listing of names of authors, editors and contributors. Whiteley, Mary N.S. 1932. Shall We Let It Die? The Saturday Review of Literature 9.2: 19. A letter to the editor that regrets the imminent death of Harriet Monroe's Poetry . In a retrospective account Whitley stresses the magazine's importance in the advancement of modernist - especially imagist - poetry.

Young, Alan Michael Schmidt. 1973. A Conversation with Edgell Rickword. Property Thesis? Poetry Nation 1: 73-89. Zabel, Morton Dauwen. 1929. The Way of Periodicals. Poetry 34.6: 330-4.

A comment on the death of The Dial and essay about, The Little Review , which Zabel with amazing foresight also regards as the end of a literary-historical era: In going, they open the way to our next literary period, and so leave with us some of the sensations of suspense we experienced when they first flashed upon the view (1929: 334). Study on the situation of women between the wars. Key words: misogynist trends in society, female education as an enclave of emancipation - professions for women, health, leisure, reading, cinema, radio. Images of Women, influence on women writers. Brantlinger, Patrick. 1996. 'The Bloomsbury Fraction' Versus War and Empire. In: Carola M. Kaplan Anne B. Simpson, eds. Seeing Double: Revisioning Edwardian and Modernist Literature . New York: St.

Martin's Press. 149-167. Buitenhuis, Peter. 1987. The Great War of Words: British, American, and Canadian Propaganda and Fiction, 1914-1933 . Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press. Things Fall Apart? Study on essay war and literature. Key words: established (male) authors, war euphemisms, war propaganda. Textual material: predominantly pamphlets, but also narrative fiction. Fictional accounts less obvious and pocket money essay, stereotypical, more ambivalence (cf. ch. 8).

Buitenhuis distinguishes between two phases: 1st phase - patriotic, glorification of war, 2nd phase - less patriotic, critical discussion of war. Byles, Joan Montgomery. 1985. Women's Experience of World War I: Suffragists, Pacifists and Poets. Women's Studies International Forum 8.5: 473-487. Article on the suffrage movement in the context of World War I. Key words: division - militarist suffragettes vs. pacifist suffragettes. Example: conflict between Emmeline and Sylvia Pankhurst. Textual material: war poetry by women.

Fussell, Paul. 1975. The Great War and Modern Memory . London New York: Oxford. Study on war and modernism. Details on World War I: major events, the end of the Great War - national ideals vs. reality. Essay About? Foci: war landscape - depiction of the trenches and actual fighting, enemy territory vs. friendly territory, contrast home front - front, dichotomy of manifest destiny essay, good and evil.

Mythicisation and fictionalization of war: revival of the cultic, the mystical, the sacrificial, the sacramental and essay about, the universally significant. Speechlessness in the face of vs constitution, terror and its euphemistic verbalisation. The pastoral as a sheltering place of escape. Homoeroticism. Criticism: study is restricted to male authors and provides questionable value judgements. Gardiner, Juliet, ed. 1993. Women's Voices 1880-1918: The New Woman. London: Collins Brown.

Essay collection on literary representations of the New Woman. Analysis is not limited to the genre of the New Woman novel , covers a wide range of textual examples: poetry, drama, travel literature, letters and other cultural-historical documents. Deals with established and less established writers. (ch. 6: Women's War) Goldman, Dorothy, ed. 1993. Women and World War I: The Written Response . Basingstoke: Macmillan. Essay collection on women writers' reactions to World War I. Introduces female authors (not restricted to British ones).

Key words: War from a female perspective, female world of experience. Patriotic vs. pacifist attitudes. Textual material: poetry (contrast to male war poets) and novels. Hewitt, Douglas. 1988.

English Fiction of the Early Modern Period, 1890-1940 . Longman Literature in English Series. London, New York: Longman. Higonnet, Margaret et al., eds. 1987. Behind the Lines: Gender and the Two World Wars . About I? New Haven London: Yale UP. Essay collection on plant thesis gender and war. Postulates a gender-specific experience of the World Wars: confirmation of traditional gender roles, yet some change of gender consciousness in the field of war occupations such as driver, nurse, factory worker new professions (see Higonnet, Gould, Gubar). Questioning of masculinity through depiction of war neurosis and mutilation (see Showalter). Different perspectives and manners of perceiving war: men focus on the dramatic war action, women focus on the long-term effects of the war. (cf. Rebecca West's The Return of the Soldier ). Special role of literature: expresses problems more poignant, yet has little effect on political change.

Hynes, Samuel. 1990. A War Imagined: The First World War and English Culture. London: Bodley Head. Detailed study on the influence of essay about who am, World War I on literature and art. Introduces war as a driving force for Modernism. Key words: Loss of values. Decadence.

Search for new forms and contents. War and the difficulty of its representation - conventional means do not suffice for adequate representation of pocket money essay, war. Disillusionment (caused by war) leads to experimental tendencies in art and literature. Essay? Representation of space is further considered. Captures the time before and after the war in different phases. Criticism: On the whole very informative, also with regards to primary sources, but: unfortunately no bibliography. Kern, Stephen. 1983.

The Culture of Time and Space, 1880-1918 . Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard UP. (ch. Property Plant? 11: The Cubist War) Longenbach, James. 1989. The Women and Men of 1914. In: Helen M. Cooper, Adrienne Auslander Munich Susan Merill Squier, eds. Arms and the Woman: War, Gender, and essay, Literary Representation . Chapel Hill, London: The University of North Carolina Press. 97-123.

Lucas, John. 1997. The Radical Twenties. Aspects of Writing, Politics and Culture. Nottingham: Five Leaves. (ch. 4 on Jazz) Cultural-theoretical study on the 1920s as a time of radical change. Points out several aspects of articles of confederation, society and discusses them in terms of their radicality: Effects of Wold War One on about i the public consciousness, socialism, women question, sexual liberation, drugs, music culture (jazz as decadent), dance (dance orgies, modern dance), mass culture (journals). Thermography Research? Detailed discussion of novels (also by female authors). Considers literary representation of space.

Mowat, John Loch. 1955. Britain Between the Wars 1918-1940 . London: Methuen. Nicholls, Peter. 1995. Modernisms: A Literary Guide . London: Macmillan. Study on the time between the two World Wars: the 'Roaring Twenties' and the social consciousness in the 1930s (socialism, marxism, Spanish civil war, pacifism). Further key words: Fashion (the androgynous style of the who am, flapper), architecture and mass media. Onions, John. 1990. English Fiction and Drama of the Great War, 1918-39.

Basingstoke: Macmillan. Study on British war fiction. Similar to Hynes (1990), but not as detailed. Centred on the figure of the hero and likewise the articles of confederation vs constitution, anti-hero. Considers comparatively few literary works, most of essay about who am i, them established texts. Devaluation of minor works. Ouditt, Sharon. 1994.

Fighting Forces, Writing Women: Identity and Ideology in the First World War . London New York: Routledge. Study on women and World War I. Starts out focusing on a description of women at work (medical duty, agricultural work, work in munitions factories). Continues to approach the topic by looking at different texts: magazines, autobiographies and novels (partly popular literature). Literature (fictional and property plant and equipment thesis, non-fictional) is granted a major role in about i, this context. Areas of discussion: images of essay, women: stereotypical Red Cross Nurse (active role of hero, yet female) - the essay about i, ordinary housewife at the home front as angel in the house in war literature. Critical reflection on the war and women's roles in postwar fiction. Spend Pocket Money Wisely Essay? Image of the mother as a preserver of life. Feminist pacifism.

The shock experience of war and the temporary allocation of roles as a danger to i identity. Discussion of the influence of World War I on society and literature as part of modernism. Essay By Baldwin? Quinn, Patrick J., ed. 1996. Recharting the Thirties . Selinsgrove: Susquehanna UP. Essay collection on the effects of World War I on society and particularly on literature. Considers neglected authors: Irene Rathbone, R.H. Mottram, but also Rosamond Lehmann and Elizabeth Bowen. Trout, Steven. 1986. R. H. Essay About I? Mottram: The Great War and Europa's Beast . In: Patrick J. Quinn, ed.

Recharting the Thirties. Selinsgrove: Susquehanna UP. 51-63. Tylee, Claire M. 1990. The Great War and Women's Consciousness: Images of Militarism and Womanhood in essay articles vs constitution, Women's Writings, 1914-64 . Basingstoke London: Macmillan. de Vries, Jaqueline. 1994. Gendering Patriotism: Emmeline and Christabel Pankhurst and World War I. In: Sybil Oldfield, ed. This Working-Day World: Women's Lives and Culture(s) in Britain 1914-1945. London: Taylor Francis. About I? 75-88.

Wilson, Trevor. 1986. The Myriad Faces of War: Britain and the Great War 1914-1918 . Cambridge: Polity Press. Study on World War I: based upon facts and events. Key words: happenings at the front, the home front, working situation, job market and women's participation. Winter, J.M. 1985. The Great War and the British People . Basingstoke London: Macmillan. Demographic study on World War I, proceeding from social history. Key words: war and loss, people's health, standards of living, efforts to increase birthrates, female surplus. Criticism: the study hardly considers women's situations and perspectives.

Zilboorg, Caroline. 1996. Irene Rathbone: The Great War and Its Aftermath. In: Patrick J. Quinn, ed. Recharting the Thirties. Selinsgrove: Susquehanna UP. 64-81. Berg, Christian, Frank Durieux Geert Lernout, eds.

1995. The Turn of the Century: Modernism and Modernity in Literature and the Arts . Berlin New York: de Gruyter. Things Fall? Bloom, Clive, ed. 1993. Literature and Culture in Modern Britain. Who Am I? Vol.

1: 1900-1929 . London New York: Longman. Essay collection on the socio-cultural context of modernism. Focuses on literature and art in their relation to society. Considers a multitude of aspects: mass culture, literary criticism, poetry, the novel (also: popular fiction), drama, forms of publication, radio, cinema, popular music and stranger in the village by baldwin, fine arts. Booth, Michael R. Joel H. Kaplan, eds. 1996. The Edwardian Theatre: Essays on performance and the stage . Essay? Cambridge: Cambridge UP.

Essay collection on Edwardian theatre. Focus on the business aspects of theatre: stage, management, critics, audience. Popular theatre: musical comedy, Music Hall, Variety, suffrage plays, East End popular theatre. Popularity of Cross-dressing: male cross-dressing as misogynist, female as positive (imitating the male accepted norm), general implication: blurring of gender boundaries. Butler, Christopher. 1994. Early Modernism: Literature, Music, and apart essay, Painting in Europe, 1900-1916 . Oxford: Clarendon Press. Chinitz, David. 1997. Dance, Little Lady': Poets, Flappers, and the Gendering of Jazz.

In: Lisa Rado, ed. Modernism, Gender, And Culture: A Cultural Studies Approach. Essay About? New York London: Garland Publishing. 319-335. Finney, Gail. 1989. Women in Modern Drama: Freud, Feminism, and European Theatre at the Turn of the Century . Ithaca London: Cornell UP.

Gale, Maggie B. 1996. West End Women: Women and the London stage 1918-1962 . London New York: Routledge. Study on women and the theatre. Describes the significant participation of a 1953 by baldwin, female authors in the theatrical world between 1918 and 1962. After winning the vote, women were on essay about the advance in essay articles vs constitution, every sector. Essay About Who Am I? Gale addresses women questions, but not from a feminist theoretical background. Topics of interest: profession and family, working class women, mother role, relationship mother-daughter. Griffin, Gabriele. Thermography Research Papers? 1994. Becomings as Being: Leonora Carrington's Writings and Paintings 1937-40. In: Griffin, Gabriele, ed.

Difference in essay who am i, View: Women and Modernism . London: Taylor and Francis. Holledge, Julie. 1981. Innocent Flowers: Women in the Edwardian Theatre . London: Virago. Hynes, Samuel. 1990.

A War Imagined: The First World War and English Culture. London: Bodley Head. Detailed study on the influence of World War I on literature and art. Introduces war as a driving force for in the village a 1953 by baldwin, modernism. Key words: Loss of values.

Decadence. Search for essay about who am, new forms and contents. War and essay articles of confederation, the difficulty of its representation - conventional means do not suffice for an adequate representation of war. Disillusionment (caused by war) leads to experimental tendencies in art and literature. Representation of space is further considered. About? Captures the time before and after the war in different phases. Criticism: On the whole very informative, also with regards to primary sources, but: unfortunately no bibliography. Isaak, Jo Anna. How To Pocket Essay? 1986. The Ruin of Representation in Modernist Art and Texts . Ann Arbor, Michigan: UMI Research Press.

Kahn, Elizabeth Louise. 1997. Engendering the Scandal: The Cubist House and the Private Spaces of Modernity. In: Lisa Rado, ed. Modernism, Gender, And Culture: A Cultural Studies Approach . New York London: Garland Publishing. 175-198. Kaplan, Joel H. About I? Sheila Stowell. 1994. Theatre and research, Fashion: Oscar Wilde to the Suffragettes . Cambridge: Cambridge UP. Study on the interrelationship of theatre and essay who am i, fashion: reciprocal influence. Function of showing fashionable women's clothes on stage: attracting and plant, stimulating for audience (except in performances of Ibsen or Shaw).

Semantic function of dress: social status of a character and its alteration in the course of the play ( Pygmalion ; from essay about who am i, flower girl to lady). Symbolization of stereotypes of femininity: Woman as sex object, New Woman and Suffragette emphasize masculine markers (e.g. boots, umbrella) and reject female markers (e.g. skirts, sashes, puffed sleeves) - this is true for the stage as well as social reality. Lucas, John. Stranger In The Village A 1953 Essay By Baldwin? 1997. The Radical Twenties. Aspects of Writing, Politics and Culture. Nottingham: Five Leaves. (ch. 4 on Jazz) Study on the 1920s as a time of radical change, proceeding from cultural theory. Points out several aspects of society and discusses them in terms of their radicality: Effects of World War I on the public consciousness, socialism, women question, sexual liberation, drugs, music culture (jazz as decadent), dance (dance orgies, modern dance), mass culture (journals). Detailed discussion of novels (also by female authors).

Lyon, Janet. 1992. Militant Discourse, Strange Bedfellows: Suffragettes and essay who am, Vorticists before the War differences: A Journal of Feminist Cultural Studies 4.2: 100-133. Article on the suffrage movement and developments in art before World War I. Discusses analogies and interactions between militant suffragettes and radical artists of the avant-garde (e.g. vorticists, futurists). Key words: militancy, iconoclasms, feminist delimitation and self-marginalisation, polarizing tendencies and linguistic unambiguity in feminist pamphlets and manifestos.

Plassard, Didier. 1995. Le Théatre de Kandinsky face à l'interpretation. Essay? In: Christian Berg, Frank Durieux Geert Lernout, eds. The Turn of the Century: Modernism and Modernity in Literature and the Arts . Berlin New York: de Gruyter. 507-521. Reynolds, Dee A. 1997. Dancing Free: Women's Movement in Early Modern Dance.

In: Lisa Rado, ed. Modernism, Gender, And Culture: A Cultural Studies Approach . New York London: Garland Publishing. 247-279. Stevenson, Randall. 1992. Modernist Fiction: An Introduction . Essay About I? Hemel Hempstead: Harvester Wheatsheaf. (ch. 4 on art) Weisstein, Ulrich. 1995. How Useful is the Term 'Modernism' for the Interdisciplinary Study of Twentieth-Century Art?. In: Christian Berg, Frank Durieux Geert Lernout, eds.

The Turn of the Century: Modernism and Modernity in Literature and the Arts . Berlin New York: de Gruyter. Plant And Equipment Thesis? Yaari, Monique. 1995. Ironies of Modern/Postmodern Art: Duchamp, Margritte, Adami. About Who Am? In: Christian Berg, Frank Durieux Geert Lernout, eds. The Turn of the Century: Modernism and Modernity in Literature and the Arts . Berlin New York: de Gruyter. 537-552. Zabel, Barbara. 1997. Gendered Still Life: Painting of Still Life in the Machine Age. In: Lisa Rado, ed.

Modernism, Gender, And Culture: A Cultural Studies Approach . New York London: Garland Publishing. 229-246. Beddoe, Deirdre. 1989. Back to Home and Duty: Women Between the Wars, 1918-1939 . London etc.: Pandora. Study on the situation of women between the wars. Key words: misogynist trends in society, female education as an enclave of emancipation - professions for women, health, leisure, reading, cinema, radio. Images of Women, influence on women writers. Bloom, Clive, ed.

1993. Literature and Culture in Modern Britain. Vol. 1: 1900-1929 . London New York: Longman. Essay collection on the socio-cultural context of modernism. Focuses on literature and art in their relation to society.

Considers a multitude of fall essay, aspects: mass culture, literary criticism, poetry, the novel (also: popular fiction), drama, forms of publication, radio, cinema, popular music and fine arts. Carey, John. 1992. The Intellectuals and the Masses: Pride and Prejudice among the who am, Literary Intelligentsia 1880-1939. London: Faber Faber. Study on property thesis the phenomenon of the masses from the perspective of intellectuals. Key words: polarization - mass culture vs. literary elite.

Revolt of the masses. Rewriting the masses: question of value judgements, increase in value. Cultivation of essay who am, high intellectual standards as a means of excluding the masses from a reading public. Space: suburbia - housing development, suburbia as a place of the masses. Travel: flight from civilisation of and equipment thesis, established authors like Robert Byron, Graham Green, Evelyn Waugh. DiBattista, Maria Lucy McDiarmid, eds. 1996. High and essay about, Low Moderns: Literature and Culture 1889-1939 . Oxford: Oxford UP. Hewett, Angela. 1994. The Great Company of in the essay, Real Women': Modernist Women Writers and Mass Commercial Culture.

In: Lisa Rado, ed. Rereading Modernism: New Directions in Feminist Criticism . New York London: Garland. 351-372. About I? Huyssen, Andreas. 1986. After the Great Divide: Modernism, Mass Culture, Postmodernism . London: Macmillan.

LeMahieu, D. L. 1988. A Culture for Democracy: Mass Communication and the Cultivated Mind in Britain between the Wars. Oxford: Clarendon Press. Lucas, John. 1997. The Radical Twenties. Aspects of Writing, Politics and Culture. Nottingham: Five Leaves. Study on the 1920s as a time of radical change, proceeding from cultural theory.

Points out several aspects of society and discusses them in terms of their radicality: Effects of World War I on the public consciousness, socialism, women question, sexual liberation, drugs, music culture (jazz as decadent), dance (dance orgies, modern dance), mass culture (journals). Detailed discussion of novels (also by female authors). Melman, Billie. 1988. Women and the Popular Imagination in the Twenties: Flappers and Nymphs . London: Macmillan. Study on images of women in the 1920s. Images dominating the public consciousness: flapper and surplus woman.

Analysis of a very broad spectrum of popular literature (broad in terms of papers, reception rather than sales figures). Key words: best-seller, serial fiction, book business and magazines. Rado, Lisa, ed. About Who Am? 1997. Modernism, Gender, And Culture: A Cultural Studies Approach . New York London: Garland Publishing. Heterogenous essay collection. Key words: Flaneuse, Striptease, spirituality (moments of things fall cultural, being), advertising in popular magazines, Modernist Design, Modern Dance, primitivist and matriarchal tendencies ( Herland ), Flappers and Jazz. Trodd, Anthea 1998. Women Writing in English: Britain 1900 1945. London: Longman. Wicke, Jennifer.

1988. Advertising Fictions: Literature, Advertisement, Social Reading . Who Am I? New York, Columbia UP. Ankum, Katharina von, ed. 1997. Women in the Metropolis: Gender and Modernity in Weimar Culture . Berkeley: University of California Press. Barta, Peter I. 1990. The Treatment of the Fourth Dimension in the Modernist City Novel. In: Roger Bauer et al., eds.

Space and Boundaries/Espace et Frontières: Proceedings of the XIIth Congress of the International Comparative Literature Association/Actes du XIIe Congrès de l'Association Internationale de Littérature Comparée , Vol. 3. München: iudicum. 310-315. Study on the modernist city novel . Key words: the manifest essay, fourth dimension, i.e. the representation of space as a major constituent of the integrative text structure. Space and identity.

Becker, Claudia. 1990. Zur Interiorisierung der Raumsymbolik in der Literatur der Moderne. In: Roger Bauer et al., eds. Space and about who am, Boundaries/Espace et Frontières: Proceedings of the XIIth Congress of the International Comparative Literature Association/Actes du XIIe Congrès de l'Association Internationale de Littérature Comparée , Vol. 3. München: iudicum. 281-287.

The article deals with modernist tendencies of internalization: depiction of different rooms of the interior (factual and psychological ones). Becker, Sabina. 1993. Urbanität und Moderne: Studien zur Großstadtwahrnehmung in der deutschen Literatur 1900-1930. St. Ingbert: Röhrig. Berghahn, Daniela. 1988.

Raumdarstellung im englischen Roman der Moderne . Frankfurt/M.: Peter Lang. Authoritative text on how to spend pocket money literary representations of space in who am, the avant-gardist modernist novel. Key words: Subjectivity, integration of space in stream of consciousness; selectivity of perception and representation, processes of essay articles vs constitution, fragmentarization, montage as technique to depict space; associative spaces; spatial symbolism; interdisciplinary analogies (literature and essay i, art: impressionism, cubism); provides an in the village by baldwin, analysis of Henry James The Ambassadors , Joseph Conrad Nostromo , Ford Madox Ford The Good Soldier , D.H. Lawrence Women in Love , James Joyce Ulysses , E.M. Forster A Passage To India , and Virginia Woolf To the Lighthouse . Boynton, Percy Holmes. Who Am I? 1913. London in English Literature. Manifest Destiny Persuasive? Chicago, Ill.: University of Chicago Press. (Ch. 10 Contemporary London) Bradbury, Malcolm. 1976.

London 1890-1930. In: Malcolm Bradbury James McFarlane, eds. Modernism. 1890-1930. Harmondsworth: Penguin. 172-190. Bronfen, Elisabeth. 1986. Der literarische Raum: Eine Untersuchung am Beispiel von Dorothy M. Richardsons Romanzyklus Pilgrimage. Essay Who Am I? Tübingen: Niemeyer. Study on literary space in the work of Dorothy Richardson.

Approach: phenomenological (cf. Ströker and essay articles, Hoffmann) and structuralist (cf. About Who Am I? Lotman). Key words: subjectivity of spatial perception in streams of consciousness. Metaphorical space (additional symbolism) vs. space which can be physically entered. Space and identity. Spatial textual structures. Carey, John. 1992. The Intellectuals and the Masses: Pride and stranger village, Prejudice among the Literary Intelligentsia 1880-1939.

London: Faber Faber. (Chap. 3 The Suburbs and the Clerks) Study on the phenomenon of the masses from the perspective of intellectuals. Space: suburbia - housing development, suburbia as a place of the masses. Travel: flight from civilisation of i, established authors like Robert Byron, Graham Green, Evelyn Waugh. Ecker, Gisela. 1995. Allegorical Gardens of Desire in Modernity: A Gendered Perspective. In: Susan C. Scott, ed. The Art of Interpreting . University Park, Pa.: Pennsylvania State University. 260-292.

Allocations of meaning to the garden based on plant thesis depth psychology. Gender-specific dimensions of the garden: a place of solitude and expansion of essay about who am, consciousness for women - a place of maternal security for stranger, men. Frank, Joseph. Who Am? 1963. Spatial Form in Modern Literature. In: The Widening Gyre: Crisis and Mastery in Modern Literature . New Brunswick: Rutgers UP. 3-63. Article on textual space.

Textual structures are described with help of spatial metaphors (see also Smitten 1981). Persuasive Essay? Friedman, Susan Stanford. 1996. Spacialization, Narrative Theory, and Virginia Woolf's The Voyage Out . In: Kathy Mezei, ed. Ambiguous Discourse: Feminist Narratology and British Women Writers . Essay About I? Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press. 109-136.

Article is an example of the notion of text as space. Structure of text and structure of essay vs constitution, communication: intertextual, historical and psychological (semiotic and symbolic) references. Fryer, Judith. 1984. Women and Space.

The Flowering of Desire. About Who Am I? In: Prospects: An Annual of American Cultural Studies : 187-230. Article on gendered concepts of space in architecture, housing and narrative fiction from the turn of the century up to how to spend pocket wisely essay the 1930s based on social geography. Who Am I? Contains writings on architecture and feminist reform efforts. Gindin, James. 1992. British Fiction in the 1930s: The Dispiriting Decade . Fall Apart Essay? New York: St. Martin's Press.

Study introduces only the well-known texts of the 1930s. There are several references to the literary representation of space (ex. Rosamond Lehman, Elizabeth Bowen) Hertel, Kirsten. 1997. London zwischen Naturalismus und Moderne: Literarische Perspektiven einer Metropole. Heidelberg: Winter.

Keating, Peter. 1984. The Metropolis in Literature. In: Anthony Sutcliffe, ed. Metropolis 1890-1940. London: Mansell. 129-145. Kern, Stephen. 1983. Who Am? The Culture of Time and manifest, Space 1880 1918 . Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard UP. Study on modernist concepts of time and space.

Documents historical changes of spatial concepts in modernity. Key words: Subjectivity, categorisation according to different ways of perception (visual, acoustic, tactual etc.) Microscopic space. Art (cubism, impressionism) and sculpture. Film (rapid change of pictures and scenes). Heterogeneous space. Plurality of essay who am i, stance, multi-perspectivity. Changes of attitude. Space as designable matter (magnetic fields, architecture, artificial lighting). Expansion and thermography papers, reduction of geographical space (expeditions, public and who am i, private transport, aviation).

Urban spaces. How To Spend Wisely? Psychoanalysis (mental rooms of the interior, stream of consciousness). Klarer, Mario. 1995. Simultaneity and Gender in Modernist Discourses. About Who Am I? In: Near Encounters. Festschrift für Richard Martin . Frankfurt/M.: Peter Lang. Interdisciplinary study on the phenomenon of simultaneity and its implications concerning space and gender.

Simultaneity as spatially represented in the novel as well as in modernist paintings. Androgynity as a form of simultaneity. Müller, Lothar. 1988. In The A 1953 Essay By Baldwin? Die Großstadt als Ort der Moderne: Über Georg Simmel. In: Klaus R. Scherpe, ed. Die Unwirklichkeit der Städte: Großstadtdarstellung zwischen Moderne und Postmoderne. Reinbek: Rowohlt.

14-36. Essay Who Am? Pike, Burton. 1981. The Image of the City in Modern Literature. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton UP. Fall Cultural Collision Essay? Pratt, Annis. 1972. Women and Nature in Modern Fiction. Comparative Literature 13: 476-490.

Article on space and nature in modern fiction. Key words: epiphanies in natural settings (especially in novels of development), gender-specific differences in the perception of nature. Sizemore-Wick, Christine. 1989. Who Am? A Female Vision of the City. London in the Novels of Five British Women . Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press.

Study on the city from things cultural collision, a female perspective. City can be entered by women in the 20th century. Provides detailed analysis of essay about, novels. Stranger In The Village A 1953? Spencer, Sharon. 1971.

Space, Time and Structure in the Modern Novel . New York: New York UP. Squier, Susan Merill. 1985. Virginia Woolf and London: The Sexual Politics of the City . Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press. Stanzel, Franz.

1990. Das Niemandsland in der englischen und deutschen Dichtung. In: Roger Bauer et al., eds. Space and essay about who am, Boundaries/Espace et Frontières: Proceedings of the XIIth Congress of the International Comparative Literature Association/Actes du XIIe Congrès de l'Association Internationale de Littérature Comparée , Vol. 3. München: iudicum. 219-27. Destiny Persuasive? Article on the connecting and separating aspects of a boundary. Example: no-man's land between the trenches during the First World War in German and English literature. Voss, Dietmar. Essay About Who Am I? 1988. Die Rückkehr der Flanerie: Versuch über ein Schlüsselphänomen der Moderne.

In: Klaus R. Village Essay By Baldwin? Scherpe, ed. Die Unwirklichkeit der Städte: Großstadtdarstellung zwischen Moderne und Postmoderne. Reinbek: Rowohlt. Essay About I? 37-60. Weightman, Gavin Steve Humphries. 1984. The Making of destiny persuasive essay, Modern London, 1815-1914. London: Sidgwick Jackson. Wolff Janet. 1985.

The Invisible Flaneuse. Women and the Literature of Modernity. Theory, Culture and Society 2.3: 37-46. Würzbach, Natascha. in print. Identitätskonstitution durch Raumerleben in der englischen Erzählliteratur des Modernismus. Who Am I? Theory of subjectivity and identity.

The significance of space and body for apart collision, the pre-linguistic formation of identity. Codes of spatial representation. Gender-specific spatial experience and essay i, concepts of subjectivity in some modernist novels. Ackroyd, Peter. [2000] 2001. London.

The Biography . London: Vintage. Alexander, Sally. 1989. Becoming a Woman in London in the 1920s and 1930s. In: David Feldman Gareth Stedman Jones, eds. Metropolis London: Histories and Representations since 1800. Essay Of Confederation? London New York: Routledge. 245-271. Alter, Peter. 1993.

Im Banne der Metropolen: Berlin und London in den zwanziger Jahren . About Who Am? Göttingen: Vandenhoeck Ruprecht. Alter, Peter. 2000. London in things apart, der Neuzeit. In: Andreas Sohn Hermann Weber, eds. Haupstädte und Global Cities an der Schwelle zum 21. Jahrhundert . Bochum: Winkler.

57-79. Ankum, Katharina von, ed. 1997. Women in about who am, the Metropolis: Gender and Modernity in Weimar Culture . Berkeley: University of California Press. Barta, Peter I. 1990. The Treatment of the Fourth Dimension in the Modernist City Novel. In: Roger Bauer et al., eds. Space and Boundaries/Espace et Frontières: Proceedings of the XIIth Congress of the International Comparative Literature Association/Actes du XIIe Congrès de l'Association Internationale de Littérature Comparée , Vol. 3. München: iudicum. 310-315. Study on fall cultural the modernist city novel . I? Key words: the fourth dimension, i.e. the representation of property and equipment thesis, space as a major constituent of the integrative text structure.

Space and identity. Becker, Sabina. 1993. Urbanität und Moderne: Studien zur Großstadtwahrnehmung in der deutschen Literatur 1900-1930. St. Ingbert: Röhrig. Boynton, Percy Holmes. 1913. London in English Literature.

Chicago, Ill.: University of Chicago Press. (Ch. 10 Contemporary London) Bradbury, Malcolm. Essay? 1976. London 1890-1930. In: Malcolm Bradbury James McFarlane, eds. Modernism. 1890-1930. Harmondsworth: Penguin.

172-190. Breuner, Michael. 1991. Hunger for Place: Studien zur Raumdarstellung im London-Roman seit 1940 . Frankfurt/M.: Peter Lang. Study on the London Novel after 1940. Persuasive Essay? Key words: literary appropriation of the city. About? Space and subjectivity: subjective perceptions and formations of space (philosophical basis: see Ströker, psychological basis: see Minkowski). Brooks, J.A. In The Village? 1982.

Ghosts of about who am, London: The East End, City, and North. Manifest Destiny Essay? Norwich: Jarrold. Carey, John. 1992. Essay I? The Intellectuals and essay articles of confederation, the Masses: Pride and Prejudice among the Literary Intelligentsia 1880-1939.

London: Faber Faber. (Chap. 3 The Suburbs and about i, the Clerks) Study on the phenomenon of the masses from the perspective of intellectuals. Space: suburbia - housing development, suburbia as a place of the masses. Travel: flight from civilisation of established authors like Robert Byron, Graham Green, Evelyn Waugh. A 1953 Essay? Drabble, Margaret. 1979. A Writer's Britain: Landscape in Literature. Photographed by Jorge Lewinski. London: Thames Hudson.

Epstein-Nor, Deborah. 1991. The Urban Peripatetic: Spectator, Streetwalker, Woman Writer. Nineteenth Century Literature 46.3: 351 - 375. Frisby, David. 2001. Cityscapes of i, Modernity: Critical Explorations . Cambridge: Polity Press. Harding, Desmond. 2002. Writing the City: Urban Visions And Literary Modernism . New York: Routledge.

Hertel, Kirsten. 1997. London zwischen Naturalismus und Moderne: Literarische Perspektiven einer Metropole. Heidelberg: Winter. Keating, Peter. 1984. The Metropolis in Literature.

In: Anthony Sutcliffe, ed. Metropolis 1890-1940. Things Fall Essay? London: Mansell. 129-145. Who Am I? Kilian, Eveline. 2002. Things? Exploring London. Walking the City - (Re)Writing the City.

In: Hartmut Berghoff, Barbara Korte Ralf Schneider, eds. The Making of Modern Tourism: The Cultural History of the British Experience, 1600 to essay about who am 2000 . London: Palgrave. 267-283. Klotz, Volker. 1969.

Die erzählte Stadt: Ein Sujet als Herausforderung des Romans von Lesage bis Döblin. München: Hanser. Kublitz-Kramer, Maria. 1995. Frauen auf Straßen: Topographien des Begehrens in Erzähltexten von Gegenwartsautorinnen. München: Fink. Kursbuch Stadt.

Stadtleben und Stadtkultur an stranger in the village a 1953 essay by baldwin, der Jahrtausendwende. 1999 . Redaktion Stefan Bollmann. Essay I? Stuttgart: DVA. Lane, Eric. 1988. How To Spend Pocket? A Guide to Literary London. Sawtry, Cambridgeshire: Dedalus. Lefèbvre, Henri.

1972. Die Revolution der Städte. München: List. Lehan, Richard. 1998. The City in Literature: An Intellectual and about who am i, Cultural History . Berkeley: University of plant and equipment, California Press. Mahler, Andreas, ed. 1999. Stadt-Bilder: Allegorie, Mimesis, Imagination . Heidelberg: Winter. Manley, Lawrence.

1995. Literature and Culture in Early Modern London . Cambridge: Cambridge UP. Marcus, Steven. 1987. Reading the about, Illegible. Some Modern Representations of Urban Experience. In: William Sharpe Leonard Wallock, eds. Visions of the Modern City: Essays in History, Art, and Literature. Baltimore London: Johns Hopkins UP. 232-256. Milgram, Stanley.

1970. Das Erleben der Großstadt: Eine psychologische Analyse. Zeitschrift für Sozialpsychologie 1: 142-152. Müller, Lothar. 1988. Die Großstadt als Ort der Moderne: Über Georg Simmel. In: Klaus R. Property Thesis? Scherpe, ed. Die Unwirklichkeit der Städte: Großstadtdarstellung zwischen Moderne und Postmoderne.

Reinbek: Rowohlt. 14-36. Nord, Deborah Epstein. 1991. The Urban Peripatetic: Spectator, Streetwalker, Woman Writer. Nineteenth Century Literature 46.3: 351-375. Nowel, Ingrid. 1998. London: Biographie einer Weltstadt - Architektur und Kunst, Geschichte und Literatur.

Köln: Dumont. Parson, Deborah L. 2000. Streetwalking the essay about who am, Metropolis: Women, the City and Modernity. Essay Articles Of Confederation Vs Constitution? Oxford: Oxford UP. Pfeil, Elisabeth. Who Am? 1972. Großstadtforschung: Entwicklung und gegenwärtiger Stand. Hannover: Jänecke.

Pike, Burton. 1981. The Image of the City in Modern Literature. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton UP. Punter, David. 1979. How To Spend Pocket Money? Blake's Capital Cities. About I? In: P. Weston, ed. London in Literature. London: Roehampton Institute.

46-72. Scherpe, Klaus R., ed. 1988. Die Unwirklichkeit der Städte: Großstadtdarstellung zwischen Moderne und Postmoderne. Reinbek: Rowohlt. Sennett, Richard, ed. 1978. Essay? Classic Essays on the Culture of essay who am i, Cities . New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts. Sennet, Richard.

1995. Flesh and Stone. Things Fall Apart Essay? The Body and the City in Western Civilization . London: Faber Faber. Shaffer, Elinor S., ed. 1996. Spaces: Cities, Gardens and Wilderness . Essay? Cambridge: Cambridge UP. Sharpe, William 1986. Feminizing the Urban World. Village A 1953? Urban Resources . 3.2: 55-57. Sharpe, William Leonard Wallock. 1987.

From 'Great Town' to 'Nonplace Urban Realm': Reading the Modern City. In: William Sharpe und Leonard Wallock, Hgg. Visions of the Modern City. Essays in History, Art, and essay who am i, Literature. Baltimore/London: Johns Hopkins UP. 1-51. Sharpe, William Leonard Wallock. 1987. From 'Great Town' to 'Nonplace Urban Realm': Reading the Modern City.

In: William Sharpe Leonard Wallock, eds. Visions of the Modern City: Essays in History, Art, and Literature. Baltimore London: Johns Hopkins UP. 1-51. Sizemore-Wick, Christine. 1989.

A Female Vision of the City: London in in the village a 1953 essay by baldwin, the Novels of Five British Women . Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press. Study on the city from a female perspective. Essay Who Am? City can be entered by women in the 20th century. Provides detailed analysis of novels. Smuda, Manfred, ed.

1992. Die Großstadt als Text . Plant And Equipment? München: Wilhelm Fink. Squier, Susan Merrill, ed. 1984. Women Writers and the City: Essays in Feminist Literary Criticism . Knoxville. University of Tennessee Press. Squier, Susan Merill. 1985.

Virginia Woolf and London: The Sexual Politics of the City. Chapel Hill London: The University of North Carolina Press. (Ch. 5 The Carnival and essay about i, Funeral of Mrs Dalloway's London) Sutcliffe, Anthony, ed. 1984. Metropolis 1890-1940. London: Mansell. Timms, Edward David Kelley, eds. 1985. Unreal City: Urban Experience in Modern European Literature and Art.

Manchester: Manchester UP. Things Fall Apart Cultural Collision Essay? Twyning, John. 1998. London Dispossess: Literature and Social Space in the Early Modern City. Basingstoke: Macmillan. Who Am? Voss, Dietmar. 1988.

Die Rückkehr der Flanerie: Versuch über ein Schlüsselphänomen der Moderne. In: Klaus R. Scherpe, ed. Die Unwirklichkeit der Städte: Großstadtdarstellung zwischen Moderne und Postmoderne. Reinbek: Rowohlt. 37-60. Weigel, Sigrid. 1990. 'Die Städte sind weiblich und nur als Sieger hold': Zur Funktion des Weiblichen in Gründungsmythen und Städtedarstellungen. Research? In: Sigrid Weigel, ed. Topographien der Geschlechter. Reinbek bei Hamburg: Rowohlt. 149-189.

Weightman, Gavin Steve Humphries. 1984. The Making of Modern London, 1815-1914. London: Sidgwick Jackson. Essay I? Weightman, Gavin Steve Humphries. 1984. The Making of spend pocket essay, Modern London, 1914-1939.

London: Sidgwick Jackson. Weinreb, Ben Christopher Hibbert. 1983. About? The London Encyclopaedia. London: Macmillan. Wilson, Elizabeth. 1991. The Sphinx in the City: Urban Life, the Control of Disorder, and things fall essay, Women . London: Virago. About Who Am I? Wolff Janet. 1985. The Invisible Flaneuse.

Women and the Literature of Modernity. Theory, Culture and Society 2.3: 37-46. Bausinger, Hermann et al., eds. Essay Articles? 1991. Reisekultur: Von der Pilgerfahrt zum modernen Tourismus . München: Beck.

Berghoff, Hartmut, Barbara Korte Ralf Schneider, eds. Essay? 2002. Things Fall? The Making of Modern Tourism: The Cultural History of the British Experience, 1600 to 2000 . London: Palgrave. Essay Who Am I? Blake, Susan L. 1990. A Woman's Trek: What Difference Does Gender Make? Women's Studies International Forum 13.4: 347-353. Birkett, Dea.

1989. Spinsters Abroad: Victorian Lady Explorers . Oxford: Blackwell. Black, Jeremy. 1985. The British and the Grand Tour . London: Croom Helm. Blunt, Elison Gillian Rose, eds. 1994. Writing Women and Space: Colonial and Postcolonial Geographies . New York: The Guilford Press. Of Confederation? Collection of essays on ethnological and geographical issues. Theoretical background: postcolonial studies, gender studies, discourse theory, and about i, constructivism. Things Fall Cultural Essay? Premiss: the white, middle-class subject constructs other cultures from a privileged and relatively uncritical stance.

Female living spaces: social mapping paves the essay who am, way for social and political orientation, territorial dissociation. Fight against imperialism and gender-specific oppression. Articles on: Mary Kingsley's perspective on landscape, geographical spaces such as Australia, Western Africa, Ireland. Bode, Christoph, ed. 1997. West Meets East: Klassiker der britischen Orient-Reiseliteratur . Heidelberg: Winter. Brendon, Piers.

1991. Thomas Cook: 150 Years of Popular Tourism . London: Secker Warburg. Brenner, Peter J., ed. Stranger Village A 1953? 1989. Der Reisebericht: Die Entwicklung einer Gattung in der deutschen Literatur . Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp. Articles on the history of essay about who am i, German travel literature. Introduction considers basic issues: perception of the manifest destiny essay, foreign through patterns of the (kn)own. Perception is influenced by essay about who am i emotions: stimulation, rejection, amazement.

Quality of travel experience ranges from dissociation to identification. Change of the German travel report relative to the changes in the philosophical conception of the world (homogeneity or heterogeneity of the world). Brenner, Peter J. How To Money Wisely Essay? 1989. Die Erfahrung der Fremde: Zur Entwicklung einer Wahrnehmungsform in der Geschichte des Reiseberichts. In: Peter J. Brenner, ed. Der Reisebericht: Die Entwicklung einer Gattung in der deutschen Literatur . Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp. 14-49. Burkart, Arthur J. Slavoj Medlik. 1974. Tourism: Past, Present, and Future . London: Heinemann. Buzard, James.

1993. The Beaten Track: European Tourism, Literature, and the Ways to Culture, 1800 - 1918 . Oxford: Clarendon Press. Seminal study on the definition and history of tourism. Critically assesses the traveller vs. tourist dichotomy . Tourism is approached in essay about i, a differentiated manner weighing the things fall apart, following aspects: tourism as phenomenon of the essay about who am, masses, processes of of confederation vs constitution, stereotyping the essay, foreign, selection and assessment of tourist attractions, alleged authenticity, convenience and enhancement of papers, infrastructure, the hierarchical structure of home culture vs. foreign culture, relaxation and flight from civilisation, democratisation of travelling, antitourism ( off the beaten track ). Textual sources: travel reports, tourist guides, literary texts, documents on economic aspects of tourism. Chard, Chloe. 1999. Who Am? Pleasure and Guilt on the Grand Tour: Travel Writing and Imaginative Geography 1600-1890 . Manchester: Manchester UP.

Cocker, Mark. 1992. How To Money? Loneliness and Time: British Travel Writing in the Twentieth Century . London: Secker Warburg. Study exclusively deals with white, middle-class, imperialistic, male authors. Essay Who Am I? Uncritical stylisation of the male traveller as a hero (alleged male characteristics: self-discipline, survival in the face of danger, suppression of emotions, 'the lone wolf', self-sufficiency). Claims travel literature to be factual. Cocker's arguments are not very well organised, nor up to the current state of research. Things Fall Apart Collision? Nevertheless, a useful source for male travel reports. Culler, Jonathan.

1988. The Semiotics of Tourism. In: Jonathan Culler, ed. Framing the essay about who am i, Sign: Criticism and Its Institutions . Oxford: Blackwell. 153-167. Article describes tourism as a semiotic system of stereotypization. Emphasises the fact that tourist attractions and souvenirs are semiotically communicated, i.e. they are signifiers serving the satisfaction of destiny essay, certain desires. Discusses this representative function of tourism from a Barthesian perspective, sees the availability of tourism as a commercial product. Thesis: semiotic processes of tourism turn the essay about, world into an accumulation of travel destinations. Dodd, Philip. Fall Apart Cultural Collision Essay? 1982.

The Views of Travellers: Travel writing in the 1930s. Prose Studies 5.1 (Special Issue The Art of Travel: Essays on essay i Travel Writing ): 127-138. Dodd analyses the traveller's/the narrator's attitude towards the property plant thesis, travelled places as the most important structural component of the text. In general, the attitudes mirror the culturally given standards; personal interests also come into the play: e.g. nostalgic childhood memories ( home tour ), social interests etc. Dodd discusses texts by Greene, Muir, Orwell, Priestley.

Foster, Shirley. 1990. Nineteenth Century Women Tavellers and Their Writings . New York: Harvester Wheatsheaf. The study predominantly deals with female English travellers/travel writers of the 19th century. It is structured according to areas of destination (Italy, North-America, Far East) documenting the travellers' different attitudes towards the respective countries. Introductory chapter is of fundamental relevance for essay about who am i, theories and histories of female travelling. The following aspects are given detailed treatment: breaking away from social conventions and how to pocket money essay, confining norms, the double bind of the female traveller and her difficulties as a woman due to male prejudice. Female travellers as exceptional women: acquisition of stereotypically male characteristics, emancipated behaviour (positive evaluation, depicted in an almost panegyric manner).

Mixture of male and female conventions of writing: topography, economic aspects, male activity vs. female aesthetics of landscape, female living spaces; objectivity, factual information vs. emotionalised information, expression of subjectivity and self-analysis, practising dominance vs. opening up to the foreign culture and showing a readiness to integrate. Foucault, Michel. 1992. Andere Räume. In: Karlheinz Bark et al., eds. Aisthesis: Wahrnehmung heute oder Perspektiven einer anderen Ästhetik . Leipzig: Reclam: 34-46. Foulke, Robert. 1992. The Guide Book Industry. In: Michael Kowalewski, ed. Temperamental Journeys: Essays on the Modern Literature of Travel . Athens: The University of Georgia Press.

93-106. Essay I? Essay on the genre of the travel-guide: the travel-guide as the sole source for mass-tourists, the fall apart cultural collision, best-selling subgenre within travel literature. Distinction between predominantly factual-informative and other, more personally oriented, guides. Criteria for evaluation: travel-guides have to be up to date, affordable, handy, and respectable. Content: sights and practical hints (means of essay, transportation, hotels, restaurants, food, clothing). Early travel handbooks in the 19th century are above all educational ( Grand tour ). Three different treatments of Bath demonstrate how travel-guides differ (in terms of selection, representation, or evaluation of the stranger in the village essay by baldwin, place). Frederick, Bonnie Susan H. McLeod, eds. 1993. Women and the Journey: The Female Travel Experience . Pullman, Washington: Washington State UP.

Essay collection on women and travelling. Introduction discusses fundamental issues: women's motivations for travelling (liberation from the confining domestic shelter, transgression of about i, boundaries), special risks for women, self-development, women's difficulties in finding a balance between the demands and conventions of home on the one hand and the freedom of travelling on the other hand. The individual contributions deal with examples of women travellers, focusing on their encounters with women of other ethnicities and questions of sex, race and class. The representation of female travelling in literary texts is also considered: the female quest plot seems to allow no happy ending for female characters (either return to restrictive patriarchal structures at home or emigration to a foreign country). Fussell, Paul.

1980. Thesis? Abroad: British Literary Travelling Between the Wars . Oxford: Oxford UP. Early authoritative text on travel literature. Deals exclusively with traditional male travel literature written between the wars (summaries, biographical details). Essay About Who Am? Authors discussed are: Robert Byron, Norman Douglas, Graham Greene, D.H. Lawrence, Evelyn Waugh. Aspects of analysis: major need to travel in post-war society, boom of travel literature, introduction of passports, awareness of national borders.

Travel vs. tourism, the latter strongly deprecated. Questionable categorisation of travel periods: exploration (Renaissance), travel (age of the bourgeoisie), tourism (proletarian age). Fussell's study is of rather restricted use for information on travel literature. Manifest Destiny Persuasive Essay? Fussell, Paul. Essay About Who Am? 1992. Travel and the British Literary Imagination of the Twenties and Thirties.

In: Michael Kowalewski, ed. Temperamental Journeys: Essays on the Modern Literature of Travel . Athens: The University of Georgia Press. 71-92. Ghose, Indira. 1998. Women Travellers in fall cultural collision, Colonial India: The Power of the Female Gaze . About? Oxford: Oxford UP. Postcolonial-deconstructionist and feminist study on India. Ghose's study aims at uncovering ideologies. Shows women as doubly colonised. Women's subversive refusal of the colonial discourse, female quest for identity. Questions of ethnic difference and multi-culturalism.

Contemplation of the Other serves self-definition (confirmation of the Self through reduction of the Other). The rational subject of European Enlightenment as the standard of evaluation. Textual sources: 19th-century travel literature of British women depicting different images of Indian women. The female perspective of women travellers is influenced by aspects of race, class and gender. They seem to have taken over male positions of epistemological superiority, of voyeurs or spies. This is also evident in the description of spend pocket wisely essay, landscape following the aesthetic conventions of the picturesque. Henderson, Heather. Essay I? 1992. The Travel Writer and plant thesis, the Text: My Giant Goes with Me Wherever I Go. In: Michael Kowalewski, ed. Temperamental Journeys: Essays on the Modern Literature of Travel . Athens: The University of Georgia Press.

230-240. Henderson demonstrates the intertextuality of travel literature on the basis of several examples. Literary and essay about who am i, cultural influences determined the perception and style of travel writers: stereotypes, prejudices, historical and literary knowledge, former travel reports. Impossibility of thermography research papers, a direct access to the reality of the travelled country. Essay? Subjective experiences of the traveller as another element of mediating reality. Hindley, Geoffrey. 1983. Tourists, Travellers, and Pilgrims . London: Hutchinson. Hunter, Jefferson. 1982. Edwardian Fiction . Cambridge, Ma.

London: Harvard UP. Study on in the by baldwin the Edwardian novel . Essay About I? Discusses predominantly male authors (only Woolf and Vita Sackville West are mentioned). Key words: Formal aspects (continuity and of confederation vs constitution, change). Depiction of social problems. Best-sellers (do not account for the particular character of the epoch). Travel literature as a means of escaping into the exotic. Imperialism. Debate on identity. The English country mansion as a topos. Criticism: Tendency towards superficial judgements. Ingemanson, Brigitta Maria.

1993. Who Am I? Under Cover: The Paradox of Victorian Women's Travel Costume. In: Bonnie Frederick Susan H. McLeod, eds. Women and the Journey: The Female Travel Experience . Pullman, Washington: Washington State UP. 5-24. Manifest Destiny Persuasive Essay? The essay shows how women travellers of the Victorian and about i, Edwardian period endeavoured to dress and in the village essay by baldwin, act according to conventional norms of femininity. This caused considerable difficulties for women: mountaineering with crinoline and Alpenstock . Dressing according to male dress codes was perceived as a loss of identity by most women up to the 20th century. Jost, Herbert. About Who Am? 1989.

Selbst-Verwirklichung und Seelensuche: Zur Bedeutung des Reiseberichts im Zeitalter des Massentourismus. In: Peter J. Brenner, ed. Der Reisebericht: Die Entwicklung einer Gattung in der deutschen Literatur . Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp. Property Plant? 490-507. Who Am? Kohl, Stephan. 1990.

Travel Literature and the Art of Self-Invention. In: Rüdiger Ahrens, ed. Anglistentag 1989 Würzburg: Proceedings . Tübingen: Niemeyer. Korte, Barbara. How To Spend Money Wisely? 1996. Der englische Reisebericht: Von der Pilgerfahrt bis zur Postmoderne . Darmstadt: WBG. Study on the history of essay about i, travel literature in England; attempts a systematic description of the genre. Village Essay By Baldwin? Key words: genre hybridity and openness, relation of fact and fiction, narrative components, subject-object relation. Marginally, Korte also considers travel literature by women authors. Distinguishes different motivations for travelling and different forms of travel reports: pilgrimage (spiritual salvation), voyages of discovery (trade routes, map-making, exotic merchandise, conquest), expedition (scientific and nautical discoveries), Grand tour (identity formation, sights, sexual adventures), Home tour (getting to know one's own country, questions of essay about i, national identity and nationalism), subjectivity, experimental forms of travel literature in the 1930s (personal experience, civilisation critique), development of tourism (relaxation, security, comfort, sights), intertextual play with travel reports in postmodernism. Kowalewski, Michael, ed.

1992. Temperamental Journeys: Essays on the Modern Literature of thermography research papers, Travel . About Who Am? Athens: The University of Georgia Press. The contributions to this essay collection are quite heterogeneous with respect to manifest essay content and quality, they are separately listed and annotated under the names of the respective authors (see Rober Foulke, Heather Henderson, Mary Morris). The following aspects are mentioned in the editor's foreword: emphasis of the newly awakened interest in travel literature; hybridity of the genre (mixture of autobiography, journalism, travel guide, confessional literature, and novel); curiosity and desire for independence as travel motivations; subjectivity of travel impressions. Lawrence, Karen L. 1994. Penelope Voyages: Women and Travel in the British Literary Tradition . Cornell: Cornell UP. Semiotic-psychoanalytic approach to interpreting travel literature and novels calling upon about who am i mythical constructions.

Lawrence asks the hypothetical question: What happens if Penelope no longer waits for Odysseus but begins to travel herself? Thesis: it is the traditional exclusion of women from travelling that brings about the male travel plot. Lawrence argues on articles the basis of psychoanalytic theorems: Freud's association of the uncanny with the stranger and the mother suggests the male traveller's ambivalent search for the maternal/original safety. Travelling enabled women to penetrate new spaces, experiencing the tension between the familiar and about, the strange. The flexibility of the genre of essay vs constitution, travel literature opened up opportunities for women, even the process of writing became a kind of travel adventure, a breaking away from male (literary) conventions. Lawrence illustrates that the signifier 'travel' can denote various signifieds. Postulates differences between male and female conventions of writing and behaviour, provides evidence from a number of texts (Mary Kingsley and Sarah Lee among others). Lobsien, Eckhard. 1981. Landschaft in Texten: Zur Geschichte und Phänomenologie der literarischen Beschreibung . Stuttgart: Metzler.

Lutwack, Leonard. 1984. The Role of Place in Literature . New York: Syracuse UP. MacCannell, Dean. 1976. About Who Am? [1999] The Tourist: A New Theory of the Leisure Class . New York: Schocken Books. Structuralist-semiotic study on tourism. Destiny? MacCannell sees the i, tourist as a prototype of the modern human being (hunger for adventure, need for leisure time, superficiality). Sights are signifiers to which different signifieds can be assigned; they acquire a representative function. Authenticity of how to pocket wisely essay, sights is produced and serially reproduced in the souvenir.

Process of semantisation: sacrilization, framing and elevation, mechanical reproduction. Wide spectrum of essay about who am i, tourist attractions: museums, parks, historical buildings, residential areas (e.g. Beverley Hills), shipyards, slums, garbage dumps (examples of the negative sides of thermography papers, tourism), ways of transport (tunnels, canals, bridges), business quarters, markets, population groups (e.g. Amish people). Melchett, Sonia 1991. Passionate Quests: Five Modern Women Travellers . Essay Who Am? London. Heinemann. Mersmann, Arndt. 2000. Novel Topographies: A Spatial Reading of Sybil. Wisely? In: Joachim Frenk, ed.

Spatial Change in about who am, English Literature . Trier: Wissenschaftlicher Verlag Trier. Disraeli's novel serves as an example for essay vs constitution, illustrating the new experiences of space created by the possibility of railroad travelling (the account is based on Schivelbusch 1977, see below). Key words: mobility, speed, transportation of goods, communication, overcoming of distances, changes of landscape, gaining knowledge of different social areas. Mills, Sara. Essay About Who Am? 1991. Discourses of things fall apart cultural collision essay, Difference: An Analysis of Women's Travel Writing and Colonialism . London: Routledge. One of the first studies focusing on postcolonial issues from a feminist perspective (see also Ghose 1998). Extensive methodological reflections on the discourse-theoretical approach (Foucault). Mills emphasises that travelling women should - just as men - be viewed in the context of an i, imperialist ideology, yet they deal with it differently ( double-voiced discourse ). Mills provides a research report on travel literature and remarks on the previous neglect of female travellers. There are three case studies: Mary Kingsley, Alexandra David-Neel, Nina Mazuchelli. Morris, Mary.

1992. Women and Journeys: Inner and Outer. In: Michael Kowalewski, ed. Temperamental Journeys: Essays on the Modern Literature of Travel . Athens: The University of Georgia Press. Research? 25-32. Morris characterises female travelling and travel writing from essay about i, her own perspective. Two types of travel plots are possible for essay articles of confederation vs constitution, women authors: either waiting for essay who am, the stranger at home or searching for thermography, the strange abroad. Morris discusses women's inclination to enter a dialogic relationship with the foreign country, to bring in their own perception.

Women prefer travelling in essay i, company, they are often in need of male protection. On the whole the study draws a somewhat simplistic picture of travelling women. Spend Money? Pelz, Annegret. 1993. Reisen durch die eigene Fremde: Reiseliteratur von Frauen als autobiographische Schriften . Köln: Böhlau. Pfister, Manfred. 1993.

Intertextuelles Reisen, oder: Der Reisebericht als Intertext. In: Herbert Foltinek, Wolfgang Riehle Waldemar Zacharasiewicz, eds. Tales and essay about who am i, 'their telling difference': Zur Theorie und Geschichte der Narrativik . Manifest Destiny Persuasive Essay? Festschrift Franz K. Stanzel. Heidelberg: Winter. The article refutes the myth of authenticity and shows the manifold intertextual networks of travel literature. Typology of essay about who am, intertextuality in manifest destiny, travel literature. Repressed and negated intertextuality (blurring of intertextual tracks; search for new, non-verbalised spaces), compiled intertextuality (excerpting travel guides and reports), homage paying intertextuality (visiting cult-places and quoting authorities), dialogic function of intertextuality (discussion of former travel traditions). Pfister, Manfred Indira Ghose. 1996. About Who Am? Still Going Strong: The Loneliness of the Long Distance Traveller in Modern Travel Writing.

Journal for the Study of British Culture 3.2: 149-163. Pratt, Marie Louise. 1992. Imperial Eyes: Travel Writing and Transculturation . Papers? London: Routledge. Postcolonial approach. Deals with travel literature on South America and Africa 1750-1980. Shows different types of relations between two cultures: co-presence ( contact zone ), dominance of the conqueror's perspective ( colonial frontier ), seemingly innocent stance of the essay about who am i, conqueror ( anti-conquest ), assimilation of the conquered ( autoethnographic ). An imperialistic attitude of conquest can also be expressed within Europe, e.g. through arrogance towards the stranger or through mental appropriation.

Pratt includes rhetorical devices of imperialistic tendencies in travel literature: epithets and similes referring to the traveller's own country, aesthetisation of landscape according to native categories, elevated position with panoramic view, self-revaluation caused by a joy for discovery, exploiting the knowledge of the native guide. Quadflieg, Helga. 2000. Kleine Fluchten: Isabella Bird und ihre Reisen nach Amerika. In: Querelles: Jahrbuch für Frauenforschung 2000. (Vol.

5: Grenzgängerinnen des moralischen Geschlechts ). Stuttgart: Metzler. 110-123. A case study of some of Isabella Bird's travel writings. Illustrates the double bind of the female traveller in the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century: tension between conventionality and freedom, affirmation and subversion of existing norms (see also Forster 1990: Frederick, ed. 1991). Robinson, Jane.

1990. Wayward Women: A Guide to Women Travellers . Research Papers? Oxford: Oxford UP. A bibliography of women's travel writing listing approx. 400 authors. Entries contain brief biographical sketches, key words and synopses. Robinson provides bibliographical access to a comprehensive corpus of texts, and thereby enables further research on female travel literature.

Russel, Mary. [1986] 1996. The Blessings of a Good Thick Skirt: Women Travellers and Their World. London: Flamingo. Said, Edward. 1983. Orientalism . New York: Random House. Schabert, Ina. 1997. Reisebücher: Die Frau in der Fremde.

In: Ina Schabert. About? Englische Literaturgeschichte aus der Sicht der Geschlechterforschung . Stuttgart: Kröner. Fall Essay? 589-597. Schäffter, Ortfried, ed. 1991. Das Fremde: Erfahrungsmöglichkeiten zwischen Faszination und Bedrohung . Opladen: Westdeutscher Verlag. Schaff, Barbara. 1999. Gendered Cities: Italienische Städte im Blick britischer Reisender. In: Andreas Mahler, ed. Allegorie, Mimesis, Imagination . Heidelberg: Winter.

173-196. Schaff discusses the essay who am, textuality of cities and their literary representation with respect to the different perspectives of male and female authors/characters. Examples: phallic conception of Florence as cultural space of masculinity (Lawrence), Venice as art-trophy (Ruskin) or as embodiment of the archetypal mother (Byron); Rome as unapproachable (for Dorothea in Middlemarch ), or as a symbol of triumphant conquest (Felicia Hemans). Schivelbusch, Wolfgang. 1977. Destiny Persuasive Essay? Geschichte der Eisenbahnreise. Zur Industrialisierung von Raum und Zeit im 19. Essay Who Am I? Jahrhundert. Frankfurt/M: Fischer.

Authoritative study on travelling by plant thesis railroad. Focuses on: development of railway traffic in England, on the continent and in North America; the railroad's peculiarities as a means of public transport and merchandise transportation; the change of the experience of space and time; economic, social and cultural aspects; Schivelbusch presents a (somewhat one-sided) critique of i, civilisation (alienation from nature). Schülting, Sabine. 1997. Wilde Frauen, Femde Welten: Kolonisierungsgeschichten aus Amerika . Manifest? Reinbek: Rowohlt. Who Am I? Stannard, Martin. 1982. In The Village By Baldwin? Debunking the about i, Jungle: The Context of plant, Evelyn Waugh's Travel Books 1930-9. Prose Studies 5.1 (Special Issue The Art of Travel: Essays on Travel Writing ): 105-126. Stevenson, Catherine Barnes. 1982.

Victorian Women Travel Writers in Africa . About? Boston: Twayne. Schwarze, Hans-Wilhelm. 1982. Ereignisse, Zeit und Raum, Sprechsituationen in narrativen Texten. In: Hans-Werner Ludwig, ed. Arbeitsbuch Romananalyse: Eine Einführung . Things Collision Essay? Tübingen: Narr.

145-188. [esp. 170-174] Tinling, Marion. 1989. Woman into the Unknown: A Sourcebook on Women Explorers and Travelers . New York: Greenwood Press. Veit, Karin. Essay About? 1997. Journey and Gender - Diversity of Travel Writing. In: Susanne Fender, ed. Feminist Contributions to the Literary Canon: Setting Standards of Taste . Leviston, N.Y.: Edwin Mellen Press. Essay Vs Constitution? 107-138.

Veit examines gender-specific aspects of travelling and travel writing. Cites examples of essay who am, women writers blurring the gender boundaries, i.e. Essay Articles Vs Constitution? exemplary travel texts depicting women who break away from their conventional female role. Who Am? Examples of gender-specific discourses: the journey of Ella Maillart and Peter Fleming from Peking through the Chinese province Sianking to property plant thesis Cashmere is told in two different texts (1936) representing a female and a male version; further examples are the two journeys to Russia undertaken by Susan Richards and Christopher Hope at the same time (1990). Veit's analysis confirms gender stereotypes, but also illustrates the double-voiced discourse of female travellers in their writings. Würzbach, Natascha. 2001. Erzählter Raum: fiktionaler Baustein, kultureller Sinnträger, Ausdruck der Geschlechterordnung. In: Jörg Helbig, ed. Erzählen und Erzähltheorie im 20.

Jahrhundert: Festschrift für Wilhelm Füger . Heidelberg: Winter. 105-129. Article covers the state of research on essay about who am i the phenomenon of research papers, literary space. Approaches: narratology, phenomenology, psychoanalysis, social geography, structuralism, semiotics of culture, deconstruction, cultural history, and gender studies. Introduces categories of conceptions and typologies of space. Essay? Points of special consideration: semantization of space, reference to the subject, the body, movement in space and its function as a reader's guide. Provides literary examples. Essay collection on the socio-cultural context of modernism. Focuses on literature and art in their relation to society.

Considers a multitude of property and equipment thesis, aspects: mass culture, literary criticism, poetry, the novel (also: popular fiction), drama, forms of essay about, publication, radio, cinema, popular music and fine arts. Felski, Rita. Property Plant Thesis? 1995. The Gender of Modernity . Cambridge, Ma.: Harvard UP. Study on gender and modernity, proceeding from cultural theory and cultural history. Considers different discourses: philosophy, history, natural sciences, psychology, sexology, social history, conditions of publication.

Focus on essay who am i one author: Marie Corelli. Harris, Jose. 1994. Private Lives and Public Spirit: Britain 1870-1914 . Harmondsworth: Penguin. Study proceeding from social history. Key words: demography, family, property, profession, religion, society and state, social theories. Keating, Peter. Essay Vs Constitution? 1989.

The Haunted Study: A Social History of the English Novel 1875-1914 . London: Secker Warburg. Kern, Stephen. 1983. The Culture of Time and Space, 1880-1918 . Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard UP. Essay About Who Am? Lewis, Jane, Ed. 1986. Labour and Love: Women's Experience of Home and Family, 1850-1940 . Oxford: Blackwell. Study on women's social history between 1850 and 1940.

Deals with the usual topics: childhood, marriage, motherhood, class differences. Lucas, John. 1997. The Radical Twenties. Aspects of Writing, Politics and Culture. Nottingham: Five Leaves.

Study on the 1920s as a time of radical change, proceeding from cultural theory. Points out of confederation vs constitution several aspects of society and discusses them in terms of their radicality: Effects of World War I on the public consciousness, socialism, women question, sexual liberation, drugs, music culture (jazz as decadent), dance (dance orgies, modern dance), mass culture (journals). Detailed discussion of essay about who am i, novels (also by female authors). McFarlane, Barbara. 1984.

Homes for Heroines. Housing in the Twenties. In: Making Space. Women and the Man-Made Environment . London: Pluto Press. 26-36. Social history: women-centred housing. Mowat, John Loch. Thermography Research? 1955. Britain Between the Wars 1918-1940 . London: Methuen. Nicholls, Peter. 1995.

Modernisms. A Literary Guide . Who Am? London: Macmillan. Study on the time between the two World Wars: the 'Roaring Twenties' and the social consciousness in pocket money, the 1930s (socialism, marxism, Spanish civil war, pacifism). Further key words: Fashion (the androgynous style of the flapper), architecture and mass media. Oldfield, Sybil, ed. 1994. This Working-Day World: Women's Lives and Culture(s) in Britain 1914-1945. London: Taylor Francis. Essay collection on social history.

Centred on women's history, introduces several women's groups. Key words: Divorce laws, motherhood. Women's rights to work between the wars, elementary school teachers. Suffragettes. Pacifist movement. Fascism. Essay About Who Am I? Female artists. Winter, J.M. 1985. The Great War and the British People . Basingstoke London: Macmillan.

Demographic study on World War I, proceeding from social history. Key words: war and loss, people's health, standards of living, efforts to increase birthrates, female surplus. Criticism: the study hardly considers women's situations and perspectives. Study on female experience of the two World Wars. Special focus: women and profession.

Restraining of women from working in the time between the wars. Study provides detailed historical evidence: thoroughly investigated. Byles, Joan Montgomery. Stranger Village A 1953 Essay? 1985. Women's Experience of about, World War I: Suffragists, Pacifists and Poets. Women's Studies International Forum 8.5: 473-487. Article on the suffrage movement in the context of World War I. Key words: division - militarist suffragettes vs. pacifist suffragettes. Example: conflict between Emmeline and Sylvia Pankhurst. Textual material: war poetry by women. Dyhouse, Carol.

1989. Feminism and the Family in England 1880-1939 . London: Blackwell. Study on family and manifest destiny, marriage from a women-centred perspective. Textual material: basically (auto)biography, but also some novels. Felski, Rita. Who Am I? 1995. The Gender of Modernity . Cambridge, Ma.: Harvard UP.

Study on gender and modernity, proceeding from cultural theory and plant and equipment thesis, cultural history. Considers different discourses: philosophy, history, natural sciences, psychology, sexology, social history, conditions of publication. Focus on essay who am one author: Marie Corelli. How To Spend Essay? Gardner, Viv Susan Rutherford, eds. 1992.

The New Woman And Her Sisters: Feminism And Theatre 1850-1914 . Hemel Hempstead: Harvester Wheatsheaf. Gardiner, Juliet, ed. 1993. Women's Voices 1880-1918: The New Woman. London: Collins Brown. Essay collection on literary representations of the about, New Woman. Analysis is not limited to the genre of the spend essay, New Woman novel , covers a wide range of textual examples: poetry, drama, travel literature, letters and essay i, other cultural-historical documents. Deals with established and less established writers. Horn, Pamela.

1995. Women in the 1920s . Stroud: Alan Sutton Publishing. Lewis, Jane, ed. 1986. Labour and Love: Women's Experience of Home and Family, 1850-1940 . Property Plant And Equipment? Oxford: Blackwell. Essay collection on women's social history between 1850 and 1940. Deals with the usual topics: childhood, marriage, motherhood, class differences. McFarlane, Barbara. 1984. Homes for Heroines.

Housing in the Twenties. In: Making Space. Women and the Man-Made Environment . London: Pluto Press. 26-36. Social history: women-centred housing. Oldfield, Sybil, ed. 1994. This Working-Day World: Women's Lives and Culture(s) in Britain 1914-1945. London: Taylor Francis. Essay collection on social history.

Centred on women's history, introduces several women's groups. Key words: Divorce laws, motherhood. Women's rights to work between the wars, elementary school teachers. Suffragettes. Pacifist movement. Fascism. Essay Who Am I? Female artists. Ouditt, Sharon. 1994. Fighting Forces, Writing Women: Identity and property and equipment, Ideology in the First World War . London New York: Routledge.

Study on women and World War I. Starts out focusing on essay about who am a description of women at work (medical duty, agricultural work, work in munitions factories). Research Papers? Continues to who am i approach the essay of confederation, topic by looking at different texts: magazines, autobiographies and novels (partly popular literature). Literature (fictional and non-fictional) is granted a major role in this context. Areas of about, discussion: images of women: stereotypical Red Cross Nurse (active role of hero, yet female) - the ordinary housewife at the home front as angel in the house in war literature. Critical reflection on the war and pocket wisely essay, women's roles in postwar fiction.

Image of the mother as a preserver of life. Feminist pacifism. The shock experience of war and the temporary allocation of roles as a danger to identity. Discussion of the influence of World War I on society and literature as part of modernism. Bataille, Georges. 1994. Die Erotik , ed. G. Bergfleth. München.

Benthien, Claudia. 1999. Haut: Literaturgeschichte, Körperbilder, Grenzdiskurse . Reinbek b. Hamburg: Rowohlt. Benthien, Claudia Irmela Marei Krüger-Fürhoff, eds. 1999. Über Grenzen: Limitation und Transgression in Literatur und Ästhetik . Stuttgart, Weimar: Metzler. Bordo, Susan.

1993. Unbearable Weight: Feminism, Western Culture, and the Body . About Who Am? Berkeley, Los Angeles, London: University of California Press. Stranger In The Village By Baldwin? Breger, Claudia Tobias Döring, eds. 1998. Figuren des/der Dritten: Erkundungen kultureller Zwischenräume . Amsterdam, Atlanta: Rodopi. Butler, Judith. 1990. Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity.

New York, London: Routledge. Essay About? de Lauretis, Teresa. 1990. Eccentric Subjects: Feminist Theory and Historical Consciousness. Feminist Studies 16.1: 115-150. Dollimore, Jonathan. 1992. The Dominant and the Deviant: A Violent Dialectic. In:ed. How To Wisely? Wayne R. Dynes Stephen Donaldson, eds. Homosexual Themes in about i, Literary Studies . New York: Garland. 87-100.

Douglas, Mary. [1966] 1984. Pocket Wisely Essay? Purity and essay who am i, Danger: An Analysis of the Concepts of Pollution and Taboo . Essay Vs Constitution? London, etc.: Ark. Doyle, Laura. 1994. Bordering on the Body: The Radical Matrix of Modern Fiction and Culture . New York, Oxford: Oxford UP. Durkheim, Emile. [1893] 1996. Über soziale Arbeitsteilung. Studie über die Organisation höherer Gesellschaften. Frankfurt/M.

Dreitzel, H.P. 1972. Die gesellschaftlichen Leiden und das Leiden an der Gesellschaft: Vorstudien zu einer Pathologie des Rollenverhaltens . Stuttgart: Ferdinand Enke. Febvre, Lucien. 1990. Essay Who Am I? 'Frontière - Wort und Bedeutung. In: Lucien Febvre. Das Gewissen des Historikers . Frankfurt/M. 27-36. Ferguson, Russell, Martha Gever, Trinh T. Minh-ha Cornel West, eds. 1990.

Out There: Marginalization and Contemporary Cultures. New York: The New Museum of Contemporary Art Cambridge/Mass., London: The MIT Press. Finke, Laurie. 1986. The Rhetoric of Marginality: Why I Do Feminist Theory.

Tulsa Studies in Women's Literature 5.2: 251-72. Foucault, Michel. [1963] 1988. Zum Begriff der Übertretung. Thermography Research Papers? In: Michel Foucault. Schriften zur Literatur . Frankfurt/M.: Fischer. 69-89. Freud, Sigmund. [1919] 1994. Das Unheimliche. In: Sigmund Freud.

Studienausgabe IV, Psychologische Schriften, ed. Alexander Mitscherlich et al. Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp. 241-274. Gregg, John. 1994. Maurice Blanchot and essay about i, the Literature of Transgression. Princeton/New Jersey: Princeton UP. Research Papers? Hohnsträter, Dirk.

1999. Im Zwischenraum. Ein Lob des Grenzgängers. In: Claudia Benthien Irmela Marei Krüger-Fürhoff, eds. 1999. Über Grenzen: Limitation und Transgression in Literatur und Ästhetik . Stuttgart, Weimar: Metzler. 231-244. Jervis, John. About Who Am I? 1999.

Transgressing the Modern: Explorations in the Western Experience of Otherness . Oxford: Blackwell. Koschorke, Albrecht. 1990. Die Geschichte des Horizonts: Grenze und Grenzüberschreitung in literarischen Landschaftsbildern . Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp. Kristeva, Julia.

1980. Powers of Horror. An Essay on Abjection . New York, London: Routledge. Sargisson, Lucy. 2000. Utopian Bodies and the Politics of Transgression. London, etc.: Routledge. Shildrick, Margrit, Janet Price.

1999. Openings on manifest destiny persuasive the Body: A Critical Introduction. In: Janet Price Margrit Shildrick, eds. Feminist Theory and the Body: A Reader . New York: Routledge. 1-14. Shildrick, Margrit. 1997. Leaky Bodies and Boundaries. Feminism, Postmodernism and (Bio)Ethics . London, New York: Routledge.

Showalter, Elaine. 1985. Essay About Who Am I? Feminist Criticism in the Wilderness. In: Elaine Showalter, ed. The New Feminist Criticism: Essays on Women, Literature and Theory . London: Virago, 243-270.

Stallybrass, Peter Allan White, eds. 1986. The Politics and Poetics of Transgression . London: Methuen. Stevens, Hugh. 2000. Introduction: Modernism and its Margins.

In: Hugh Stevens Caroline Howlett, eds. Essay Articles? Modernist Sexualities . Manchester, New York: Manchester University Press, 1-12. Turner, Victor. 1967. Betwixt and Between: The Liminal Period in Rites de Passage . In: Victor Turner.

The Forest of Symbols . New York: Cornell UP. Van Gennep, Arnold. [1908] 1960. The Rites of Passage , trans. M.B. Vizedom, G.L. Caffee. Essay? Chicago: U of Chicago P. Weigel, Sigrid. 1990.

Rekonstruktion und Relektüre: Die Arbeit von Frauen in der Literaturwissenschaft als Teil weiblicher Kulturkritik. In: Sigrid Weigel. Topographien der Geschlechter: Kulturgeschichtliche Studien zur Literatur . Reinbek b. Hamburg: Rowohlt. 252-263. Butler, Judith.

1993. Bodies that Matter: On the Discursive Limits of 'Sex' . New York London: Routledge. Papers? Diprose, Ros. 1994. The Bodies of Women: Ethics, Embodiment and Sexual Difference. London: Routledge. Essay About I? Foucault, Michel. 1992. Sexualität und Wahrheit 1: Der Wille zum Wissen.

6th ed. Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp. Foucault, Michel. 1994. Überwachen und Strafen: Die Geburt des Gefängnisses . Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp. Foucault, Michel. 1998. Über Hermaphrodismus: Der Fall Barbin , ed. Wolfgang Schäffner Joseph Vogl. Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp.

Grosz, Elizabeth. 1994. Volatile Bodies: Toward a Corporeal Feminism. Bloomington, Indianapolis: Indiana UP. Haraway, Donna. 1991. The Promises of Monsters: A Regenerative Politics for Inappropriate/d Others. Property Plant Thesis? In: L. Grossberg, C. Nelson, P. Treichler, eds. Cultural Studies. London: Routledge. Herdt, Gilbert, ed.

1994. Third Sex, Third Gender: Beyond Sexual Dimorphism in essay, Culture and History . New York: Zone Books. Horner, Avril Angela Keane. 2000. Body Matters: Feminism, Textuality, Corporeality. Manchester, New York: Manchester UP. Hurley, Kelly. 1996. The Gothic Body: Sexuality, Materialism, and Degeneration of the Fin de Siècle. Cambridge: Cambridge UP.

Jacobus, Mary, Evelyn Fox Keller Sally Shuttleworth, eds. 1990. Body/Politics: Women and the Discourses of Science. New York London: Routledge. Laqueur, Thomas. Apart Essay? 1992. Making Sex: Body and about who am, Gender from the Greeks to Freud . Cultural? Cambridge/Mass., London: Harvard UP. Price, Janet Margrit Shildrick, eds. 1999. Feminist Theory and about who am, the Body: A Reader . New York: Routledge.

Sargisson, Lucy. Things Fall Apart Cultural Collision? 2000. Utopian Bodies and the Politics of Transgression. London, etc.: Routledge. About Who Am? Shildrick, Margrit. 1997. Leaky Bodies and Boundaries: Feminism, Postmodernism, and (Bio)Ethics . London: Routledge.

Terry, Jennifer Jacqueline Urla, eds. 1995. Deviant Bodies . Bloomington: Indiana UP. Brooks, J.A. 1982. Stranger In The A 1953 By Baldwin? Ghosts of essay about, London: The East End, City, and North. Norwich: Jarrold. Dinzelbacher, Peter, ed.

1993. Europäische Mentalitätsgeschichte: Hauptthemen in Einzeldarstellungen . Stuttgart: Kröner. Essay collection on different experiences of space from fall essay, antiquity up to the present. Approach: history of mentality. Key words: experience of space as social, geographic, and cultural (fields of i, interest: religion, architecture etc.). Space and aspects of property, conquering and opening up (of new rooms). I? Cyberspace. Foucault, Michel. Things Fall Cultural Collision Essay? 1992.

Andere Räume. In: Karlheinz Bark et al., eds. Aisthesis: Wahrnehmung heute oder Perspektiven einer anderen Ästhetik . Reclam: Leipzig. 34-46. Article on space and otherness. Difference between normal and deviant spaces. Key words: heterotopias (hospitals, psychiatric clinics, prisons. ); spatial symbolism and history of mentality. Frenk, Joachim, ed. 2000.

Spatial Change in English Literature . Who Am I? Trier: Wissenschaftlicher Verlag Trier. Aufsatzsammlung. Mentalitätsgeschichtlich bedingter Wandel von Raumvorstellungen in der englischen Literaturgeschichte. Besonderes Interesse der Postmoderne am Raum (Sozialgeographie, Kolonialismus, Datenflüsse um den Erdball, Cyberspace.) Fryer, Judith. 1984.

Women and Space. The Flowering of Desire. Persuasive? In: Prospects: An Annual of American Cultural Studies . 187-230. Essay Who Am? Study on gendered concepts of space in destiny persuasive, architecture, housing and narrative fiction from the turn of the century up to the 1930s based on social geography. Essay About I? Contains writings on architecture and feminist reform efforts. Grosz, Elizabeth. 1995. Space, Time and Perversion. Essays on the Politics of Bodies . London: Routledge. Manifest Destiny Persuasive Essay? (esp.

103-124) Hauser, Susanne. 1990. Der Blick auf die Stadt: Semiotische Untersuchungen zur literarischen Wahrnehmung bis 1910 . Berlin: Dietrich Reimer. Semiotic studies on literary perceptions of urban spaces. Key words: perception of who am i, space in general. Basic patterns of the essay of confederation vs constitution, experience of city space (multi-stimulation, processes of selection. ). Culturally variable navigation of perception (closely connected with aspects of value judgements).

Higonnet, Margaret R. Joan Templeton, eds. 1994. Reconfigured Spheres: Feminist Explorations of Literary Space . Amherst: University of Mass. Press. Essay collection. Provides different perspectives on the feminist relevance of who am, space: Historical, multi-cultural, metaphorical. Key words: Symbolic representative functions of space in texts.

Marginalisation, transgression of boundaries, role of clothing, ghettoisation of feminist literary criticism. Hubrath, Margarete, ed. 2001. Geschlechterräume: Konstruktionen von gender in Geschichte, Literatur und Alltag . Köln: Böhlau. Essay Of Confederation Vs Constitution? Kern, Stephen. 1983. The Culture of Time and Space 1880 1918 . Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard UP. Study on essay about who am i modernist concepts of time and space. Documents historical changes of village a 1953 essay, spatial concepts in essay about i, modernity.

Key words: Subjectivity, categorisation according to different ways of perception (visual, acoustic, tactual etc.) Microscopic space. Art (cubism, impressionism) and sculpture. Film (rapid change of pictures and scenes). Heterogeneous space. Plurality of stance, multi-perspectivity. Changes of attitude. Articles Vs Constitution? Space as designable matter (magnetic fields, architecture, artificial lighting). Expansion and reduction of geographical space (expeditions, public and private transport, aviation). Essay I? Urban spaces. Research Papers? Psychoanalysis (mental rooms of the interior, stream of consciousness). Kursbuch Stadt.

Stadtleben und Stadtkultur an der Jahrtausendwende. 1999 . Redaktion Stefan Bollmann. Stuttgart: DVA. Läpple, Dieter. 1991. Gesellschaftszentriertes Raumkonzept: Zur Überwindung von physikalisch-mathematischen Raumauffassungen in der Gesellschaftsanalyse. In: Martin Wentz, ed. Stadt-Räume . About? Frankfurt/M.: Campus.

35-46. Theoretical essay on different natures of space: Human-centred concepts of how to pocket money wisely, space vs. scientific concepts of who am, space. Lefèbvre, Henri. 1972. Die Revolution der Städte. München: List. McFarlane, Barbara. 1984. Stranger A 1953 By Baldwin? Homes for Heroines. Housing in the Twenties. In: Making Space.

Women and the Man-Made Environment . London: Pluto Press. 26-36. Social history: women-centred housing. Nowel, Ingrid. About? 1998. London: Biographie einer Weltstadt. Architektur und Kunst, Geschichte und Literatur. Köln: Dumont. Articles Of Confederation? Shaffer, Elinor S., ed.

1996. Spaces: Cities, Gardens and Wilderness . Cambridge: Cambridge UP. Sharpe, William 1986. Feminizing the Urban World. Urban Resources 3.2: 55-57. Schivelbusch, Wolfgang. 1979.

Geschichte der Eisenbahnreise. About? Zur Industrialisierung von Raum und Zeit im 19. Jahrhundert . Frankfurt/M.: Ullstein. Historical study on space and time in the 19th century related to the development of the railway as a means of travel and transport. Its influence on the perception of space and things fall apart cultural, time. (Germany, England, USA). Sennett, Richard. 1994. Flesh and Stone: The Body and the City in Western Civilization . New York London: W.W.

Norton. Study on space and bodily experience. Essay About? Key words: sensory perception, movements, analogies of city and body, allocation of meaning to certain areas (public, private etc.), historical change of cities, interior rooms, increasing dimension of the private in interior rooms. Weigel, Sigrid. 1983. Topographien der Geschlechter: Kulturgeschichtliche Studien zur Literatur . Reinbek: Rowohlt.

Study on gender topographies and how to pocket wisely, literature. Cultural-historical approach. Considers space: female allegorization of the city. Who Am I? Weinreb, Ben Christopher Hibbert. Spend Pocket Money Essay? 1983. The London Encyclopaedia. London: Macmillan. Collection of essays, proceeding from cultural theory. Social space is defined by rules of behaviour, moral concepts, interests, objectives and class.

It is therefore relevant for about, questions of gender identity. Key words: setting and transgression of research, boundaries; domains of power; imaginary space in literature and utopia. Bell, David Gill Valentine, eds. 1995. Mapping Desire: Geographies and about who am i, Sexuality . Thermography? London: Routledge.

Collection of essays, proceeding from social geography. Key words: connection of space and different facets of identity formation (personal, professional and sexual). Essay About Who Am I? Questions of the body. Urban spaces. Power relations connected with space. Benko, Georges Ulf Stohmeyer, eds. 1997. Space and Social Theory: Interpreting Modernity and Postmodernity . Oxford. Blackwell.

Collection of essays. Approach: deconstructivist social geography - social space as a linguistic construct to be newly developed over stranger in the village and over by essay about who am i the individual. Key words: Blurring of boundaries between mental and empirical spaces; spatial symbolism (described from a constructivist background and not from the usual arguments of social history or history of mentality). Duncan, Nancy, ed. Manifest? 1996.

Bodyspace: Destabilizing Geographies of Gender and Sexuality. London: Routledge. Essay collection on about space, gender and sexuality. Approach: social geography. Key words: territories. Boundaries: blurring of boundaries, transgression of boundaries. Essay? Domains of power concerning questions of gender identity and deviation from gender norms.

Duncan, Nancy. 1996. Renegotiating Gender and Sexuality in Public and Private Spaces. Who Am I? In: Nancy Duncan, ed. Bodyspace: Destabilizing Geographies of Gender and how to spend pocket essay, Sexuality. London: Routledge. 127-145. Article on spaces of home and family.

Key words: homosexuality (male and female); prostitution. MacDowell, Linda. 1996. Spatializing Feminism. Geographic Perspectives. In: Nancy Duncan, ed.

Bodyspace: Destabilizing Geographies of Gender and Sexuality. London: Routledge. 28-44. Essay Who Am? Article on a feminism and space. Approach: deconstructivist social geography. Key words: socially conditioned and designed space, processes of placement, boundaries, centres and margins, changes of things fall apart cultural, place and transgression of boundaries, space and identity. Reference to gender relations. Natter, Wolfgang John Paul Jones III. 1997.

Identity, Space, and Other Uncertainties. In: Georges Benko Ulf Stohmeyer, eds. Space and Social Theory: Interpreting Modernity and Postmodernity . Who Am I? Oxford. Blackwell. 141-161.

Article on the volatile nature of space and identity. Approach. Deconstructivist social geography. Conception of space adapted from the conception of subject. Constructivity and contingency of discursive concepts as means of property and equipment thesis, social change. Pfeil, Elisabeth. About? 1972.

Großstadtforschung: Entwicklung und gegenwärtiger Stand. Hannover: Jänecke. Thesis? Rose, Gillian. Essay About Who Am? 1996. Masculine Dwelling, Masculine Theory and Feminist Masquerade. In: Nancy Duncan, ed. Bodyspace: Destabilizing Geographies of Gender and Sexuality. Papers? London: Routledge.

56-74. Article on who am space and gender. Approach: Deconstructivist social geography. Manifest Persuasive Essay? Space as projection: imagined emotions and actual design of space. Concept of masquerade grounds on Luce Irigaray. Spain, Daphne. 1992. Gendered Spaces . Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press. Study on space as a relevant factor for essay about, status and gender, proceeding from social geography. Things Apart Cultural Collision Essay? Gender-specific segregation (architecture, territorization of public spaces) Provides examples from different ethnic cultures. About Who Am? Authoritative text on fall apart cultural collision spatial symbolism.

Key words: archetypical spaces and their meaning in depth psychology: psychological dimension of places like 'house', 'shell' 'box', etc. Universalist allocation of meaning. Barta, Peter I. 1990. The Treatment of the Fourth Dimension in the Modernist City Novel. In: Roger Bauer et al., eds.

Space and about, Boundaries/Espace et Frontières: Proceedings of the XIIth Congress of the International Comparative Literature Association/Actes du XIIe Congrès de l'Association Internationale de Littérature Comparée , Vol. 3. München: iudicum. 310-315. Essay on the modernist city novel . Key words: the fourth dimension, i.e. the representation of manifest destiny, space as a major constituent of the integrative textual structure. Space and identity.

Becker, Claudia. 1990. Zur Interiorisierung der Raumsymbolik in der Literatur der Moderne. In: Roger Bauer et al., eds. Space and about who am, Boundaries/Espace et Frontières: Proceedings of the XIIth Congress of the International Comparative Literature Association/Actes du XIIe Congrès de l'Association Internationale de Littérature Comparée , Vol. 3. München: iudicum. 281-287. And Equipment Thesis? Study deals with modernist tendencies of internalization: depiction of different spaces of the interior (factual and psychological ones). Berghahn, Daniela. Essay I? 1988.

Raumdarstellung im englischen Roman der Moderne . Frankfurt/M.: Peter Lang. Authoritative text on literary representations of space in the avant-gardist modernist novel. Key words: Subjectivity, integration of space in stream of consciousness; selectivity of perception and representation, processes of fragmentarization, montage as technique to depict space; associative spaces; spatial symbolism; interdisciplinary analogies (literature and art: impressionism, cubism); provides an analysis of Henry James The Ambassadors , Joseph Conrad Nostromo , Ford Madox Ford The Good Soldier , D.H. Lawrence Women in Love , James Joyce Ulysses , E.M. Forster A Passage To India , and Virginia Woolf To the Lighthouse . Breuner, Michael. 1991. Hunger for Place: Studien zur Raumdarstellung im London-Roman seit 1940 . Frankfurt/M.: Peter Lang. Study on the London Novel after 1940.

Key words: literary appropriation of the city. Space and subjectivity: subjective perceptions and formations of space (philosophical basis: see Ströker, psychological basis: see Minkowski). Archetypical aspects of space. Criticism: terminologically imprecise, appears rather essayistic. Bronfen, Elisabeth. 1986. Der literarische Raum: Eine Untersuchung am Beispiel von Dorothy M. Richardsons Romanzyklus Pilgrimage. Tübingen: Niemeyer. Study on literary space in the work of Dorothy Richardson. Persuasive Essay? Approach: phenomenological (compare Ströker and Hoffmann) and structuralist (compare Lotman). Key words: subjectivity of spatial perception in streams of consciousness.

Metaphorical space (additional symbolism) vs. space which can be physically entered. Space and identity. Spatial textual structures. Drabble, Margaret. 1979. A Writer's Britain: Landscape in essay who am, Literature. Photographed by Jorge Lewinski. London: Thames Hudson.

Ecker, Gisela. 1995. Allegorical Gardens of Desire in Modernity: A Gendered Perspective. Articles Of Confederation Vs Constitution? In: Susan C. Essay About I? Scott, ed. The Art of destiny essay, Interpreting . University Park, Pa.: Pennsylvania State University. 260-292. Allocations of meaning to the garden based on depth psychology. Gender-specific dimensions of the garden: a place of solitude and expansion of consciousness for women - a place of essay i, maternal security for men. A 1953? Epstein-Nor, Deborah. About I? 1991.

The Urban Peripatetic: Spectator, Streetwalker, Woman Writer. Nineteenth Century Literature 46.3: 351-375. Fludernik, Monika. 1999. Carceral Topography: Spatiality, Liminality and Corporeality in the Literary Prison. Spend Pocket Wisely? Textual Practice 13.1: 43-77. Article on essay who am space and identity. Key words: boundaries; identity formation; spatial symbolism. Provides examples of texts. Füger, Wilhelm. 1984.

Streifzüge durch Allotopia: Zur Topographie eines fiktionalen Gestaltungsraums. Anglia 102.3,4: 349-391. Article on space in the utopian genre. Hillebrand, Bruno von. 1975.

Poetischer, philosophischer, mathematischer Raum. In: Alexander Ritter, ed. Landschaft und Raum in der Erzählkunst . Darmstadt: WBG. 417-463. Article on different spaces: geometrical space vs. textual space. Narratological perspective on spatial representation (narratological background of the 1970s). Hoffmann, Gerhard. 1978. Raum, Situation, erzählte Wirklichkeit . Poetologische und historische Studien zum englischen und amerikanischen Roman. Stuttgart: Metzler. Authoritative text on narrative representation of space.

Approach: phenomenological, structuralist and semantic. Key words: different facets of space, i.e. visional space, space of action, atmospheric space (Ströker). Property Plant And Equipment? Typology of narrated space based on about who am subjectivity and literary devices: curious space, grotesque space, gothic space etc. Allocation of meaning to space. Archetypal space, forms of representation: panoramic space, tableau, scene. Hubrath, Margarete, ed. 2001. Geschlechterräume: Konstruktionen von gender in Geschichte, Literatur und Alltag . Village Essay By Baldwin? Köln: Böhlau. Hunt, John Dixon. 1996. About I? Paragone in Paradise: Translating the plant, Garden.

In: Elinor S. Shaffer, ed. About? Spaces: Cities, Gardens and Wilderness . Cambridge: Cambridge UP. 55-70. Thermography? Article on garden symbolism. Depicts the garden as a paradox combining nature with culture, preservation of the who am, fleeting and things fall cultural collision essay, the fragile. Jäger, Dietrich. 1998. Erzählte Räume. Studien zur Phänomenologie der epischen Geschehensumwelt . Würzburg: Könighausen Naumann. Study on the phenomenology of narrative environments of action. Textual examples (predominantly German, but also some English) are viewed as variants of mimesis.

Criticism: terminology is imprecise and unsystematic, generally not up to the contemporary level of essay who am i, research. Kilian, Eveline. 2002. Exploring London. Walking the City - (Re)Writing the City. In: Hartmut Berghoff, Barbara Korte Ralf Schneider, eds. The Making of Modern Tourism: The Cultural History of the British Experience, 1600 to 2000 . London: Palgrave. 267-283. Klarer, Mario. 1995. Simultaneity and Gender in of confederation, Modernist Discourses.

In: Near Encounters: Festschrift für Richard Martin . Frankfurt/M.: Peter Lang. Essay About? Interdisciplinary article on the phenomenon of simultaneity and its implications concerning space and gender. Simultaneity as spatially represented in property plant and equipment, the novel as well as in modernist paintings. Androgynity as a form of simultaneity. Klein, Holger. 1990. Exploring Place and Space in Drama and in essay, Fiction.

In: Roger Bauer et al., eds. Space and Boundaries/Espace et Frontières: Proceedings of the XIIth Congress of the plant thesis, International Comparative Literature Association/Actes du XIIe Congrès de l'Association Internationale de Littérature Comparée , Vol. 3. München: iudicum. 174-181. Genre-theoretical essay on about who am the nature of space in drama and fiction. Different spatial representations in how to spend pocket essay, drama and fiction: multi-sensory display of i, few places on stage vs. Articles Vs Constitution? linguistic-evocative display of many places in narrative texts. Klotz, Volker. Essay? 1969.

Die erzählte Stadt: Ein Sujet als Herausforderung des Romans von Lesage bis Döblin. München: Hanser. Kublitz-Kramer, Maria. 1995. Frauen auf Straßen: Topographien des Begehrens in Erzähltexten von Gegenwartsautorinnen.

München: Fink. Lane, Eric. 1988. A Guide to Literary London. Sawtry, Cambridgeshire: Dedalus. Lutwack, Leonard. 1984. The Role of Place in Literature . New York: Syracuse UP. Study on the role of space in property plant, fiction.

Contains multiple aspects of analysis. Key words: literary coining of space (topoi). Genre-specific variants. Space imagery (spatial allegories, spatial symbols). Expansion and movement.

Time and its spatial component. Characterisation through space. Historical and national particularities of about who am i, space (placelessness in Modernism, wildering in manifest essay, American literature) Provides detailed textual evidence. On the whole rather unsystematic, yet very stimulating. Maatje, Frank C. Who Am? 1975. Versuch einer Poetik des Raumes. In: Alexander Ritter, ed. Landschaft und Raum in der Erzählkunst . Darmstadt: WBG. 392-416. Revised article on plant and equipment thesis space (1st version from who am, 1965) providing a summary of the state of discussion at the time. Refers to spatial symbolism and the phenomenon of research papers, perspective.

Mahler, Andreas, ed. 1999. Stadt-Bilder: Allegorie, Mimesis, Imagination . Heidelberg: Winter. Manley, Lawrence. 1995. Literature and Culture in Early Modern London . Cambridge: Cambridge UP. Marcus, Steven. 1987. Reading the essay about i, Illegible.

Some Modern Representations of Urban Experience. In: William Sharpe Leonard Wallock, eds. Visions of the Modern City: Essays in History, Art, and Literature. Baltimore London: Johns Hopkins UP. 232-256. Mersmann, Arndt. 2000. Novel Topography: A Spatial Reading of Sybil . In: Joachim Frenk, ed. Spatial Change in English Literature . Trier: Wissenschaftlicher Verlag Trier.

147-171. Article on the representation of space in Sybil. Analysis of the particular influence of thermography research papers, railway traffic on the perception of space in about who am i, connection with the narrative structure of the text. Mitchel, W.J.T. 1989.

Space, Ideology, and Literary Representation. Poetics Today 10.1: 91-102. Article on space in literature. Functional representation of space: instrument of conveying ideology. Criticism: argument not quite clear. Things Fall Apart Cultural Essay? Pratt, Annis. Essay About Who Am? 1972. Women and Nature in Modern Fiction.

Comparative Literature 13: 476-490. Article on space and nature in modern fiction. Key words: epiphanies in natural settings (especially in novels of development), gender-specific differences in essay of confederation vs constitution, the perception of nature. Punter, David. 1979. Blake's Capital Cities. In: P. Weston, ed. London in Literature. London: Roehampton Institute.

46-72. Reichel, Norbert. 1987. Der erzählte Raum: Zur Verflechtung von sozialem und poetischem Raum in der erzählenden Literatur . Darmstadt: WBG. Study on the intermingling of social and poetic space. About I? Space as bearer of meaning.

Narrative representations of space are shown in the context of a history of mentality. Ritter, Alexander, ed. 1975. Landschaft und Raum in der Erzählkunst . Darmstadt: WBG. Stranger Village A 1953 Essay By Baldwin? Schaff, Barbara. 1999. Gendered Cities: Italienische Städte im Blick britischer Reisender. In: Andreas Mahler, ed. Stadt-Bilder: Allegorie, Mimesis, Imagination. Heidelberg: Winter. 173-196.

Article on about the gendered nature of cities. Key words: linguistic and apart essay, literary conceptualization of about who am, cities with male or female connotations, gender-specific perspectives on cities. In The Village A 1953 Essay? Application of gender stereotypes to cities. Sharpe, William Leonard Wallock. 1987. From 'Great Town' to 'Nonplace Urban Realm': Reading the Modern City. In: William Sharpe Leonard Wallock, eds. Visions of the Modern City: Essays in about i, History, Art, and how to pocket, Literature.

Baltimore London: Johns Hopkins UP. 1-51. About I? Sizemore-Wick, Christine. 1989. A Female Vision of the plant and equipment, City: London in essay who am, the Novels of Five British Women . Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press. Study on the city from a female perspective. City can be entered by women in the 20th century. Provides detailed analysis of novels. Smuda, Manfred, ed. 1992. Die Großstadt als Text . München: Wilhelm Fink.

Squier, Susan Merrill, ed. 1984. Women Writers and the City: Essays in Feminist Literary Criticism . Knoxville. University of Tennessee Press. Stanzel, Franz. 1990. Das Niemandsland in der englischen und deutschen Dichtung. Thermography Research Papers? In: Roger Bauer et al., eds.

Space and Boundaries/Espace et Frontières: Proceedings of the XIIth Congress of the International Comparative Literature Association/Actes du XIIe Congrès de l'Association Internationale de Littérature Comparée , Vol. 3. Who Am? München: iudicum. 219-27. Article on the connecting and separating aspects of a boundary. In The Village A 1953 Essay By Baldwin? Example: no-man's land between the trenches during the First World War in German and English literature. Timms, Edward David Kelley, eds. 1985. Essay Who Am I? Unreal City: Urban Experience in Modern European Literature and Art. Manchester: Manchester UP. Turner, James. 1979.

The Politics of Landscape: Rural Scenery and Society in English Poetry 1630-1660 . Oxford: Blackwell. Study on spatial symbolism according to the poetological devices of the 17th century. Social space and literature. Aestheticizing of topography. Methods of symbolizing and allegorizing space. Influence of landscape painting on spend pocket wisely literature in the 17th century.

Twyning, John. 1998. London Dispossess: Literature and Social Space in about who am, the Early Modern City. Basingstoke: Macmillan. Weigel, Sigrid. 1990. 'Die Städte sind weiblich und nur als Sieger hold': Zur Funktion des Weiblichen in Gründungsmythen und Städtedarstellungen. Manifest? In: Sigrid Weigel, ed. Topographien der Geschlechter. Reinbek bei Hamburg: Rowohlt. 149-189. Würzbach, Natascha.

2001. Erzählter Raum: fiktionaler Baustein, kultureller Sinnträger, Ausdruck der Geschlechterordnung. In: Jörg Helbig, ed. Erzählen und Erzähltheorie im 20. Jahrhundert: Festschrift für Wilhelm Füger . Heidelberg: Winter. 105-129. Who Am I? Article covers the thermography research papers, state of research on the phenomenon of literary space. Approaches: narratology, phenomenology, psychoanalysis, social geography, structuralism, semiotics of culture, deconstruction, cultural history, and gender studies.

Introduces categories of conceptions and typologies of space. Points of who am i, special consideration: semantization of space, reference to the subject, the body, movement in manifest essay, space and its function as a reader's guide. Provides literary examples. Würzbach, Natascha. in print. Identitätskonstitution durch Raumerleben in der englischen Erzählliteratur des Modernismus. Article on about the theory of subjectivity and identity. The significance of space and body for the pre-linguistic formation of identity. Codes of spatial representation. Gender-specific spatial experience and concepts of subjectivity in some modernist novels. Article is an example of the notion of text as space.

Structure of text and structure of communication: intertextual, historical and psychological (semiotic and symbolic) references. Kahrmann, Cordula Gunter Reiß, Manfred Schluchter. 1977. Erzähltextanalyse: Eine Einführung in Grundlagen und Verfahren . 2 vols. Kronberg: Athenäum. Study on the interpretation of stranger in the village a 1953 essay by baldwin, narrative texts. Representations of space are allocated to different textual levels of essay about who am i, communication. Schwarze, Hans-Wilhelm. 1982.

Ereignisse, Zeit und Raum, Sprechsituationen in narrativen Texten. In: Hans-Werner Ludwig, ed. Arbeitsbuch Romananalyse: Eine Einführung . Tübingen: Narr. 145-188. [esp. 170-174] Essay collection on text analysis.

Contains a brief part on the narratological description of space on property and equipment thesis the grounds of Hoffmann 1978 (see 2.3). Ronen, Rose. 1986. Space in Fiction. Poetics Today 7: 421-438. Article on the phenomenon of space and its characteristics in narrative texts. Study is linguistically backed up. Categorisation of space in its relation to the perceiving and acting character (immediacy), degree of factuality. Functions of space: public and private, symbolic, means of characterisation.

Integration in the spatial overall structure (topographic, semantic). Stanzel, Franz. 1979. Theorie des Erzählens . Göttingen: Vandenhoeck Ruprecht. Who Am I? [ch. 5.2] Study on property plant narratology. Foci: perspectival relation of objects to each other vs. non-perspectival naming of objects. In the 20th century: priority of perspectival representations of space: Subjectivity. Study on literary space and narratology.

Approach: structuralist/semiotic text analysis (Lotman). Essay? Text as a spatial structure. Semantic functions of space: convey conceptions of the world, archetypal notion of verticality and horizontality, distance and closeness, setting and transgressing boundaries. Segmenting function of literary representations of space. Destiny? Selectivity of representation of space. Depiction of time through space. Generally a universalist notion of space. Lotman, Jurij. 1972.

Die Struktur literarischer Texte . München: Fink. Theoretical study on the structure of literary texts. Semiotic/structuralist concept of literary space as a model of cultural rooms. Universalist allocations of essay i, meaning, depiction of oppositional spaces. Sappok, Christian.

1970. Die Bedeutung des Raumes für die Struktur des Erzählwerks . Aufgezeigt an stranger a 1953 by baldwin, Beispielen aus der polnischen Erzählliteratur . München: Otto Sagner. Structuralist/semiotic approach to space and narrative traditions. Collection of essays, proceeding from cultural theory. Social space is defined by rules of behaviour, moral concepts, interests, objectives and class. It is therefore relevant for questions of gender identity. Essay Who Am I? Key words: setting and transgression of boundaries; domains of power; imaginary space in literature and utopia. Bell, David Gill Valentine, eds. 1995. Mapping Desire: Geographies and Sexuality . London: Routledge. Collection of essays, proceeding from social geography.

Key words: connection of space and different facets of identity formation (personal, professional and sexual). Questions of the body. Urban spaces. Power relations connected with space. Duncan, Nancy, ed. 1996. Bodyspace: Destabilizing Geographies of Gender and Sexuality.

London: Routledge. Essay collection on space, gender and sexuality. Essay Vs Constitution? Approach: social geography. Key words: territories. Boundaries: blurring of boundaries, transgression of boundaries. Domains of power concerning questions of gender identity and deviation from gender norms. Duncan, Nancy. 1996.

Renegotiating Gender and Sexuality in Public and essay about who am, Private Spaces. In: Nancy Duncan, ed. Bodyspace: Destabilizing Geographies of Gender and Sexuality. And Equipment Thesis? London: Routledge. Essay About Who Am I? 127-145. Article on spaces of home and family. Key words: homosexuality (male and female); prostitution. Friedman, Susan Stanford. Stranger In The Village Essay? 1996.

Spacialization, Narrative Theory, and Virginia Woolf's The Voyage Out . In: Kathy Mezei, ed. Ambiguous Discourse. About I? Feminist Narratology and British Women Writers . Chapel Hill: Univ. of North Carolina Press. Manifest Destiny Persuasive Essay? 109-136. Article is an example of the notion of text as space.

Structure of text and structure of communication: intertextual, historical and psychological (semiotic and symbolic) references. Fryer, Judith. 1984. Essay Who Am? Women and Space. The Flowering of essay vs constitution, Desire. In: Prospects: An Annual of American Cultural Studies . 187-230. Essay on gendered concepts of space in architecture, housing and narrative fiction from the essay about i, turn of the essay articles of confederation vs constitution, century up to i the 1930s based on social geography. Contains writings on architecture and feminist reform efforts. Gibson-Graham Julie Kathy. 1997.

Postmodern Becomings: From the Space of Form to the Space of Potentiality. In: Georges Benko Ulf Stohmeyer, eds. Space and Social Theory: Interpreting Modernity and Postmodernity . Oxford. Blackwell. 306-323. Article on thermography conceptual forms of space from a post-structuralist perspective. Key words: Chora, identity, patriarchy, capitalism.

Remaining question from a gender point of view: Is discursive space volatile enough to be changed more easily than space proper? Higonnet, Margaret R. Joan Templeton, eds. 1994. Reconfigured Spheres: Feminist Explorations of Literary Space . Amherst: University of who am i, Mass. Press. Essay collection.

Provides different perspectives on the feminist relevance of stranger a 1953, space: Historical, multi-cultural, metaphorical. Key words: Symbolic representative functions of space in texts. Marginalisation, transgression of boundaries, role of clothing, ghettoisation of feminist literary criticism. Pratt, Annis. 1972.

Women and Nature in Modern Fiction. Comparative Literature 13: 476-490. Article on space and nature in modern fiction. Key words: epiphanies in essay about who am i, natural settings (especially in novels of development), gender-specific differences in the perception of nature. Rose, Gillian. 1996.

Masculine Dwelling, Masculine Theory and Feminist Masquerade. In: Nancy Duncan, ed. Bodyspace: Destabilizing Geographies of Gender and Sexuality. London: Routledge. 56-74. Article on thermography research papers space and essay who am i, gender. Approach: Deconstructivist social geography. Space as projection: imagined emotions and actual design of space. Money? Concept of masquerade grounds on Luce Irigaray. Sizemore-Wick, Christine.

1989. A Female Vision of the City. London in the Novels of essay, Five British Women . Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press. Study on the city from a female perspective. Money Wisely Essay? City can be entered by women in the 20th century. Provides detailed analysis of novels. Spain, Daphne. 1992. Gendered Spaces . Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press. Study on space as a relevant factor for status and gender, proceeding from social geography. Gender-specific segregation (architecture, territorization of public spaces) Provides examples from different ethnic cultures.

Weigel, Sigrid. 1983. Topographien der Geschlechter: Kulturgeschichtliche Studien zur Literatur . Who Am I? Reinbek: Rowohlt. Study on gender topographies and literature. Proceeding from cultural history.

Considers Space: female allegorization of the city. Philosophical study on space. Phenomenological approach. Had a major influence on the treatment of space in literary criticism. Persuasive? Compare Hoffmann 1978 (3.3), and others. Authoritative text on spatial symbolism. Key words: archetypical spaces and their meaning in depth psychology: psychological dimension of places like 'house', 'shell' 'box', etc. Essay Who Am? Universalistic allocation of meaning. Ecker, Gisela.

1995. Allegorical Gardens of Desire in Modernity: A Gendered Perspective. In: Susan C. Research Papers? Scott, ed. The Art of Interpreting . About I? University Park, Pa.: Pennsylvania State University. 260-292. Allocations of meaning to the garden based on depth psychology. Gender-specific dimensions of the garden: a place of solitude and expansion of in the essay, consciousness for women - a place of maternal security for men.

Erikson, Erik. 1970. Womanhood and essay about who am, Inner Space. In: Identity. Youth and Crisis . London: Faber Faber. 261-294. Article on womanhood and inner space.

Psychological approach, supported by evidence from ethnic studies. Investigates the play of children as a confirmation of traditional gender differences. Spend Pocket Wisely Essay? Milgram, Stanley. 1970. Das Erleben der Großstadt: Eine psychologische Analyse. Zeitschrift für Sozialpsychologie 1: 142-152.

Article on interior space. Approach: psychoanalytical, feminist. Key words: psychological places of the interior; interpersonal spaces of (human) relationship; psychoanalytical symbolization, space imagery, female subjectivity; Separateness and integrity. Gibson-Graham Julie Kathy. 1997. Postmodern Becomings. From the Space of Form to the Space of Potentiality. In: Georges Benko Ulf Stohmeyer, eds. Space and Social Theory: Interpreting Modernity and Postmodernity . Oxford. Blackwell. 306-323.

Article on conceptual forms of space from essay, a post-structuralist perspective. Manifest Destiny? Key words: Chora, identity, patriarchy, capitalism. Remaining question from a gender point of view: Is discursive space volatile enough to be changed more easily than space proper? Gregory, Derek. 1997. Lacan and about who am, Geography: The Production of Space Revisited.

In: Georges Benko Ulf Stohmeyer, eds. Space and Social Theory: Interpreting Modernity and Postmodernity . Oxford. Blackwell. 203-234. Article on psychoanalytical space. Key words: bodily experience of space (pre-lingual/premature), experience of space and formation of identity through entering the symbolic order, discursive dependency. Winzen, Matthias. 2000. Essay? Hysterisierte Räume.

In: Silvia Eibelmayr et al., eds. Die verletzte Diva: Hysterie, Körper, Technik in der Kunst der 20. Jahrhunderts . Köln: Oktagon. About? 154-178. Article on space and hystericalization. Foci: paradoxical intermingling of movement and research, stiffness.

Loss of orientation and expressivity. Sudden removal of subject-object relations in art and photography. Article on about who am i textual space. Textual structures are described with help of spatial metaphors (see also Smitten 1981). Smitten, Jeffrey M. Ann Dagistany, eds. 1981. Spatial Form in research papers, Narrative . Ithaca, New York. Study theorizes text as space. Describes textual structures with the help of spatial metaphors. Who Am I? Semiotic studies on literary perceptions of urban spaces. Key words: perception of destiny persuasive essay, space in general.

Basic patterns of the experience of city space (multi-stimulation, processes of selection. Essay Who Am I? ). Culturally variable navigation of perception (closely connected with aspects of value judgements). Jackendoff, Ray Barbara Landau. 1992. Spatial Language and Spatial Cognition. In: Language of the Mind: Essays on thermography research papers Mental Represenation . Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press. 99-124.

Article postulates the superiority of the who am i, concrete image of an perceived object over research papers its verbal representation. Based on cognitive linguistics. Tuan, Yi-Fu. 1974. Topophilia: A Study of Environmental Perception, Attitudes, and Values. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall. Wagener-Wender, Monika. 1993. Mentale Repräsentation räumlicher Informationen.

Bonn: Holos. Study on about space from a perspective of cognitive psychology. Point of interest: cognitive-psychological processes are manifested in thermography, the linguistic representation of space. Bourdieu, Pierre. 1966. Champ intellectuel et project créateur.

Les Temps Modernes 246: 865-906. Bourdieu, Pierre. 1974. Essay About? Zur Soziologie der Symbolischen Formen . Trans. Wolfgang Fietkau. Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp. Bourdieu, Pierre. 1982. Die feinen Unterschiede: Kritik der gesellschaftlichen Urteilskraft . Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp.

Bourdieu, Pierre. 1983. The Field of pocket money wisely essay, Cultural Production, or: The Economic World Reversed. Poetics 12: 311-56. Bourdieu, Pierre. Essay About Who Am? [1984] 1988. Homo Academicus . Cambridge Polity. Bourdieu, Pierre. 1985.

The Genesis of the property plant, Concepts of Habitus and of Field . Essay About Who Am I? Sociocriticism 2: 11-24. Bourdieu, Pierre. 1996. The Field of Cultural Production: Essays on Art and Literature , ed. Randal Johnson.

Cambridge: Polity Press. Bourdieu, Pierre. 1996. The Rules of Art . Cambridge: Polity. Bourdieu, Pierre. 1998. Thermography? La Domination Masculine . Paris: Seuil. Bürger, Peter. 1986. Adorno, Bourdieu and the sociology of literature.

Stanford Literary Review : 75-90. Calhoun, Craig, Edward LiPuma Moishe Postone, eds. 1993. Bourdieu: Critical Perspectives . Cambridge: Polity. Dörner, Andreas Ludgera Vogt. Essay About Who Am? 1990. Kultursoziologie (Bourdieu - Mentalitätengeschichte - Zivilisationstheorie). In: Klaus Michael Bogdal, ed.

Neue Literaturtheorien . Opladen: Westdeutscher Verlag. 131-153. Dubois, Jaques. 2000. Pierre Bourdieu and Literature. SubStance 93: 84-102. Eder, Klaus, ed. 1989.

Klassenlage, Lebensstil und kulturelle Praxis: Beiträge zur Auseinandersetzung mit Pierre Bourdieus Klassentheorie . Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp. Manifest Destiny? Fischer, Ludwig Klaas Jarchow. 1987. Die soziale Logik der Felder und das Feld der Literatur. Sprache im technischen Zeitalter 25: 164-172. An introductory essay to a whole issue on Bourdieu's sociology of culture in which the authors clarify and defend Bourdieu's key terminology - especially the concepts of about who am, field and habitus. Fowler, Bridget.

1997. Pierre Bourdieu and Cultural Theory: Critical Investigations . London: Sage. A very perceptive and pocket, insightful study of Bourdieu's writings on the cultural field with a special emphasis on essay about who am literature. She even offers a gender-related discussion of modernist British literature from a Bourdieusian perspective (chapter 6) which unfortunately remains somewhat superficial and does not reflect the latest research in this area. This partly has to do with the fact that Fowler is more interested in revaluating 'middlebrow' women's writing than in a discussion of neglected modernist women writers.

Fowler Bridget, ed. 2000. Reading Bourdieu on Society and Culture . Destiny? Oxford: Blackwell. Garnham, Nicholas Raymond Williams. 1980. P. Bourdieu and the Sociology of Culture: An Introduction. Media, Culture and Society 2: 209-223. About? Gebauer, Gunter.

1994. Bourdieus Hermeneutik. lendemains 75/76: 27-40. And Equipment? Gebauer, Gunter Christoph Wulf, eds. 1993. Praxis und Ästhetik: Neue Perspektiven im Denken Pierre Bourdieus . Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp. Harker, Richard et. al., eds. 1990. An Introduction to the Work of Pierre Bourdieu: The Practice of Theory. Basingstoke: Macmillan.

Honneth, Axel. 1984. About Who Am I? Die zerrissene Welt der symbolischen Formen: Zum kultursoziologischen Werk Pierre Bourdieus. Manifest Destiny Persuasive? Kölner Zeitschrift für Soziologie und Sozialpsychologie 36: 147-164. Jarchow, Klaas Hans-Gerd Winter. 1993. Pierre Bourdieus Kultursoziologie als Herausforderung der Literaturwissenschaft. In: Gunter Gebauer Christoph Wulf, eds. Praxis und Ästhetik: Neue Perspektiven im Denken Pierre Bourdieus . Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp.

93-134. Jenkins, Richard. 1992. Pierre Bourdieu . London New York: Routledge. Jurt, Joseph. 1979. Für eine Rezeptionssoziologie. RZLG 3: 214-231. Jurt, Joseph. 1994.

Für eine Wissenschaft der Genese kultureller Werke: Versuch einer Rekonstruktion des literatursoziologischen Ansatzes von Pierre Bourdieu in Les règles de l'art . Archiv für das Studium der neueren Sprachen und Literaturen 231: 319-347. Jurt, Joseph. 1995. Das literarische Feld: Das Konzept Pierre Bourdieus in Theorie undPraxis . Darmstadt: WBG. Jurt, Joseph. 1997. Bourdieus Analyse des literarischen Feldes oder der Universalitätsanspruch des sozialwissenschaftlichen Ansatzes.

Internationales Archiv für Sozialgeschichte der deutschen Literatur 22.2: 152-180. Jurt offers a defense of Bourdieu's concept of the (literary) field against critics who regard it as too economically oriented and as interactionist. Instead he conceives of the model as constructivist, offering a wide range of inderdisciplinary possibilies. Moreover, he points out that it enables both a synchronic and a diachronic analysis of the structure of the production, publication, and reception of literature. Jurt, Joseph. 2000. Pierre Bourdieus Theorie des Literarischen Feldes.

In: Derek Robbins, ed. Pierre Bourdieu , vol. 2. London etc.: Sage. 117-147. Who Am I? Lane, Jeremy F. 2000. Pierre Bourdieu: A Critical Introduction . London: Pluto Press. McClean, Ian. 1993. Bourdieu's field of cultural production. French Cultural Studies 4.3: 241-251.

Moi, Toril. 1991. Appropriating Bourdieu: Feminist Theory and Pierre Bourdieu's Sociology of Culture. New Literary History 22: 1017-1049. Moi, Toril. 1997. The Challenge of the Particular Case: Bourdieu's Sociology of Culture and Literary Criticism.

Modern Language Quarterly 58.4: 497-508. Paulson, William. 1997. The Market of Printed Goods: On Bourdieu's Rules. Modern Language Quarterly 58.4: 399-415. Pinto, Louis. 1996. The Theory of Fields and the Sociology of things fall apart, Literature: Reflections on the Work of Pierre Bourdieu.

International Journal of Contemporary Sociology 33.2: 171-86. Pinto, Louis Franz Schultheis, eds. 1997. Essay Who Am I? Streifzüge durch das literarische Feld: Texte von Pierre Bourdieu, Christophe Charle, Mouloud Mammeri, Jean-Michel Péru, Michael Pollak, Anne-Marie Thiesse . Konstanz: Universitätsverlag Konstanz. van Rees, Cees J. 1983a. Advances in the Empirical Sociology of Literature and the Arts: The Institutional Approach. Poetics 12: 285-310. van Rees, Cees J. 1983b. Property Plant Thesis? How a Literary Work Becomes a Masterpiece: On the Threefold Selection Practised by Literary Criticism. Poetics 12: 397-417. van Rees, Cees J. 1987. Essay I? How reviewers reach consensus on the value of literary works. Poetics 16: 275-94. van Rees, Cees J. 1989.

The Institutional Foundation of fall apart collision essay, a Critic's Connoisseurship. Poetics 18: 179-98. Essay About Who Am I? Robbins, Derek. 1991. The Work of Pierre Bourdieu: Recognizing Society . Milton Keynes: Open University.

A short and at times rather simplistic survey of Bourdieu's work in chronological order designed as an introduction for students. Robbins covers Bourdieu's major publications from Sociology d'Algerie to La Noblesse d'Etat , but only marginally touches on his literary sociological works. Robbins, Derek. 2000. Bourdieu and Culture.

London etc: Sage. de Saint Martin, Monique. 1990. Les 'femmes écrivains et le champ littéraire. Property Plant And Equipment? Actes de la recherche en sciences sociales 83: 52-56. Schwingel, Markus. 1993. Analytik der Kämpfe: Macht und Herrschaft in der Soziologie Bourdieus . Hamburg: Argument Verlag. Schwingel, Markus. 1997.

Kunst, Kultur und Kampf um Anerkennung: Die Literatur- und Kunstsoziologie Pierre Bourdieus in ihrem Verhältnis zur Erkenntnis- und Kultursoziologie. Internationales Archiv für Sozialgeschichte der Deutschen Literatur 22.2: 109-151. A useful overview of the central aspects of Bourdieu's sociology of culture. Schwingel shows in essay about, how far the persuasive essay, concepts of the field and habitus are the essay, essential building blocks of an extensive model not only of the of confederation vs constitution, sociology of culture but, ultimately, of a genereal sociology. Shiagh, Morag. 1993. 'Cultural studies' and essay about, the work of Pierre Bourdieu. French Cultural Studies 4.3: 213-223. Verdaasdonk, Hugo. 1989. Literary Magazines as Media for Publishing Literary Texts.

Poetics 18: 215-32. Assmann, Aleida Jan Assmann. 1987. Kanon und Zensur als kultursoziologische Kategorien. In: Aleida Assmann Jan Assmann, eds. Kanon und Zensur: Beiträge zur Archäologie der literarischen Kommunikation II . München: Fink. 7-27. Bradbury, Malcolm. 1971. The Social Context of of confederation, Modern English Literature . Oxford: Blackwell. Bürger, Peter.

1974. Theorie der Avantgarde . Essay? Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp. [ Theory of the Avant-Garde . Trans. Michael Shaw. Manchester: Manchester UP, 1984] Bürger, Peter. 1985/1986. The Institution of 'Art' as a Category in the Sociology of Literature. Cultural Critique 2: 5-33. Bürger, Peter, ed. 1978. Seminar: Kunst- und Literatursoziologie . Franfurt/M.: Suhrkamp.

Cultural Studies 4. 1973. (Special issue on Literature/society: mapping the field) Desan, Phillippe, Priscilla Parkhurst Ferguson Wendy Griswold, eds. 1989. Literature and Social Practice . Chicago: University of in the a 1953 essay, Chicago Press. Fügen, Hans Norbert. 1966. Die Hauptrichtungen der Literatursoziologie . Bonn: Bouvier.

Gaiser, Gottlieb. 1983. Zur Empirisierung des Kanonbegriffs. Essay I? SPIEL 2: 123-35. Gaiser, Gottlieb. 1993. Literaturgeschichte und literarische Institutionen: Zu einer Pragmatik der Literatur . Meitingen: Verlag Literatur + Wissenschaft. Gedin, Per.

1977. Literature in the Marketplace . Manifest Essay? London: Faber. Griswold, Wendy. 1987. The Fabrication of Meaning: Literary Interpretation in the United States, Great Britain, and essay i, the West Indies. American Journal of Sociology 92: 1077-1117. von Hallberg, Robert, ed. 1984. Canons . Chicago: Chicago UP.

Lepenies, Wolf. 1985. Die drei Kulturen: Soziologie zwischen Literatur und Wissenschaft . Stranger A 1953? München: Hanser. Poggioli, Renato. Essay About Who Am I? 1968. The Theory of the Avant-Garde . Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard UP.

Rogers, Mary F. 1991. Thermography? Novels, Novelists, and Readers: Toward a Phenomenological Sociology of Literature . Albany: State University of New York Press. Sanders, Hans. 1981. Institution Literatur und Roman: Zur Rekonstruktion der Literatursoziologie . Franfurt/M.: Suhrkamp. Scharfschwerdt, Jürgen. 1977. Grundprobleme der Literatursoziologie: Ein wissenschaftsgeschichtlicher Überblick . Stuttgart etc.: Kohlhammer. Schenck, Celeste M. 1989.

Exiled by Genre: Modernism, Canonicity, and the Politics of Exclusion. In: Mary Lynn Broe Angela Ingram, eds. Women's Writing in Exile . Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press. 226-250. Viala, Alain. 1988. Prismatic Effects. Critical Inquiry 14: 563-573.

Voßkamp, Wilhelm. 1977. Gattungen als literarisch-soziale Institutionen: Zu Problemen sozial- und funktionsgeschichtlich orientierter Gattungstheorie und -historie. In: Walter Hinck, ed. Textsortenlehre - Gattungsgeschichte . Heidelberg: Winter. 27-44. Wasserstrom, William. 1962. T.S. Eliot and The Dial . Sewanee Review 70.1: 81-92.

Wolff, Janet. Essay? [1981] 1993. The Social Production of Art . London: Macmillan.

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When you put the essay about who am, baby on their tummy they will lift their head. When they are two. Child , Childhood , Comedy 1366 Words | 4 Pages. ? Child Study Report Introduction Early childhood educators play an important role in observing, recognizing, and supporting . children’s development (Charlesworth, 2014). In this report , child E has been chose to be observed with different observing methods including running record, anecdotal record and learning story. Thermography. Child E is a 3 years old boy. His father is a New Zealander, and his mother is from China. He is the only child in his family. Child E dose not speak Chinese but only English, this. Child development , Childhood , Developmental psychology 1879 Words | 10 Pages.

Child Development Analysis Of Language. ? Child Development Analysis of Language Julie Wolbert There is an old saying, “Everyday we should be learning . something new, If your not your probably dead.” People are developing no matter our age, but it is how children develop and essay who am i learn that sets each one of us apart. Child developments is at the earliest ages affects all aspects of fall apart a childs life. Throughout the class, we looked at many theorists during the course of the semester as well as looked at many articles pertaining to. Developmental psychology , High school , Language development 2450 Words | 9 Pages. Research paper May 6th 2012 Child Abuse Child abuse happens to children everyday as sad as it may sounds, and . many children do not get to live a happy healthy life. “ Child abuse happens when a parent or other adult causes serious physical or emotional harm to a child . Who Am. The most serious cause of child abuse can end in the child’s death. Children who may survive may suffer emotional scars that linger long after the thermography papers, physical bruises have healed. Children who are abused are more likely to have problems. Abuse , Bullying , Child abuse 928 Words | 3 Pages. ? Child development theories guide teaching practices of children from essay about i, birth to 11 years of age. One key . issue shaping curriculum design is the essay articles, development of learning standards.

The arrival of standards into programs serving children from birth to 11years of age has challenged those who want to ensure the essay about who am, implementation of developmentally appropriate practices during a standards-based climate that emphasizes accountability. In the stranger in the village a 1953, late 2000s, leading researchers in essay i early childhood education were. Child development , Developmental psychology , Early childhood education 823 Words | 2 Pages. Book Report : Non - Fiction Upstairs Room by Johanna Reiss We Are Witnesses: Five Diaries . of Teenagers Who Died in the Holocaust by spend Jacob Boas Rescue: The Story of How Gentiles Saved Jews in the Holocaust by Milton Meltzer Hiding to Survive: Stories of Jewish Children Rescued from the Holocaust by Maxine B. Rosenberg Parts of the essay who am i, Book Report : Title Page Actual Book Report Contents of Book Report : 1. Manifest Destiny Persuasive Essay. Discuss the setting of the book . . Antisemitism , Days of Remembrance of the Victims of the Holocaust , Debate 318 Words | 3 Pages. Oral Book Report: Realistic Fiction. ? Oral Book Report : Realistic Fiction Outline due May 11 Presentations: May 14 -18 Option 1: . You will be creating and presenting your book report to the class using PowerPoint or a similar program. Who Am. There will be a total five content requirements. For each requirement you will make a series of slides with text, pictures, and things fall apart collision essay other tools that will help you to convey pertinent information about the essay about, novel you selected.

Instructions on using PowerPoint will be given in of confederation class. Character , Climax , Fiction 812 Words | 4 Pages. The Importance of Art in a Child's Development. The Importance of i Art in a Child's Development Shimona Vig M.F.A Art Education III Semester Have you ever seen a child . painting over essay articles vs constitution, a sheet of paper with both hands, pulling her fingertips through the paint to scribble? Or observed a child coloring in freehand circles with crayons? If yes, then you have seen the essay about, concentration on these children's faces , and the joyful expressions of art explored.

You have witnessed creative art in process! I talked to few parents who do art activities. Art , Arts , Cognition 1967 Words | 7 Pages. BOOK REPORT The Outsiders By: S.E Hinton(New York: Puffin Books , 1967) The outsider: The Outsiders is about . two weeks in the life of a 14-year-old boy. The novel tells the story of Ponyboy Curtis and his struggles with right and articles vs constitution wrong in a society in which he believes that he is an outsider. The title of this book is related to the story, because in about i the novel, Ponyboy and Johnny are outsiders. They can be thought of as Outsiders because they are labeled Greasers although they do not act like. Adolescence , Antagonist , Character 1428 Words | 4 Pages.

Non-Fiction vs. Fiction: Which Has Greater Impact on the Mind and Emotions? It’s a legitimate question, don’t you think? One that almost certainly stirs debate and the occasional argument. Many may say . non - fiction has a greater impact than fiction on the mind and spend money essay emotions of the i, responder because non - fiction literature is thesis, based on a true story. Non - fiction authors give responders the ability to understand the experiences and difficulties that they have faced and essay about gone through.

For example taking a look at the diary of Anne Frank creates an eagerness as you read from persuasive, one. Anne Frank , Fiction , Fritz Pfeffer 1243 Words | 3 Pages. Comparing Fiction and Non Fiction. Marlo Wilson Business Literature January 15,2007 Lynn Nelson Comparing Narrative in Fiction and essay . Non - Fiction Paper Comparing Narrative in Fiction and Non - Fiction Paper 1 My Lack of a 1953 Gumption a non fiction story by Russell Baker and Forty-Five Month a fiction story by R. About Who Am I. K. Narayan were two very interesting readings. It was quite amazing to see how two authors with totally. Character , Family , Fiction 1202 Words | 7 Pages. Each year, libraries across the things fall cultural collision essay, United States report hundreds of challenges.

The leading causes for contesting a book are . sexually explicit content, offensive language and inappropriate subjects for minors [source: American Library Association]. Only a minority of the requests actually make it through to banning the book from its respective library. The Catcher in the Rye. About Who Am I. The Scarlet Letter. Huckleberry Finn. Harry Potter. The Diary of Anne Frank. Animal Farm. To Kill a Mockingbird.

The Da Vinci. Adventures of essay vs constitution Huckleberry Finn , Book , Censorship 1850 Words | 5 Pages. Section-I CHILD DEVELPOMENT AND PEDAGOGY 1. Raja, a student of your class, is very tense due to the acne on his face . What will u . do? (1) (2) (3) (4) 2. Who Am I. Ignore him. Tell him that it is essay articles, normal and is due to hormonal changes. Essay Who Am I. Tell him to go to a doctor as it is a medical problem. Scold and tell him not to waste time on these issues . Stranger In The Essay By Baldwin. A student wants to share his personal problems and essay who am i asks for permission to call on u at thermography papers, your residence.

What should be your response? (1) Avoid giving time. (2) Give. Education , Jean Piaget , Palme d'Or 1302 Words | 6 Pages. My Report on an Issue/Area of Public Concern Related to the Care Profession – the Death of Baby P. My report on an issue /area of public concern related to the care profession – The death of Baby P. The . issue /area of concern raised in this report is as to how Peter’s death happened in the first place. Peter Conelly also known as ‘Baby P’ was born in London, on about who am the 1st March 2006, he sadly died on the 3rd August 2007 age 17 months. He died after receiving/suffering more than 50 injuries over a period of 8 months. During this time he was repeatedly seen by Haringey’s Children’s Services and.

Death of Baby P , Harringay , Herbert Laming, Baron Laming 1249 Words | 4 Pages. Child Soldiers * Violates Article 25 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights Article 25: a) Everyone has the articles of confederation, right to a . Essay Who Am. standard of living adequate for the health and well-being of himself and stranger village a 1953 by baldwin of his family, including food, clothing, housing and medical care and necessary social services, and the right to security in the event of unemployment, sickness, disability, widowhood, old age or other lack of livelihood in circumstances beyond his control. b) Motherhood and childhood are. Amnesty International , Armed forces , Crime against humanity 1553 Words | 5 Pages. CHILD DEVELOPMENT 1. The role of play activity in who am child . development Play activities involve a wide range of behaviors and can be situated in how to spend pocket money essay different contexts, which may have multiple meanings for essay about i children and adults. Play theorist Brian Sutton-Smith believes that the manifest, human child is about who am i, born with a huge neuronal over-capacity, which if not used will die. ‘Not only are children developing the neurological foundations that will enable problem solving.

Child , Developmental psychology , Emotion 1466 Words | 4 Pages. Theories of stranger in the village Child Development 1. Three Major Stages in Freud’s Psychosexual Theory a. Oral Stage b. About. Phallic c. . Genital Stage 2. Papers. Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory in about i association with child development a. In The Essay. Stages 1 and 2 b. Stages 3 and 4 3. Piaget’s Cognitive –Stage Theory a. Sensorimotor Stage b. Preoperational Stage c. Concrete Operations Stage 4. Points of Similarity a. Similarities b. Differences 5. Why is understanding child development important. Developmental psychology , Genital stage , Jean Piaget 1871 Words | 6 Pages. Santrock's Child Development Chapter 1. HISTORICAL PERCEPTION OF CHILDREN . Who Am. European paintings centuries ago often depicted children as miniature adults. Do these . artistic creations indicate that earlier Europeans did not view childhood as a distinct period? Development . The pattern of movement or change that begins at conception and continues through the life span. original sin view. Advocated during the Middle Ages, the belief that children were born into the world as evil beings and were basically bad. The goal of child rearing was to property plant thesis, provide. Adolescence , Child development , Childhood 1329 Words | 5 Pages.

Unit 201 Child and young person development Outcome 3: Understand the potential effects of about transitions on . children and young people 3.1 Identify the property, transitions experienced by most children and essay about i young people 3.3 Describe with examples how transitions may affect children and young people’s behaviour and development Under each heading, explain how each aspect may impact on stranger village by baldwin a child’s behaviour development , giving examples. · Puberty: Growth spurts, early bloomers, late bloomers, jealousy. Birth order , Childhood , Family 1829 Words | 6 Pages. Child and Young Person's Development. There is an about who am i, expected pattern of development of spend money children and young people from about, birth through to 19 years. There are different . aspects of of confederation child development , each child is unique and will develop in their own way and different rates, and this is essay about who am i, a holistic process.

Due to this, milestones of development are used as an average when a child reaches a particular stage to assess how far they have reached. Children can often reach particular milestones earlier or later than others. This can effect their. Child development , Childhood , Communication 1680 Words | 6 Pages. Assignment 1 1.Summarise the main development of a child from the age range 0-2years, 3-5years and essay of confederation 5-8years. About. Raising a baby, . especially for the first time, is both exciting and challenging.

This is a time for developing the bonds that will last a lifetime providing the child with the manifest destiny persuasive, inner resources to about, develop self-esteem and of confederation vs constitution the ability to relate positively with others. It is also the time for essay about who am parents to begin to discover who this new person really is. Each child is unique and its important that. Child , Childhood , Developmental psychology 1985 Words | 7 Pages. Working Mothers: the how to spend money wisely, Effect on a Child Development. Working Mothers: The Effect on a Child’s Development Introduction What is working mother? Working mother is defined as women who are . married or not participating in the labour force for income to raise their children . About I. Women start to be active in the labour force once they open the opportunity to the women to work and essay it is shown that there were a increasing rate of essay about women in the labour force which is 71.3% at the year of 2010 compare to manifest essay, the year of 1990 (66.7%).

It also happened because of the. Breast milk , Breastfeeding , Day care 2054 Words | 5 Pages. ? TMA 01 ED209 CHILD DEVELOPMENT Research of evidence, which describes the development of infants’ . sensory abilities and how research has generated this knowledge. About Who Am I. This assay will describe the development of infant’s senses of their 18 months of life and will define how this knowledge has generated. Thermography Research Papers. The development of the sensory and about who am the nervous system is not whole at birth and will continue to manifest destiny essay, mature until the about i, adolescence. As babies cannot express themselves with words it has.

Child development , Childbirth , Developmental psychology 1557 Words | 5 Pages. ? CHILD MARRIAGE IN INDIA: Definition: Child marriage means that two children are forced to marry each other with . the consent of the two families. The children are forced into the institution of marriage without knowing about its significance in the long run. Though parents are of the opinion that they involve their children in such rituals because it is an things apart essay, age old custom and it will also secure the future of their children but the reality is not so. Essay About I. Though in some cases parents believe in such superstitions. Arranged marriage , Betrothal , Child marriage 1279 Words | 4 Pages. gifts we can give our children is the destiny persuasive essay, joy of essay about who am learning. Our focus is to provide a stimulating early care and education experience which . promotes each child's cognitive, physical, social and emotional development . Our program is designed for children aged 3 and 4 years old. We aim to provide a safe, happy, caring and stimulating environment where your child can learn through encouragement, sensitivity to plant thesis, others and essay who am mutual respect while at the same time encouraging each child to express his own personality. Child development , Childhood , Developmental psychology 2122 Words | 10 Pages.

?Courtney Rodgers Child Development 4 May 2014 Philosophy Statement I believe that with the proper education at the right . age, children are more capable of fulfilling their duties as positive and thermography constructive members of society. There are plethoras of ways an early education program can influence a child’s life in about who am i a positive manner in order for them to fully develop. Focusing on health and safety care is crucial to their wellbeing while developing in stranger in the village the classroom. Essay About. Other aspects such as play. Child , Child development , Childhood 1224 Words | 4 Pages. Street child is essay of confederation vs constitution, a term for who am a child experiencing homelessness and essay who primarily resides in the streets of a city (typically in a . I. developing country). The exact definition of a street child is debatable due to the lack of precise categories. Stranger Village A 1953 By Baldwin. The term has largely been used in reference to children who live entirely in public spaces, without adult supervision or care. Street children are often subject to about who am i, abuse, neglect, exploitation, or, in extreme cases, murder by clean-up squads that have been hired. Child abandonment , Homelessness , Poverty 1167 Words | 4 Pages.

Research Paper No Child Left Behind. TD January 17, 2012 No Child Left Behind The No Child Left Behind law is a law promoted by George W. Vs Constitution. Bush, in which . I. public high schools are required to provide information on things fall apart cultural all of their students to essay about i, the Pentagon. By doing this, it ensures that no matter how hard they try to hide, the future draft will leave no child behind. Stranger Village A 1953 Essay By Baldwin. The No Child Left Behind law is a detriment to American public schools. Although the No Child Left Behind act was meant to about who am, aid the children of vs constitution America in elementary.

College , Education , Education in the United States 2470 Words | 7 Pages. Child Abuse and the Development of Self. Child Abuse and the Development of essay about who am Self Brooke Jackson (Johnson) Stacy Smith Sociology 450 Introduction . Manifest Destiny Persuasive. Child abuse is essay who am, a very distressing topic for property and equipment thesis a lot of people to talk about. For many years it has been a largely unaddressed issue . Child abuse is an area that needs more awareness brought to it despite any discomfort it may bring. It can affect how a child interacts with other people on day to day bases and about i can affect them for and equipment thesis the rest of their lives. As a survivor of about who am i child abuse I have. Abuse , Bullying , Charles Cooley 1481 Words | 4 Pages. Level 2 Unit 201 Child And Young Person Development.

? Level 2 Certificate Supporting Teaching and Learning in Schools Unit 201 – Child and manifest destiny persuasive essay young person development Feedback to . Essay About I. candidate: Action to and equipment, be taken by candidate: Candidate Signature: Date: Assessor Signature: Date: Unit 201 – 1.1b, Unit 203 – 3.1 – Development of who am speech Match the thermography papers, developmental stage and age to the relevant picture 0 – 6 Months Begins to use vowels and consonants Example: ‘dada’, by ten months understands about 18 words, begins to point, and enjoys speech games such. Child development , Childhood , Developmental psychology 1675 Words | 10 Pages. I am getting what I gave. Isn’t that sweet? Dr. James Dobson in his bestseller book “The New Strong-Willed Child ” guides . bewildered Christian parents (like me and my mother) into who am, better understanding their little Napoleonic brutes, giving them the tools they need to be successful in one of the most challenging roles, a parent of a strong-willed child . The original strong-willed child book was one of the first books that he had written after leaving college in 1977. Since then there have been nearly. Childhood , Developmental psychology , Focus on spend pocket wisely essay the Family 2645 Words | 7 Pages. Understanding children and young person’s development . Task B2 (Ref: 2.3) Theories of who am i child . development . An understanding of child development is essential; it allows us to fully appreciate the cognitive, emotional, physical, social and educational growth that children go through from things fall apart cultural collision essay, birth and into essay about who am, early adulthood. Child development is things fall apart collision, a multidisciplinary subject; it draws on various academic fields, including psychology, neuroscience, sociology, paediatrics, biology and genetics.

Child development. Child development , Cognitive psychology , Developmental psychology 1997 Words | 7 Pages. Issues Related on Time Delivery of Text Books Among the School Students by essay about who am the Ministry of Education Services. Topic: ISSUES RELATED ON TIME DELIVERY OF TEXT BOOKS AMONG THE SCHOOL STUDENTS BY THE MINISTRY OF EDUCATION . SERVICES INTRODUCTION Sri Lanka is one of the countries that deliver education free for all the citizens. The free education system of the how to spend, country is unique because the government not only delivers education free to 9913 schools island wide, but the text book , School uniforms, pair of shoes and even nutritious daily food supplement during the school hours is also granted free of charge. Education , School , Sri Lanka 1120 Words | 6 Pages. different factors that influence a child’s development . In this essay I will discuss how heredity, culture, nutrition and parental affection . all influence child Development across three different domains, the physical, cognitive and social-emotional. Who Am. These four factors surround children in their everyday lives and they all influence child development in manifest destiny some way.

Due to about i, these factors child development is a unique and individual journey for every child . Firstly I will discuss heredity and the influences. Child development , Childhood , Cognitive psychology 2024 Words | 6 Pages. ethical issues related to reproducation. system to aid infertile couples to get children . Pocket Wisely. It is also used in transgender couples and genetic concerns in the family. The examples of . assisted reproduction technology include invitro-fertilization embryo transfer, intracytoplasmic sperm injection, gamete intrafalllopian transfer, zygote intrafallopian transfer and intrauterine insemination. Essay Who Am I. It is a practice that has caused wide controversy from the ethical point of view. There are many ethical issues surrounding artificial reproduction. Many. Artificial insemination , Assisted reproductive technology , Family 1512 Words | 5 Pages. Children and Young People Development.

1.1 Describe the expected pattern of destiny essay children and i young people’s development from birth to 19 years, to include: * . Thermography Papers. Physical development , communication development , intellectual development social, emotional and behavioural development . 0-3 months from essay about, birth a baby’s physical and progress development will improve than any other age. They will have many different movements but this will be very limited, these include grasping (wrapping fingers around things they touch) rooting (will help them. Child development , Childhood , Developmental psychology 1390 Words | 4 Pages.

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Animal Fable Essays and Research Papers. Common type of story is the fable , which presents a moral, or lesson about human behavior. Fables usually feature . animals behaving and speaking as humans. Among the most widely known are those from the ancient Sanskrit Pancatantra (Five Chapters), which was first written down in India perhaps 2,000 years ago. Known in Europe as The Fables of Bidpai, this collection presents animal characters in entertaining stories and poetry.

Many European animal fables have at least in part descended from the Pancatantra. Aesop , Aesop's Fables , Fable 1110 Words | 3 Pages. Animal Fables : Power of Literature There are certain qualities that people must possess in means of ethics and wisdom. . However, many aspects of these qualities are hard to be taught just as mathematics and about who am i science are taught. For this reason, people use the method of telling fables . There are many different kinds of fables ; popular ones are animal fable , one of which is Kalilah wa Dimna, an Arab translation of ancient Indian fable called Panchatantra. In Kalilah wa Dimna, many different animals.

Arab , Fable , Fables 777 Words | 2 Pages. Fables and Fairytales For hundreds of years, fables and fairy tales have been created and passed through generations. There is . Things Fall Collision! much more to these kinds of storytelling than meets the eye. There are many differences between the two; some differences are very obvious and distinct, while others are unclear. It is possible for fables and fairy tales to essay about who am be confused with one another. Destiny Persuasive Essay! One thing they have in common is who am that fables and manifest persuasive fairytales may play a large role in a child’s upbringing. It is that reason. About I! Damsel in distress , Fable , Fairy godmother 1267 Words | 4 Pages. Meek in Carter, p. 146 Fables are short stories that have an abstract . moral lesson, fables consist on talking animals which have human like qualities while others consist of only humans or both in a story. Fables impart moral values and life skills which are indeed valuable to young children.

The Didatic value of thermography papers, two fables will and the way one would approach these texts in a classroom will be discussed in about i, the following. Aesop's Fables , Fable , Fairy tale 1192 Words | 7 Pages. Task two A fable is usually a short tale or false story featuring talking animals each representing certain human character . Thermography Papers! traits, either negative or positive. The purpose of fables is didactic, that is to teach and in all fables it is to teach a valuable lesson. I! Although short and simple, these tales are complex in the sense that they convey abstract concepts to stranger in the a 1953 essay by baldwin young audiences. That is why so many of these tales are retold in modern English and with illustrations of the animals in order to present.

Aesop's Fables , Ass , Fable 1994 Words | 6 Pages. A Stylistic Analysis Of A Fable The Unicorn In The Garden By. is told in the third person from the viewpoint of an omniscient anonymous narrator. It is a mixture of the elements of the description and the dialogues, . though the dialogues are not numerous. This short story has the features of the essay about who am, fable and a fairy tale. As a fable , this story has the moral given at the end, and one of its characters is how to spend wisely essay a mythical creature – a unicorn. Essay Who Am I! The elements of the fairy tale are presented at the first sentence of the short story and the one that is in the end. However. English-language films , Fable , Fiction 1062 Words | 2 Pages.

Fables , Parables, and Tales Fiction as defined in our textbook is a name for stories not entirely factual, but at things apart least partially shaped, . made-up, or imagined. Fiction stories can sometimes take the mind to places that are far away from reality, but add a lesson that aids in about, real-life application. In this essay I will discuss the three traditional forms of storytelling, which are fables , parables, and tales. Essay Of Confederation Vs Constitution! A fable is essay who am a brief story, much similar to plant thesis a tale. These short stories are usually told. Aesop's Fables , Fable , Fables and Parables 900 Words | 3 Pages. Essay About Who Am I! Be… a Fable Everyone knows at least one fable . A fable is a story that typically has animals as . characters and destiny persuasive essay a moral stated at the end. At the end of Aesop’s The Boy Who Cried Wolf, it states that if you lie, no one will believe you.

Animal Farm does not directly state the moral but it can be considered a fable because it has animals as characters, uses metaphors and essay who am teaches a lesson. One classic characteristic of a fable is to have animal characters, and most characters in animal farm are. Aesop's Fables , Animal Farm , Fable 455 Words | 2 Pages. Literature - Fable and Short Story Comparison. Literature – Fable and Short Story Comparison A story is a story, but not all stories are told the manifest destiny essay, same. While fables and about who am i short . stories both have plots and characters, fables like “An Appointment in Samarra” by of confederation English novelist W. Somerset Maugham, often have a clearly stated or interpreted moral, while short stories like “A Pair of Tickets”, by Chinese-American author Amy Tan, tell a tale that leaves readers thinking.

Fables are stories that are direct, use unrealistic characters such as animals and. Aesop's Fables , Amy Tan , Fable 1109 Words | 3 Pages. Aesop's Fables and Original Word Totals. I! Amplifying Fables Stories can be told with few details or a lot. Essay Articles Of Confederation Vs Constitution! Consider the following two versions of the Aesop fable , . Essay About I! “The Oak and the Reed.” An oak that had been uprooted by a storm was carried down a river to thermography the banks where many reeds were growing. The oak was astonished to see that things so slight and frail had withstood the who am i, storm when so great and strong a tree as he himself had been uprooted. Stranger Village A 1953 Essay By Baldwin! * “It’s really not amazing,” said a reed. “You were destroyed by fighting against. Aesop , Aesop's Fables , Fable 690 Words | 3 Pages.

LINGUISTIC PECULARITIES OF ENGLISH-AMERICAN FABLE Graduation paper presented by Patskal Natalia a fifth year student of the about who am, English . department SUPERVISED BY N. Nera a lecturer of the English department Lviv 2012 TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction……………………………………………………………………………. 3 Part I. Theoretical background of fable as a genre ………………………………….6 1.1. Genre of fable in literature and its history…………………………………………..6 1.2. Form and content of fables . Aesop , Aesop's Fables , Fable 13785 Words | 55 Pages. fish. Essay Of Confederation! Respond: Not all countries have the same laws according to them its not their problem to protect animals . The Government of each . About! country is not giving any right to animals as he would give to a human being. In all my entire life he never thought that fish feel pain or that animals can become your best friend and can have a connection with you in a certain way. I learned that animals are clever smart.Do fish feel pain? A biologist says we shouldn’t be so quick to believe they don’t.Fish. Animal , Fish , Fishing 1432 Words | 6 Pages. the goal is not to impart a moral, but rather to show that one can overcome any obstacle (Bettelheim 216-217). Manifest Destiny Essay! Based on this criterion, “The Ugly Duckling” . falls short of about who am, what could be called a fairy tale.

Other than the anthropormorphisizing of the animal characters, there is no magic that is manifest persuasive essay done in about, the story. The characters are not absolute. For instance, the main character’s mother was quite loving and protective of him in research papers, the beginning of the story, and she also defended him against both family. Bruno Bettelheim , Carl Jung , Culture 752 Words | 3 Pages. Essay Who Am I! questions normally addressed in way of essay articles of confederation vs constitution, life. I said so because all the stories give emphasis to the function and role of the society, and also the purpose of . life. Moreover, the about i, tree stories are considered in the category of literary allegory and fable . An Allegory, according to our handout (Introduction to Literature, p vii), is a prose form in how to essay, which the characters, ideas and actions stands for something else or for a system of ideas with meaning implied.

Further, it is a symbolic story that can. Antoine de Saint-Exupery , Fable , Jonathan Livingston Seagull 964 Words | 3 Pages. imaginary people, places or events, or nonfictional. Essay! A. Kinds of Fictional Prose ? 1. The Fable ?A fable is a short tale . How To Money! conveying a clear moral lesson in essay who am i, which characters are animals acting like human beings. Thermography Research Papers! ? The stories attributed to the Greek slave Aesop (sixth century BC) are the earliest and most famous fables . Essay About Who Am I! ? George Orwell’s political satire Animal Farm is a modern example of an extended fable . 2. The Folk Tale ?A folk tale is a short story of unknown authorship which has been transmitted. Edgar Allan Poe , Fable , Fairy tale 729 Words | 15 Pages. Animal Farm- Themes / Language and Meaning. Animal Farm - Themes Language and Meaning In Animal Farm, his allegory of the how to spend pocket money, Soviet Revolution, Orwell examines the essay who am i, use of . language and the subversion of the property thesis, meaning of words by essay about i showing how the powerful manipulate words for their own benefit. As a journalist, Orwell knew the pocket wisely essay, power of who am, words to serve whichever side the writer backed. In the novel, Snowball is a quick talker who can always explain his way out of any situation. When the essay articles of confederation vs constitution, birds object to essay who am the maxim, Four legs good, two legs bad.

Animal Farm , Communism , Fable 2163 Words | 6 Pages. Fables and Short Stories. the things apart essay, Fox and essay about i the Grape vs. a Pair of Tickets. Property Plant! Reading Fables and who am i Short Stories Fables , parables and short stories all tell a story and all try to relay a meaningful message . or moral. Fables tend to be shorter, use animals and clearly state the fall apart cultural essay, moral the author is trying to portray. Parables also tell a story and portray a message, but it basically illustrates a moral or religious lesson.

Therefore, I guess it is safe to say that all parables can be fables but not all fables can be a parable. About I! Short stories however tend to be a lot longer. Aesop's Fables , Fable , Fables and Parables 1014 Words | 3 Pages. Lion and the Ox is a one of the oldest and most popular pieces of classic Arabic literature. Originally from India, this animal . Articles Of Confederation! fable is famous for its inclusion of i, many other animal fables , each of which help provide the characters of the story with advice regarding their situation.

Unlike The Arabian Nights, which also uses a frame tale that contains each tale, multiple animals share their wisdom with one another. The wisdom of the wisely essay, story’s two main characters, Kalila and Dimna, help foreshadow and. Arabic literature , Fable , Panchatantra 1819 Words | 5 Pages. Who Am! distribution of essay, goods in the pigs’ favor—he may even, in fact, be complicit in it early on. Furthermore, the ideals of Animal Farm—like . Orwell’s ideal version of essay about, socialism—are rooted in democracy, with all of the animals deciding how their collective action should be undertaken. Articles! For any one animal to essay rise to greater power than any other would violate that ideal and essay essentially render Animal Farm indistinguishable from a human farm—an unavoidable eventuality by the end of the novella. About Who Am I! Though their motives. Animal Farm , George Orwell , Joseph Stalin 1385 Words | 6 Pages.

Hawthorne to Faulkner: the Evolution of the Short Story. authors' style of preaching morals is reminiscent of the fables of Aesop and the religious parables of the Old and New Testament. The reader . is faced with a life lesson after reading Hawthorne's Young Goodman Brown: you cannot judge other people. A similar moral is presented in Faulkner's A Rose for Emily. The use of morals combined with elements of Romantic era writing show the essay, stories of Hawthorne and Faulkner to be descendants both of fables and essay i of Romance literature. Nathaniel Hawthorne's Young.

Fable , Herman Melville , Joyce Carol Oates 1613 Words | 5 Pages. The Frog Prince Questions Why was the prince turned into a frog and apart cultural essay not any other animal ? - I think that the prince was turned into a frog . and not any other animal because the who am i, fairy who had cast the spell on thermography, the prince would have known that the spell can only be broken if the prince stayed with a princess who took him out of the spring, for essay about i, 3 days and ate out of her plate. The fairy would have also known that most princesses are not very fond of frogs. So, the fairy must have thought that the. Brothers Grimm , Fable , Fairy tale 825 Words | 3 Pages. Apart Cultural Essay! phenomena that occur. Essay I! What types of works make up the literary genre of folklore? The works that make up the category of folklores are legends, folktales, . and fairytales.

What are the characteristics of fables ? The characteristics of a fable are that the main character is usually a talking animal and the short story expresses a clear moral at the end. Manifest Destiny Essay! How are folktales and fairy tales related? Folktales and essay who am fairytales are related because a fairy tale is a type of things fall cultural collision essay, folktale but a folktale cannot be. Fable , Fairy , Fairy tale 1111 Words | 4 Pages. Disadvantages of keeping animals in zoos Hello everybody. My partner has just showed us some benefits of zoos. So now, I am going to talk . about the disadvantages of keeping animals in about, zoos. How To Spend Money Wisely Essay! There are 3 main points that I want to emphasize: Moral perspective, then Abuse and mistreatment, and the final is Wrong Information because of their stress behavior First of essay, all is money essay about the about who am, animals ’ right. Are zoos really better for the animals , or just for in the a 1953 by baldwin, human?

In fact, humans are animals too. Essay Who Am I! What if some. Animal , Animal welfare , Human 778 Words | 3 Pages. Myth- Aliki, the plant, Gods and Goddesses of Olympics. Essay I! 1995 In this tale , author Steven Kellog depicts the incredible story of thermography research papers, a girl named Sally Ann Thunder Ann Whirlwind who has an amazing amount of . About! strength, vitality and plant and equipment thesis agility and essay who am i who sets off for the frontier at age eight . Stranger Village A 1953 Essay By Baldwin! She lived with the animals and loved her life in the wilderness until one day she meets a stranger in the woods that needs her help . It is about Davy Crockett , the most famous woodsman in America . Thesis! They fall in love and marry, but the who am i, amazing feats of strength and articles of confederation courage fill. Children's literature , Fable , Fairy tale 1291 Words | 4 Pages.

Aesop's most beloved fables , an unlikely pair learn that no act of kindness is ever wasted. After a ferocious lion spares a cowering mouse that . Essay About I! he'd planned to eat, the mouse later comes to his rescue, freeing him from village a 1953 essay by baldwin a poacher's trap. With vivid depictions of the essay about who am, landscape of the African Serengeti and expressively-drawn characters, Pinkney makes this a truly special retelling, and manifest destiny essay his stunning pictures speak volumes. Essay About! This is a visual retelling of the classic Aesop fable : A lion, awakened by a. A Story , Caldecott Honor , Caldecott Medal 1221 Words | 4 Pages. and women those of men. Stranger In The Village! Through stories, we reach across the rifts not only of gender and age, but also of race and creed, geography and essay about who am i class, even the . Thermography Research Papers! rifts between species or between enemies. Folk tales and fables and about who am myths often show humans talking and working with other animals , with trees, with rivers and stones, as if recalling or envisioning a time of easy commerce among all beings. Helpful ducks and cats and property plant thesis frogs, wise dragons, stolid oaks, all have lessons for us in these old tales. Fable , Fairy tale , Italo Calvino 2466 Words | 6 Pages.

children’s unconscious minds; however, in adults, the essay about, conscious mind is much more realistic and we are forced to suppress our unconscious for a normal sense . of everyday life. Fables , by Bill Willingham, achieves a similar mindset to a child’s by applying fairy tale characters to modern day life. The fable characters in Fables find themselves in stranger in the village a 1953 by baldwin, situations that adults can relate to – such as Snow White’s talk about her ex husband, etc. Willingham, in a sense has opened the door to the suppressed child. Brothers Grimm , Charles Perrault , Consciousness 743 Words | 3 Pages. only rival is the magazine short story.

Fable is a short allegorical tale emphasizing on essay about i, a moral or any principle of essay, behavior. The . characters of about, fables are usually animals that portray like human beings, though they keep their animal traits intact. The moral of village a 1953 by baldwin, these fables is highlighted towards the end of the story in the form of essay who am, a proverb and is generally enacted. The oldest fables describe stories of why crows are black, or why different animals display different characteristics, such as a. Fable , Meter , Poetic form 1416 Words | 5 Pages. and most have lost their way. Catherine Orenstein has discovered the original plot of Little Red Riding Hood. This original version teaches the reader . lessons about life. Using the formalist approach I intend to show the essay, reader how this old time fable can be informative to the reader and inspirational when making a decision that you only get one chance to make.

The author starts out by essay about who am capturing the thesis, reader’s attention he opens with, “Once upon essay about i a time there lived in a certain village a little. Academy Award for Best Picture , Chaperon , Fable 759 Words | 3 Pages. conclusion for the protagonist and what is in manifest destiny persuasive, store for her later on in the movie. In one scene when her mother is on about who am, the bed and the baby starts kicking . Research! she tells Ofelia to recite a fable to her unborn brother to calm him down, her story is about pain and who am i loss and the reward in the end granted be eternal life. The fable she tells foreshadows the imagination she has for hardships she faces in reality and her conclusion towards it. Del Toro’s film reflects the journey of free will and link between destinies. Doug Jones , Fable , Fairy 1015 Words | 3 Pages. How To Pocket Money! A fairy tale, or wonder tale, is a kind of essay about who am i, folktale or fable . In these stories we meet witches and queens, giants and elves, princes, dragons, . talking animals , ogres, princesses, and sometimes even fairies.

Marvelous and magical things happen to how to spend pocket money wisely essay characters in fairy tales. A boy may become a bird. A princess may sleep for essay about who am i, a hundred years. A seal may become a girl. Objects too can be enchanted — mirrors talk, pumpkins become carriages, and a lamp may be home to a genie.

What is a Fairy Tale Welcome. Fable , Fairy , Fairy tale 728 Words | 3 Pages. not fade, Nor lose possession of that fair thou ow'st, Nor shall death brag thou wander'st in how to spend pocket wisely, his shade, When in eternal lines to time thou grow'st, So . long as men can breathe, or eyes can see, So long lives this, and this gives life to thee. Fable The Boy Who Cried Wolf by Aesop There once was a shepherd boy who was bored as he sat on the hillside watching the village sheep. To amuse himself he took a great breath and sang out, Wolf! Wolf!

The Wolf is chasing the sheep! The villagers came. Boy , Fable , Love 1808 Words | 8 Pages. Comparing Classic Folktales Before reading and writing were common practice; history was told in the form of legend; fiction was told in about who am i, the form of . myth; and lessons about life were taught to articles of confederation children through folktales and fables . Folktales not only i served a role in thermography, teaching children, but often helped define the common themes of life in general for that particular culture. Most folktales have a specific message which they try to portray through symbolism, writing style, and plot. I! Many folktales. Aesop , Aesop's Fables , Fable 1527 Words | 4 Pages. Josef's story is shocking and at times unbelievable it is spend money wisely however a very true indication of times for minorities during the Holocaust. Gemma past is . uncovered after we hear Josef's story, we no longer think of her as just a grandma with a repetitive fable but of a survivor, of a brave warrior who chose to live. Josef, by way of the two stories (his story and Sleeping Beauty) contrasting is shown to be a gentleman, savior, and a true prince fit for a princess.

The idea of him being called the prince. Barbed wire , Fable , Fairy tale 992 Words | 3 Pages. Life Lessons Learned from Three Little Pigs. March 9, 2013 As children growing up, we were enriched with stories, folk tales and fables passed from generation to generation. . These fables served as entertainment and who am i taught life lessons that we still carry on today. These stories helped to preserve our innocence and youth until adulthood.

Fables were stories that teach a moral (right vs. wrong) or valuable lesson to the reader. Fables and how to spend money wisely essay fairy tale heroes were a big part of my childhood. The tooth fairy was one of my favorite heroes. Big Bad Wolf , Fable , Fairy tale 976 Words | 3 Pages. An Assessment Ofadolescence and Identity Development. Essay I! many of the concerns I faced and essay of confederation also explain much of my behavior today. Essay About Who Am I! The imaginary audience and personal fable fallacies by Elkind and . identity crisis theory by Marcia touch on areas I look at now and see that they were some of the very situations facing , not only myself, but all adolescence.

David Elkind believed that adolescent thinking falls under two distinct areas, personal fables and imaginary audience. Destiny Essay! Looking back on my life, there is no surprise to find examples of both of these theories. Adolescence , Developmental psychology , Fable 817 Words | 3 Pages. takeover and the events in George Orwell’s novel Animal Farm. It was a time when a totalitarian government came to power and thus a climate of . fear existed. Even when the more discerning animals questioned the pigs’ actions, they were trapped into a submission of power due to the manipulation of language and propaganda tactics employed by the pigs. I! Animal Farm in Historical and Social Context In many ways, Animal Farm is a complete allegorical / fable –like retelling of the vs constitution, founding of the essay who am i, Soviet. Animal , Animal Farm , Don't Let Me Be Misunderstood 2322 Words | 7 Pages. The Hare and the Tortoise Aesop’s fable “The Tortoise and the Hare” tells of an egotistical rabbit who boast about being the swiftest runner . Things Fall Essay! among all the animals ; challenging all the essay about, other animals to race against him. To the rabbit’s surprise a seemingly lowly turtle accepts the things apart cultural essay, challenge to race. The rabbit seems to find the turtle’s statement amusing and decides to race the turtle; thinking the turtle was no real competition.

By standers gawked trying to dissuade the turtle who is committed. About I! Fable , Hare , Mind 747 Words | 2 Pages. The Boy in Striped Pyjamas - Research. Property And Equipment Thesis! concept of fairness, familial loyalty and who am i obliviousness to the social conventions of discrimination. The Boy in the Striped Pyjamas is subtitled A . Fable and, as in other modern fables such as Antoine de St Exupery's The Little Prince, Boyne uses Bruno to reveal the property, flaws in an adult world. Essay Who Am I! For me, as an adult reader, however, the fact that this fable is manifest destiny set in essay about who am, living history - the Holocaust - did, at times, jar. Manifest! I couldn't help comparing it to the immediacy and essay about i complexity of Primo Levi's If This.

Adolf Hitler , Auschwitz concentration camp , Fable 2337 Words | 6 Pages. his own mind. Essay Of Confederation! But… let me land down on the ground with this book and analyse it. It is obvious that this book belongs to few magical forms (for example – . supernatural or magical realism) as a novel and is more obvious that this book is actually a fable in a form of novel. About! But it’s easier to say and essay articles of confederation vs constitution define than construe understandably this kind of work, as the environment described there consists of two (well actually if you don’t believe in spirituality then one) worlds – the reality (the real one.

Fable , Jonathan Livingston Seagull , Publishers Weekly list of bestselling novels in the United States in the 1970s 1544 Words | 5 Pages. Argumentative Research Paper: Should children read fairy tales? story structuring skills. Additionally, in the article entitled Monsters, Tooth Fairies, God, and Germs! it is stated that young children are receiving an . enormous volume of essay about, information - from the identity of how to spend money wisely essay, their biological parents to names of animals to facts about the world around them - by testimony: Someone tells them that the essay about who am i, family pooch is called dog and that Mom and manifest Dad are, indeed, Mom and Dad. I! (Harris 1) The author continues in the same article by referring to his book The Work of. Children's literature , Fable , Fairy 2132 Words | 7 Pages.

The Features of Traditional Irish Storytelling. Plant Thesis! ghost and about who am i fairy tales. The difference between these two types of tales was that pants were regarded as jokes or ‘harmless lies’ while fictional tales had . implied instructions or tutorials for men. Tales that were obviously didactic and often involved animals as characters were usually told for cultural essay, children before they went to sleep so that they would listen to their parents and for example would go out of their home at essay about who am i night (Glassie 1982: 43-62). Pants and fictional tales were usually told by old wise men. Pocket Essay! Brothers Grimm , Fable , Fairy 1553 Words | 4 Pages. which various items work cohesively to show the “meaning beyond the literal level” (“Alchemist Analysis Notes”; “ Fables and Parables: From . Essay About Who Am! Symbols to Allegory?”). Research Papers! “Everything in the narrative is essay about who am a symbol that relates to other symbols within the things, story” and “can be read either literally or as a symbolic statement about a political, spiritual, or psychological truth”, like The Holy Bible. (“ Fables and Parables: From Symbols to Allegory?”). Essay I! With the comprehension of the research papers, system of allegory, one is able to. Bible , Dream , Fable 1257 Words | 4 Pages. around them everyday. James Thurber was also very well-known for his cartoons that appeared in magazines. In his drawings and who am sketches he usually . Cultural Collision Essay! emphasized the fact that man had become one of the most bewildered and least well-adjusted of essay about, all animals because they ventured into the unknown world of thought and imagination; therefore, they created new troubles and problems for themselves when they had difficulties handling the already present obstacles.

Thurber stated that people must practice a. E. B. White , Fable , Gag cartoon 1583 Words | 4 Pages. refuses to give up pseudolus Ill pay him myself has surpassed Trojan horse and Ulysses Pseudolus the upper hand, come drink with me… 2. What, if . anything, can we learn about Roman slavery, from the anonymous comic biography of thesis, Aesop? Fables as a way to talk without being understood by masters Way of circulating popular tales as well as preserving them through time to masses Multiple perspectives Also multiple versions which meant that these tales were popular The prose and. Ancient Rome , Fable , Master 958 Words | 4 Pages. Essay Who Am I! The handsomest drowned man- examples of realism throughout the story. cousins and kinsmen- all for mourning the dead abandoned man. And, to go on, Marquez adds that the sailors who heard the weeping from a distance went off . course and people heard of one who had himself tied to the mainmast, remembering the ancient fables about sirens (1000). Plant And Equipment Thesis! These kinds of details intensify a serious situation, and add the element of fiction and about i magic to the description. The drowned man became a legend and a person to whom all loved and adored, bringing the community together. Even. Death , Fable , Fairy tale 1091 Words | 3 Pages.

Rocking Horse Winner Literary Devices. The style of writing used by D.H. Lawrence in persuasive, this story suggests that it is meant to be regarded as a legend or fable . About I! This is apparent from . the very first words of the story, when Lawrence writes, There was a woman who was beautiful, who started with all the advantages, yet she had no luck (Lawrence). These words are on reminiscent of the traditional way to begin a legend/ fable , Once upon a time . How To Spend Money Essay! This is a conscious attempt on the part of the author to use the traditional oral storytelling. Electra complex , Fable , Fiction 1255 Words | 4 Pages. Commentary to Bettelheim's Chapter on Cinderella. Essay I! Little Red Riding Hood being in bed with the wolf? I have no idea but what I do know that fairy tales have nothing sexual to them and they aren’t out there . to teach children either. They are there to entertain our little ones. A fairy tales are not fables nor are they didactic; therefore they are not there to teach anything nor corrupt the child’s brain because a child simply cannot get all of Bettelheim’s nonsense by himself.

I do agree that ‘Cinderella’ is a simply fairy tale and that it shows. How To Pocket Money! Brothers Grimm , Bruno Bettelheim , Charles Perrault 1002 Words | 3 Pages. to essay about who am i mention it being a little too inappropriate depending on the age of the apart essay, child. Fairy tales are not always glass slippers and essay about i talking cookies. The . originals are raw and have a distinct message to portray. There are no little birdies singing or animals that help you clean; there is persuasive essay heartbreak, death, portrayal of other faiths, etc. that by today's standards would be in no way appropriate for children. I always thought they all had happy endings and everyone got what they wanted. boy was I wrong.

Egyptian pantheon , Fable , Fairy 1053 Words | 3 Pages. The Catbird Seat By James Thurber. Who Am I! 1942 issue of the New Yorker, and then in Thurber?s 1945 collection of The Thurber Carnival (Kenney 60). The story was chosen for Best Stories of 1943 . (Holmes 227). Thurber is very well known for publishing children?s books full of fairy tales and fables . In The Catbird Seat, Thurber employs the structure of comedy with the battle between the two sexes. Apart Cultural Collision Essay! Thurber?s subject in this story is of a little man in a baffling and alien world where aggressive women threatened the masculine identity. About! His show.

A Thurber Carnival , Charles Bukowski , Fable 2155 Words | 6 Pages. Pocket! In the animal kingdom there are so many different types of species. Every animal in essay about i, the animal kingdom are a part . of the animalia kingdom. Some of the different species that can be found in the animalia kingdom are insects, birds, echinoderms, and mammal. Out of all these different species that belong to the animalia kingdom they all have many traits and adaptations that are either very similar or very different that the other. Mammals-There are as many as 5000 mammal species in the animal kingdom. Animal , Deer , Honey bee 1122 Words | 3 Pages. Animal Farm: Allegory of stranger in the village a 1953, Stalinism.

Animal Farm: Allegory of Stalinism Most directly one would say that Animal Farm is an allegory of Stalinism, growing out from who am i . the Russian Revolution in 1917. Because it is cast as an animal fable it gives the reader/viewer, some distance from the specific political events. In The Village! The use of the fable form helps one to examine the certain elements of essay about who am i, human nature which can produce a Stalin and enable him to seize power. Orwell, does however, set his fable in familiar events of articles, current history. Old Major. Animal , Animal Farm , Don't Let Me Be Misunderstood 975 Words | 3 Pages. A study of the conventions o fairy tales. characters who is outcast, motifs of helpful animal and impossible task and magic. Who Am! Fairy tales always used “once upon a time in a kingdom far . far away” as the beginning of the story, thought very simple but this sentence is actually very important to a fairy tale because it makes every thing about the story divorced from the in the a 1953 by baldwin, reality and allow things impossible in real life, such as talking animal present in the story.

Especially for fairy tales, animal personification is a very important part. In. Fable , Fairy , Fairy tale 1628 Words | 4 Pages. A Stylistic Analysis of about who am i, “the Lady or the Tiger? and lexical feature. 2.Key words: parenthetical constructions, Long sentences, Formal words, Lexical repetition 3.Body 1. Brief account of the . author Frank R. Stockton (1834-1902) was an American writer and humorist, best known for his fable The Lady or the Tiger? (1882), about a man sentenced to an unusual punishment for having a romance with the in the village essay, king's beloved daughter. Taken to the public arena, he is faced with two doors, behind one of which is a hungry tiger, who will devour him. A Story , Fable , Fairy tale 982 Words | 3 Pages. ?Critical essay Animal Farm – George Orwell George Orwell’s allegorical fable Animal Farm by George Orwell . depicts Napoleon as the about, supreme leader and how the power gradually corrupts him into manifest becoming everything they fought against in the rebellion. Using the quote “power corrupts and absolute power corrupts absolutely” fits well with Napoleon and his reign as a leader. I believe Napoleon has always wanted power, however it came to be.

He, and many of the about, other pigs, took no part in the rebellion. In The Village A 1953 By Baldwin! Animal Farm , Corruption , George Orwell 803 Words | 2 Pages. ? Literary Analysis Essay La Fontaine's Fables Peter Arowolo Jean de La Fontaine was a widely read 17th century French poet, . he is best known for his fables , which have been read and who am i greatly appreciated by generations of children and fall apart collision essay writers in many languages. He also wrote comedies and essay who am verse tales derived from Boccaccio. Jean de La Fontaine was born on research papers, July 8, 1621, in essay about, Chateau-Thierry, central France. He was the son of a government official. He studied at a Catholic Jesuit college. Aesop , Aesop's Fables , Fable 1170 Words | 5 Pages. In centuries ago, there were various types of animal species that lived in this world but these species cannot be found for of confederation vs constitution, the meantime and . forever.

There are many efforts had been done in order to preserve endangered species but the numbers of endangered species are still increase rapidly. However, there were still numbers of selfish people that did not even concern about the animal species that disappeared. Animal extinction can be defined as animal species no longer stay in the earth as it already. Animal , Biodiversity , Conservation biology 1146 Words | 4 Pages. Animal Trafficking Animal Trafficking, I’m interested in about i, this topic because I have known for a while about . animal trafficking in spend money wisely essay, Brazil. About Who Am I! Animal trafficking is a really big issue in Brazil because there are a lot of property and equipment thesis, endangers and different varied of species. I! Animal Trafficking became a major issue and know is one of the issue that many people are trying to help and stop. Animals from different part of the thermography research papers, world are also being trafficked. It just isn’t animals its everything, for. Animal , Brazil , Conservation biology 2523 Words | 7 Pages.

Are Endangered Animals an Issue? There are around 41,000 endangered species, and around 16,000 of them are on the edge of extinction. There . are many reasons for animals to go endangered, such as habitat loss, pollution, disease, predation, illegal killing, and poaching. Habitat loss happens by a mixture of things logging, agriculture, the essay i, building of things apart cultural collision essay, roads and cities, and forest fires. Habitat loss affects China’s giant panda because of the who am i, expanding buildings in China. Pollution is and equipment affecting fish.

Animal , Biodiversity , Endangered species 1411 Words | 4 Pages. Animal Testing Why cosmetics on animals has been banned in the E.U What is Animal Testing? New cosmetics need to . be tested on animals to make sure they work and are safe for use on humans. About! However, there is controversy of whether or not animals should be used. There are 3 main stages of drugs cosmetics testing : 1.The drugs are tested using computer models and human cells grown in the laboratory.

2.If the drugs are declared safe on the first step, there will be tests on animals . a known amount. Alan Price , Don't Let Me Be Misunderstood , Eric Burdon 383 Words | 6 Pages.

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The Heroic Deed: Myth and Revolution. According to essay who am, legend, the last words of Che Guevara before his execution were “I know you've come to kill me. Research? Shoot coward, you are only going to essay about who am, kill a man.” What Che meant here was that the cause of revolution would live on despite his death. Whether or not the myth is true, the meaning behind it has inspired revolutionaries throughout the world. In certain ways, the destiny, myth surrounding Che Guevara has been just as important as the truth.

In fact, myths provide a crucial underpinning to how ideology and society is able to function. Myths play a major role not only in society, but in about who am radical political movements, as was recognized by the French syndicalist Georges Sorel and the Peruvian communist Jose Carlos Mariategui. And despite the scientific pretensions of much of the research papers, left, myths also supply inspiration, passion and faith to essay about who am i, militants in the course of struggle. Before discussing the role of myth on manifest essay the left, we need to have some idea of how myth works in the world. According to Joseph Campbell, a scholar of myths, mythology performs four functions in human society. The first one is the mystical function where “Myth opens the world to the dimension of mystery, to the realization of the mystery that underlies all forms.” [1] The universe is full of wonder, glory and mystery that we lie in awe before. These mysteries lie beyond the essay who am i, realm of human experience and cannot be captured in our ordinary language. Yet the symbols and property plant thesis rituals of who am, mythology are a way to address and make sense of this reality that lies beyond our comprehension. The second function of myth, Campbell says, is cosmological. Myth in this sense can be thought of as a form of proto-science, showcasing how the universe works by providing explanations for the creation of the world, the origin of human life, the change of seasons, etc. In modern society, the cosmological function is taken over more and collision essay more by science.

However, Campbell states that myths and science don't come into i conflict, rather science pushes to the edge of mystery, to that which can never be known, such as the stranger essay by baldwin, source of life. Campbell identifies the third function of myth as its sociological function of “supporting and validating a certain social order.” [2] This purpose of myth can vary greatly depending upon the particular society. We can naturally expect feudal society to consider usury and the pursuit of profit to be vices, while capitalist society would look upon them as virtues. Naturally, the myths of a reigning social order, such as capitalism, promote that system and its values. Essay? Yet even within different capitalist societies, the role of myth can vary greatly. Let us expand on this. For example, the how to pocket money wisely, predominant myths in the United States promote individualism, the about i, American Dream and white supremacy. The founding myth is that the American Revolution brought “freedom and democracy.” Yet this revolution in actuality was marked by limited popular involvement (mainly among the white and male population) that created institutions to solidify the rule of a new local ruling class based upon expansionism, genocide and slavery. Property And Equipment? This legacy of the American Revolution has made it quite easy to be used, obsessively so, by American leaders to promote the essay i, dominant values of capitalist society which is reflected in the working class. Fall Apart Essay? The reality of the American Revolution has in fact made it difficult to be embraced by those advocating egalitarian change.

On the other hand, French society, while also capitalist, has a far more economistic class consciousness ethic among the working class than in the USA. Modern France owes its origin to who am i, the Revolution of 1789 which was a massive social upheaval from below (far surpassing the property, American Revolution) that brought radical changes that conflicted with the about, bourgeois leadership. Spend Money Wisely Essay? While the reigning social order in about i France can be traced to 1789, there is an ambivalence in how to spend pocket money essay the embrace of the values of the revolution by about who am the ruling class. Political figures may revere the “Republic” but there is no corresponding civil worship of its “founding fathers” (as can be found in the United States). Although conservatives can wrap themselves in the Tricolor, the slogan “Liberte, egalite, fraternite” can easily be appropriated by opponents of capitalism such as socialists, communists, and anarchists. Mythology, just like ideology, serves the role of things fall apart cultural essay, initiating and interpellating individuals into subjects. The reigning myths associated with them in society such as the essay i, American Dream or Christian values, are not merely mistaken ideas or examples of “false consciousness,” but rather they exist in material practices (such as schools or churches). According to Louis Althusser, “Ideology does not exist in the ‘world of ideas’ conceived as a ‘spiritual world’. Ideology exists in institutions and the practices specific to them. We are even tempted to say, more precisely: ideology exists in and equipment apparatuses and the practices specific to them.” [3] Ideology (such as myths) exists through the Ideological State Apparatuses (ISA), even though they are private – churches, schools, families, etc, they still reinforce the rule of the dominant class through ideology. We can see this in the example of Christian fundamentalism, whose adherents not only essay about believe in God, pray and attend church.

As Althusser says, “If he believes in Duty, he will have the thesis, corresponding attitudes, inscribed in essay ritual practices ‘according to the correct principles’.” [4] Thus, a Christian fundamentalist is likely to be an American patriot who waves the flag, raises their children to revere the institutions and laws of the country (so long as they are in conformity with family values), serve in the military, etc. Yet whereas it was the church that was dominant in essay feudal society, Althusser identifies the school as the main ISA in essay about who am i modern society. [5] At school, students learn not only skills such as reading and writing, but socialization in the reigning values and culture of society, so that they can eventually become “good” and “obedient” citizens. In other words, the school serves to prepare most students to be obedient workers who accept the myths and values of society and accept their subordinate station in life as natural. We should not look at the interpellation of subjects through the research papers, ISAs as denying human agency (which is a common objection to Althusser). The ISAs are necessary not only because it takes more than repressive force for the ruling order to maintain its power (although they will rely upon that as a last resort), but since class struggle never ceases. “Just as the class struggle never ceases, so the dominant class's combat to unify existing ideological elements and forms never ceases. Essay Who Am I? This amounts to saying the dominant ideology can never completely resolve its own contradictions, which are a reflection of the class struggle - although its function is to resolve them.” [6] Ideology and myths remain a battleground. The same Christian fundamentalists may consider themselves to be patriotic Americans who believe in free enterprise, but if they are on pocket wisely essay strike on essay about i a picket line, they will no doubt react with hostility to scabs. Or the fundamentalists may attend a Tea Party rally to protest a more “liberal” or “socialistic” government that they see as drifting away from or betraying “true” American values.

Even the non-Marxist Campbell argues that what counts in terms of authority figures such as judges, Presidents, or generals is not who they are individually. It doesn't matter if the President is an adulterer or underhanded, he still is to be saluted and respected because of the of confederation, role he plays in society. As Campbell says, when you respect Presidents, “you're not responding to them as personalities, you're responding to them in essay about i their mythological roles.” [7] According to Campbell, the President should not be corrupt, rather he needs to understand that to perform the mythological role required of him, that “he has to sacrifice his personal desires and even life possibilities to the role that he now signifies.” [8] The mythological role of the essay articles of confederation, President is reflected in how the essay, “Founding Fathers” such as Washington and Jefferson or later Presidents like Abraham Lincoln are revered. We can see the mythological role played out in the Presidential campaign of candidates, whether Bush, Clinton, or Sanders, who are portrayed as fighting and standing for “America” (portrayed with slight variations in meaning). It doesn't matter that all this is a total fabrication, what matters is that the role the President, regardless of the individual, plays as a force of social cohesion and in promoting the myths and ideology of America. Thus, in order for the mythological role of President to function, it takes interpellated citizens who accept it on essay by baldwin the one hand and an individual candidate who (at least appears to) to forfeit their own wants and essay who am needs for property, the greater good of the country.

The President thus becomes the literal embodiment of the nation. The last function of essay about who am i, myth that Campbell identifies is its pedagogical role: “how to live a human lifetime under any circumstances. Myths can teach you that.” [9] Human beings regardless of the society they live in, go through different stages in life — moving from childhood to adulthood with new responsibilities that can include marriage and family. Money? There are different rites and rituals that are expected to go through to essay about i, learn how to function as responsible and ethical members of society, whether by graduating from college, going to communion or a bar mitzvah. Spend Pocket Money Wisely Essay? The values taught are naturally colored by class, so that the about who am i, rituals of a feudal Church are different than those of manifest destiny, a business school. Campbell's four functions of myth apply to essay, socialist movements as well.

As we shall see later, when discussing Mariategui, even though socialism is founded on materialistic and and equipment thesis scientific principles, myths, symbols, and rituals play key roles in teaching militants how to essay about who am i, live, fight and to die as comrades for the communist ideal. One of the major influences on Mariategui's Marxism and his understanding of myth came from the work of the French syndicalist theorist, Georges Sorel. Mariategui hailed Sorel as an equal of apart cultural collision essay, Lenin for undertaking “the true revision of Marxism, in the sense of the renovation and continuation of the work of Marx. ” [10] Sorel was praised for returning socialism to the “original sentiment of class struggle, as a protest against parliamentary pacification, bourgeoisified socialism,” that was found in i reformist socialism. Research Papers? Lastly, Mariategui said, Sorel established “the religious, mystical, metaphysical character of socialism” which proved that “the strength of revolutionaries is not in their science; it is in their faith, in their passion, in their will. About I? It is a religious, mystical, spiritual force.” [11] Mariategui drew upon Sorel's understanding of myth and his voluntaristic ethos to inform his own creative and non-dogmatic Marxism. However, Sorel himself remains highly controversial, and his writings on the power of myth and defense of violence, expressed most clearly in Reflections on village essay by baldwin Violence , have inspired not only Marxists such as Mariategui and Antonio Gramsci, but fascists such as Benito Mussolini. Sorel was originally an essay i, engineer by training, turned to Marxist politics following his early retirement in the 1890s. He contributed to a number of articles, Marxist journals and was involved in supporting Alfred Dreyfus, a Jewish military officer falsely accused of treason.

However, Sorel did not adhere to essay who am i, the determinism found within the Second International that explained history and the behavior of people through their economic motives. Sorel took up the defense of things apart cultural collision essay, Marxism against those he perceived as vulgarizers because to him, the essay i, moral content was vital. [12] Sorel was convinced that Marxist theory needed to be renewed and revised particularly in regards to its understanding of economics, morality and human action. To that end, Sorel cast an admiring eye on the work of the Italian Marxist Antonio Labriola and briefly to the German Eduard Bernstein during the revisionist controversy. Fall Apart Essay? Labriola was praised for his defense of historical materialism and about who am Marxism as a theory of action. How To Spend Pocket Money Essay? [13] Sorel commended Labriola for breaking with the economic determinism of Marxism and stressing the importance of about i, ethics. [14] As part of Sorel's own revision of Marxism, he came to the conclusion that the labor “theory of value. no longer has any scientific usefulness and . . . gives rise to a great many misunderstandings.” [15] Labriola never contemplated his own writings being used to declare Marxist economics obsolete, so he broke relations with Sorel. Sorel's defense of Dreyfus was informed by the moral desire to defend the notions of truth and justice. That same moral concern would later find its way into his Reflections on Violence and the importance of mobilizing myths. Following the acquittal of Dreyfus, Sorel felt betrayed by the outcome since it only benefited opportunistic, careerists and parliamentary socialists. Sorel was repulsed by and equipment the reformist politics of Jean Jaures and Alexander Millerand, the latter of whom entered a government of “republican defense.” Sorel was alarmed at what he perceived to be the statism and about Jacobinism found in the government.

He believed that the research, autonomy of about who am i, socialism risked being lost in the quick sand of opportunism and corruption of bourgeois politics. [16] The Affair had not raised the revolutionary elan of the proletariat, but smothered it. Sorel believed that any revolution must destroy the institutions and values of liberal democracy that was leading civilization towards decadence. To Sorel, the parliamentarism, gradualism, opportunism and reformism found in the parties of the Second International led him to conclude that “the anarchists were right about articles of confederation vs constitution, this, and that, in entering into essay about i bourgeois institutions, revolutionaries have been transformed by manifest destiny persuasive essay adopting the spirit of essay about who am i, these institutions: all the parliamentary deputies agree that there is very little difference between a representative of the bourgeoisie and a representative of the proletariat.” [17] Sorel's criticism of the dominant orthodoxy of destiny, official Marxism was echoed in the syndicalist movements that developed in opposition to it. Syndicalist unions emerged in France, such as the General Confederation of Workers (CGT), which eschewed any form of political action, reliance on direct action, and a general strike by workers to usher in the revolution. Following 1906, there was an upsurge of who am i, labor unrest in France that led to strikes among postal workers, railway workers and numerous others.

In 1909, the strikes caused the government, led by the ex-Blanquist Georges Clemenceau to call in thesis the army, who fired upon essay who am i, the workers. [18] By this time, Sorel had embraced syndicalism and attempted to theorize the manifest persuasive essay, movement in Reflections on Violence . In this work, Sorel completed his revision of about who am i, Marxism, expunging any hint of determinism or its use as a method to understand the things collision, laws of the essay i, capitalism. Sorel also embraced Henri Bergson's theories of the irrational and the power of intuition, along with Nietzsche's ethics of revolt and how to spend money wisely essay the contempt for established morality. For Sorel, Marxism was reduced to the class struggle, and its central tenets were to be interpreted as myths. In contrast to the “garrulous and about who am lying” parliamentary socialists, Sorel praised the syndicalist movement as the “great educative force that contemporary society has at its disposal for preparing the articles of confederation vs constitution, work of the future.” [19] Central to syndicalism was that it was a reflection of the revolutionary general strike which produces an “entirely epic state of mind” that turns the “men of today into the free producers of essay i, tomorrow working in workshops where there are no masters.” [20] These workers would be transformed, through their steeling in the “economic epic” of modern factories and by participating in the general strike where the proletariat organizes itself for battle, separating itself distinctly from the essay, other parts of the nation, and regarding itself as the great motive power of i, history, all other social considerations being subordinated to that of combat; it is very clearly conscious of the how to wisely essay, glory which will be attached to its historical role and of the heroism of its militant attitude; it longs for the final contest in which it will give proof of the whole measure of its valor. [21] These heroic workers had no need to plan of battle for the conquest of state power, rather their victory and the downfall of capital would result from the emergence in the working class of a new heroic mentality and the passion of violence, which inspired by the myth of the general strike. After the cataclysmic battle, the workers, now transformed into producers would erect on its ashes a new civilization. To Sorel, whereas once the bourgeoisie, “was still, in the great majority, animated by the conquering, insatiable and pitiless spirit which, at the beginning of the modern epoch, had characterized the creators of new industries and essay the discoverers of unknown lands,” it had now degenerated and “become almost as stupid as the nobility of the eighteenth century.” [22] Sorel's argument hinges on the contention that myth encloses the “whole of socialism in the general strike. [which sees] in each strike a model, a test, a preparation for the great final upheaval.” [23] Although other Marxist theorists of the general strike such as Rosa Luxemburg saw its ethical power in preparing the vs constitution, proletariat for combat, it seen by i her as a specific tactic, not a universal theory of revolution. Nor did Luxemburg ever deny the necessity of Marxist theory for the proletariat or fetishize violence.

For Sorel, there was no way to historically or practically disprove the validity of the things cultural collision essay, general strike because it was myth that was “secure from all refutation.” [24] No matter how valid science or criticism, it was could not shake the about, faith of people in myths such as religion or the general strike. A myth cannot be refuted “since it is, at bottom, identical to the convictions of a group, being the expression of wisely, these convictions in the language of movement; and essay i it is, in consequence, un-analyzable into parts which could be placed on the plane of historical descriptions.” [25] A myth was beyond reason and analysis. Myths like the stranger in the village essay, general strike were important to Sorel because they are “are almost pure; they allow us to understand the activity, the sentiments and the ideas of the who am i, masses as they prepare themselves to enter on a decisive struggle; they are not descriptions of things but expressions of a will to act.” [26] Thus a myth in the modern world is a tool of destiny persuasive essay, combat that can inspire people to destroy the existing order. Yet Sorel distinguished a myth from utopia because the latter was an intellectual product which is a combination of imaginary institutions having sufficient analogies to real institutions for the jurist to be able to about who am i, reason about them; it is a construction which can be broken into parts and of which certain pieces have been shaped in things fall such a way that they can (with a few alterations) be fitted into future legislation. [27] A utopia can be refuted by showing that it is incompatible with “the necessary conditions of modern production.” [28] Thus, Sorel detached Marxism from essay who am, any analysis of society or rationality and replaced theory with revolutionary myths that were needed to bring forth apocalyptic violence. Socialism in Sorel's mind was little different than religion by encouraging a new morality among people. [29] Revolutionary myths could provide this in a way that reason and Marxist materialism could not. The myth of the spend essay, general strike was an inexhaustible source of regeneration that would serve as a catalyst for essay about, new rituals, symbols, legends and creation to enable the proletariat to affirm and fall cultural link themselves to essay who am, something transcendent and eternal. Despite the boundless faith and confidence that Sorel showed in the syndicalist movement, it did not live up to his expectations.

Sorel moved away from syndicalism and the proletariat, flirting briefly with the French extreme right. Before his death in 1922, Sorel's political passions were rekindled by manifest persuasive both Mussolini (who claimed Sorel as an about, inspiration) and Lenin. The syndicalist movements of Europe and research papers the United States, despite major strikes, was unable to overthrow the bourgeois state. Neither did syndicalist movement survived the challenge of World War I, with the majority either capitulating to patriotic sentiments or being suppressed. Syndicalism also proved to be utterly deficient in regards to the role of the party and the question of state power. In the end, no general strike anywhere brought down the rule of capital, ultimately proving that syndicalism failed the test of power. It was the Bolshevik Party, organized by revolutionary communists, who were able to revitalize Marxism in 1917 by leading a successful revolutionary seizure of essay i, power and establishing a new order in Russia. Bolshevik success was built on persuasive essay the concept of a revolutionary party, the unity of essay about, theory and practice and the example of soviets. These ideas would inspire communists around the research papers, world, such as Jose Carlos Mariategui. [30]

And as we shall see, Mariategui while holding fast to Marxism as a method and doctrine, would find that Sorel's ideas on myth helped to combat determinism, encourage heroic revolutionary action among the proletariat, and ultimately inspire workers to create a new socialist world upon a degenerated bourgeois society. Jose Carlos Mariategui was born on July 14, 1894 (Bastille Day) in Moquegua, Peru as the sixth child to a humble liberal father and a devout Catholic mother (who raised him). Mariategui spent his youth in his grandfather's leather-working shop, listening to the stories of the laborers who came through and recounted stories of the working and living conditions on the latifundios, which resembled those of serfdom. At the age of eight, following an accident, Mariategui developed persistent problems in his left leg that eventually caused it to be amputated in 1924, confining him to a wheelchair for essay about i, the remainder of his life. Jose Carlos Mariategui. Due to his family's poverty, Mariategui left school in the eighth grade, to find a job to help support them. He managed to how to spend wisely essay, acquire employment as a linotypist at age fifteen with the Peruvian newspaper, La Presna . He showed talent in journalism that quickly led him to becoming a writer and an editor. At the i, age of sixteen, he was already showing an interest in socialism. Eventually, Mariategui founded two short-lived pro-labor newspapers. In 1919, Mariategui not only manifest essay supported the demands of workers and students, but grew critical of the Peruvian President Leguia, who dissolved the congress and became dictator. I? The government closed down the critical papers, and stranger in the essay by baldwin exiled Mariategui to Europe as an “information agent.”

Mariategui stayed in Europe from 1919-23, the essay who am, experience helped him to mature as a Marxist. Pocket Essay? He lived primarily in France and Italy, encountering a number of socialists and intellectuals such as Antonio Gramsci, Benedetto Croce, Romain Rolland, Henri Barbusse. While in Italy, he witnessed the “biennio rosso” the two red years of factory occupations of 1919-20 that brought Italy to the brink of socialist revolution. Mariategui was present at the foundation of the Italian Communist Party in 1921 at the famous Livorono congress. He also met an Italian woman, whom he married and bore him four sons. By the time he returned to essay who am i, Peru, he was a dedicated and well-rounded Marxist.

While in Peru, Mariategui conducted an amazing array of political work. He lectured to workers at the Universidad Popular Gonzalez Prada. Articles Vs Constitution? He also worked with workers, socialists and trade unionists to form the General Confederation of Peruvian Workers and the Peruvian Socialist Party, which would become the Communist Party after his death. He also formed the periodical Labor and essay about who am i the journal Amauta (or wise teacher) to spread left-wing and socialist ideas throughout Peru and vs constitution Latin America. He also wrote three books during his lifetime. I? The first, The Contemporary Scene , is a collection of articles he wrote for various journals.

The second and his most famous work, Seven Interpretive Essays on Peruvian Reality , an original and creative application of Marxist analysis to Peru, highlighting the importance of the indigenous for revolution, along with penetrating insights on history, culture, and education. The work has been hailed across Latin America and has influenced not only Marxists such as Che Guevara, but also indigenous movements and liberation theologians. And his last published work, which is the most relevant for articles of confederation, our purposes was The Defense of Marxism (published posthumously), a critique of revisionism and a defense of revolutionary Marxism from who am, a Leninist perspective. Mariategui's writing is how to essay, not objective, but fiercely partisan: “Once again I repeat that I am not an impartial, objective critic. My judgments are nourished by my ideals, my sentiments, my passions. I have an avowed and resolute ambition: to assist in essay who am i the creation of Peruvian socialism.” [31] Unfortunately, due to declining health, Mariategui passed away on plant April 16, 1930, at the age of thirty-six. It is in essay about who am The Defense of Marxism that Mariategui most clearly sets forth his non-dogmatic and anti-deterministic approach to Marxism, and discusses the importance of myths, ethics and symbols (drawing heavily on Sorel). Unlike Sorel, Mariategui stresses the importance of Marxist theory, stating that “Now more than ever, the proletariat needs to know what is going on in the world.” [32] And for him, the only theory that can provide guidance for the proletariat is Marxism: “Socialism, beginning with Marx, appeared as the conception of a new class, as a theory and movement that had nothing in common with the romanticism of those who repudiated the work of capitalism as an abomination.” [33] For Mariategui, a Marxist view provided not only clarity on the goal, but it served as a guide for revolutionary political action to get there. However, Marxism was not the gradualistic evolutionism found in social democratic revisionism. Of Confederation? Rather, it needed to germinate revolutionary consciousness among the working class to spur them into essay action.

Marxism, where it has shown itself to be revolutionary - that is to say where it has been Marxism — has never obeyed a passive and rigid determinism. [34] Mariategui argued that capitalism would not topple on its own, but it would take conscious effort by the exploited. Otherwise, there was no way out. Of Confederation Vs Constitution? More than that, Marx's critique remained valid so long as capitalism existed — it was in the continuing struggle to transform the world, whether in the mass actions of the proletariat or the construction of socialism that Marxist theory was continually renewed. Without that regenerative interaction of theory with practice, Marxism was doomed to whither and die. “Socialism or, rather, the struggle to transform the social order from capitalist to collectivist, keeps this critique alive, continues it, confirms it, corrects it. Any attempt to categorize it as a simple scientific theory is in essay about who am i vain since it works in plant and equipment thesis history as the who am i, gospel and property and equipment thesis method of about who am i, a mass movement.” [35] Yet there are “Marxist” theories that claim to be pure and revolutionary, believing their interpretation of the property plant and equipment, “sacred texts” provides them with the one true road map to the future. When they see people on the barricades or a revolution igniting that breaks with their orthodox conceptions of how events are supposed to unfold, then to them such a revolution is about who am i, like corrupted by the devil. They sprinkle the “holy water” of their chosen Marxist quotes to exorcise this demonic spirit of the unexpected revolution. It can't be allowed to spoil the “real revolution,” that they passionately await. Once the right chapter and verse have been uttered, then the appropriate penance is how to spend money essay, done.

The revolution can be dismissed and the purists can go back to waiting. Yet Marxism that has not be nourished in the fires of struggle, despite its supposed revolutionary aspirations, is in fact a rotting corpse. As Mariategui saw it, the essay who am i, task of revolutionaries was to apply Marxism to money essay, the situation at hand in essay about who am i order to make a concrete investigation of Peru (and the wider world). From that analysis, the necessary strategies and actions could be developed. Following Sorel, Mariategui argued that it was imperative for the proletariat to make a revolution because bourgeois society was overcome by decadence. This could be seen in its art, literature, and essay of confederation intellectuals. Who Am? Once the bourgeoisie was a young, heroic and rising class filled with vision and essay of confederation vs constitution destiny, that had all changed. The modern bourgeoisie was a pale shadow compared to their Jacobin ancestors who had overthrown kings and founded Republics.

Bourgeois society, with its productive powers, science and reason, now covered the world and dissolved the bonds of feudalism and religious faith. After the cataclysm of the first World War and Russian Revolution, Mariategui drew the essay about who am, conclusion that “bourgeois civilization suffers from a lack of myth, of faith, of papers, hope.” [36] Yet in place of these overthrown altars, there was nothing to replace it with. Mariategui believed that science and reason were inadequate substitutes for who am i, the old myths of religion: “Neither Reason nor Science can meet the need of the infinite that exists in man. Reason itself has been challenged, demonstrating to humanity that it is not enough.” [37] Reason and science could only how to money wisely be taken so far. They could not fill the gap in the human psyche in the same way myth could. “Only Myth possesses the precious virtue of satisfying its deepest self.” [38] Bourgeois civilization ripped away the holy and the sacred, turning humanity into atomized individuals governed by the faceless market with its lust for unceasing profit. Bourgeois culture is about who am i, overwhelmingly permeated by chauvinism, mediocrity, racism, sexism, and selfishness. As the English Marxist Christopher Caudwell put it, this was a dying culture. The end result of this is humanity was reduced to talking tools on an assembly line or as soldiers to essay, be slaughtered en masse in essay about who am i trench warfare in stranger village a 1953 essay by baldwin order to determine which vampires would rule colonial slaves. This was not a society governed by essay who am any ideal, but a decadent and diseased that deserved to die. So what should replace the bourgeois world lacking in myths?

For Mariategui, man “is a metaphysical animal. He does not live productively without a metaphysical conception of life. Myth moves man in history. Without myth, the history of humanity has no sense of history.” [39] It could only be a new myth that could replace the fallen idols of the bourgeoisie. Destiny Persuasive Essay? That new myth was that of communist revolution.

The proletariat actively fights for this myth “with a passionate and active faith.” [40] In contrast to about who am i, capitalism, which had nothing to things cultural collision, offer, Mariategui claimed that “the proletariat affirms.” [41] In order for the proletariat to achieve heroic deeds, a transformation is needed in their consciousness. The proletariat can not be satisfied with a bigger piece of the pie or to accept the way the world is. Rather, a revolutionary class does not accept the way the who am, world is, they fight to change it. To that end, workers needed to overcome “the anarchoid, individualistic, egoistic spirit, which besides being profoundly antisocial, does not constitute anything but the exacerbation and degeneration of the old bourgeois liberalism; the second thing that must be overcome is the spirit of manifest destiny persuasive essay, corporatism, of a trade, of job category.” [42] For class consciousness to truly develop and mature, it was imperative for workers to look beyond their immediate horizons and particular trades to see the common position they share with their fellow workers across the world. Even more than that, communist consciousness had to embrace Lenin's ideal of the tribune of the people, who is “able to react to every manifestation of tyranny and oppression, no matter where it appears, no matter what stratum or class of the people it affects.” [43] This entails solidarity by revolutionaries in essay about who am France, Britain or the United States, with national liberation movements in research papers the colonies, even if they are seen as “traitors” by their countrymen. Such treason is loyalty to the revolution and humanity. For the tribune of the people, the struggle for essay about who am i, women's rights, anti-racism, or against homophobia are not “distractions” or “divisive,” but had to be taken up as part of the manifest destiny persuasive essay, common struggle for liberation.

Yet class consciousness goes further and doesn't just mean solidarity with the oppressed and exploited, but needs discipline and organization o give it strength and direction. “I want to say to you that it is necessary to about who am, give the vanguard proletariat, along with a realist sense of history, a heroic will for creation and implementation. The desire for betterment, the appetite for well-being, are not enough.” [44] When the proletariat is fired by the vision of a new society, they will know that it won't come down from the skies due to the inexorable development of “economic laws,” but through organization and active struggle. This struggle entails a vanguard infused with the “myth” of a new egalitarian society freed of exploitation and oppression. It is that ideal, not the essay of confederation, texts of Marxist theory or science, that allows revolutionaries to endure prison, man the barricades, sing songs, and march together against impossible odds. In pursuit of about who am, that myth, the and equipment thesis, word “comrade” becomes more than a word, solidarity becomes concrete, and who am the lyrics the stranger, “Internationale” are ideals to be achieved. The strength of about who am, revolutionaries is not in how to spend their science; it is in their faith, in their passion, in their will. It is a religious, mystical, spiritual force. It is the force of myth. [45] Ultimately, the proletariat is not struggling for a myth, but to create a new and superior civilization. As Mariategui said, “we do not wish that Socialism in America be a tracing and a copy.

It must be a heroic creation.” [46] This heroism means the proletariat had to become aware of their historic mission, shake off their subservience to the ruling class, take the essay i, destiny of humanity firmly into their hands and to construct socialism. “In the class struggle, where all the a 1953 essay by baldwin, sublime and heroic elements of essay about who am, its ascent reside, the essay of confederation, proletariat must elevate itself to a “producers’ morality,” quite distant and distinct from the “slave morality” that its gratuitous professors of morals, horrified by its materialism, officiously attempt to provide. A new civilization cannot arise from a sad and essay about humiliated world of miserable helots with no greater merits or faculties than their servility and plant misery.” [47] Yet reformists argue that such a vision is essay about who am i, utopian since the revolutionary overthrow of the capitalist state will inevitably bring disruption to production, massive upheavals, and that socialism will begin at a lower productive level than bourgeois society. Arguably, Mariategui would accept this since “revolutionaries from all parts of the world must choose between being the victims of violence or using it.” [48] It is only natural that a revolution will disrupt things. What else is to be expected? However, there was also heroic epics found in each revolution whether those of ragged Red Army soldiers fending off fourteen armies in Russia, the undeniable enthusiasm of constructing new factories during a five year plan, bringing art to the people, or constructing new rituals, culture and values free of discrimination or submission.

All of fall apart collision essay, these deeds may take place in about ruins, but a new socialist world will rise in its place, to destiny persuasive essay, serve the interests of redeemed humanity. Mariategui would no doubt have nodded in agreement with the Spanish anarchist Buenaventura Durruti, who expressed his revolutionary optimism as follows: “We, the workers. We can build others to take their place. Essay About I? And better ones. We are not in spend wisely essay the least afraid of ruins. We are going to inherit the earth; there is essay who am i, not the slightest doubt about things fall apart, that. The bourgeoisie might blast and ruin its own world before it leaves the stage of history. We carry a new world here, in our hearts. That world is growing in this minute.” [49] For Mariategui, as opposed to essay who am i, Sorel, myths did not substitute Marxist theory and analysis, but were a necessary supplement to it. While the revolutionary proletariat needed to know the world in order to change it, this was not enough.

In order for fall apart collision, the working class to acquire true class consciousness and construct a new order, they needed to be inspired by revolutionary myths. Myths would raise the proletariat to who am, a higher conception of life and give it the required faith to face the impossible odds and harsh ordeals that awaited them. Yet Mariategui argued that the power of revolutionary myths was not just faith in a distant ideal, but in enabling the masses to turn the how to pocket money wisely, “myth” of communism into actuality. Despite the scientific and secular claims of Marxism, socialism, and communism, our movements are not immune from the essay who am, power of fall apart essay, myths, symbols, and rituals. Who Am? Myths and “false consciousness” have a material basis of existence that needs to be recognized. In fact, mass politics is inconceivable without exalting imagery and myths. Socialist politics can not be conducted solely by rationally combating “false consciousness” in people's heads by explaining the labor theory of value or the relation between base and superstructure (although theory is definitely needed) or by selling newspapers. The politics of socialism and communism operates at multiple levels, one being to rationally challenge incorrect ideas, while others involve the symbolic and the mythical. Even in the most secular and rationalistic communist movements, where it is assumed that priests tricked and village by baldwin manipulated people, elements of the mythical and the symbolic played a great role. Take the example of i, Blanquist communists in France during the 19th century who were led the insurrectionist Louis-Auguste Blanqui.

Blanqui argued that “Communism can only be achieved by the absolute triumph of enlightenment.” One method the Blanquists utilized was printing anti-religious newspapers in to attack the Catholic Church which was the “spiritual support” of the ruling class. Essay? Doing so they believed would awaken the people. What the Blanquists ultimately believed was needed for who am, the revolution to triumph was an organized conspiracy led by an enlightened elite, not reliance upon fall, the mass of workers to revolt which they believed was impossible because they were under the influence of priests and the ruling class. Once the Blanquist coup succeeded in overthrowing the i, old order, they would institute an “enlightened dictatorship” that would undertake the pedagogical task of things collision, educating the people in secular and republican values. Even the secular Blanquists were also governed by rituals, symbols and myths. When a member joined the secret society, they took part in essay about i an elaborate initiation ceremony where they were blindfolded and had to swear eternal hatred to fall apart, aristocrats and kings, and to fight for the republic. Essay? Failure to abide by this oath was punishable by death. In The Village By Baldwin? The Blanquist initiation rites were not invented by who am i them, but copied from other secular movements such as the Masons and the Carbonari. Initiation into stranger village a 1953 essay by baldwin the revolutionary conspiracy was thus nearly a sacred act like being confirmed in the Catholic Church. And while the Blanquists swore to establish the republic, even the meaning of that term was vague to them. Most of the conspirators were young men, they had never even lived under a republic.

The “Republic” was a myth and an ideal, which had been transmitted to them through word of essay about who am, mouth from older men, from reading history or the speeches of of confederation vs constitution, Robespierre. Yet the myth of a republic inspired them to risk their lives to bring about the final victory of the revolution. Furthermore, the name of Blanqui was also a symbol and essay about who am i a myth not just to the conspirators, but to the workers of France. Whatever Blanqui's theoretical weaknesses or the bankruptcy of his approach to papers, revolution, he spent half of his life in prison, enduring torture, without surrendering. To millions, he represented resistance to oppression and the communist ideal. As Alain Badiou argues, while emancipatory politics is “essentially the politics of the anonymous masses,” it is through proper names such as those of Blanqui (or Che and Lenin) that “the ordinary individual discovers glorious, distinctive individuals as the mediation for his or her own individuality, as the proof that he or she can force its finitude. The anonymous action of millions of essay i, militants, rebels, fighters, unrepresentable as such, is combined and counted as one in the simple, powerful symbol of the plant, proper name.” [51] Thus, the rationalist and atheist Blanqui assumed the power of both a myth and a symbol.

And just as like religions, the labor, anarchist, socialist and communist movements have fashioned their own art, symbols, education, and about provide a sense of essay, community. Whatever other criticisms can be directed at them, neither the French Communist Party (PCF) and essay about the German Social Democrats (SPD) just elected representatives to parliament. Both provided alternative ways of life for their members and the wider working class. The SPD had libraries, sports leagues, choirs, and chess clubs for their members and sympathizers. Even if a worker was not a member of either the PCF or the SPD, they could find a sense of community and reinforcement for their shared values of working class struggle and socialism within the broader subculture that the manifest destiny, parties fostered. This helped militants and fellow travelers to develop a shared “faith” needed to withstand the onslaughts of the dominant bourgeois ideology and culture.

Party militants and sympathizers may not be able to refute the arguments of essay who am i, bourgeois ideologists, but once they were convinced of property, socialism and had that belief reinforced by their shared myths, rituals, and about who am symbols found within proletarian struggle and culture fostered by the party, then their conviction becomes unbreakable. In this way, social movements become not a sect, a shared faith among a community of militants, embracing all aspects of political, economic, ideological, cultural, and social life. Movements also develop their own aesthetics and manner of dress. Things Cultural Collision Essay? For instance, militants of the Bolshevik Party during the civil war wore leather jackets and about who am combat boots to symbolize their revolutionary zeal. The Bolsheviks also embraced the artistic avant garde, as can be seen in the symbolic image of the things fall apart cultural collision, “Beat the Whites with the Red Wedge” or the emblem of the hammer and sickle that are powerful representations to convey the values of the revolutionary cause to communists, artists and workers.

And revolutionary movements have also provided spaces for artists to experiment and essay about i translate the values of the movement into symbols, story and images, whether in cartoons, posters, proletarian literature, slogans, songs, plays or poetry. Yet the aesthetic of each movement is unique and essay articles vs constitution time specific. For instance, even though both conveyed a radical aesthetic, the beret and guns of the Black Panthers was far different than the long beards of German radicals in the 1840s. There is a dark side to myths, rituals and symbolism that affects socialist and communist movements, just like religions, that needs to be recognized. I? The PCF was said to be, not without justification, the secular equivalent to the Catholic Church: with their own dogma, orthodoxies, saints, martyrs, heresies, and demons. Trotskyist or Maoist dissidents cast out of the party were to be shunned, ignored or even physically attacked. Militants were encouraged not to question the socialist credentials of the Soviet Union or its many abrupt turns in foreign policy, since this could demoralize workers or cause them to lose faith in articles of confederation vs constitution the revolutionary cause. Intellectuals in the PCF such as Louis Althusser would raise their criticisms of the party in who am deliberately obscure or oblique language or keep silent, because otherwise they would be expelled and lose any chance to partake in the great historical mission (supposedly embodied by the party). And for communist militants, to not be able to work for property plant and equipment thesis, the cause, that could be a fate worse than death. For example, in the Soviet Union, those who were deemed showing a “lack of faith” in the cause whether by legitimate criticisms or advocating different lines, were not just seen as a “loyal opposition” but as traitors.

To cast doubt on the leadership or to question it, was to be in essay league in alien class forces or fascism. Indeed, the great purge trials of the 1930s, despite the trappings of legality and jurisprudence (despite lacking physical proof or corroboration) were conducted more like the in the by baldwin, Catholic inquisition than a court of law where heresy was synonymous with treason and unbelief. Ultimately, the only evidence offered for the guilt of the accused was their confessions. The similarities between the methods of Soviet trials and the Inquisition was pointed out by one of the accused, Nikolai Bukharin who said: “The confession of the accused is about who am i, not essential. Thermography? The confession of the accused is a medieval principle of essay about, jurisprudence.” [52] Despite the dogmas and inquisitions that an embrace of myths can encourage in radical movements, it is impossible to imagine politics without them. There is a material existence to myths that rationalist theories of “false consciousness” don't recognize. The myths, symbols and rituals of radicalism remain a part of how we remember our past, imagine our future, forge a common bond of solidarity so that we know how to live and how to die for the communist ideal. Joseph Campbell, The Power of Myth (New York: Anchor Books, 1991), 38.

Ibid. 39. Louis Althusser, On the Reproduction of Capitalism (New York: Verso Books, 2014), 156. Ibid. 259. Ibid. 251. Ibid. 220. Campbell 1991, 14. Ibid. Ibid. 39.

Jose Carlos Mariategui, “Henri de Man and the Crisis of Marxism” in Jose Carlos Mariategui: An Anthology , ed. Harry E. Vanden and Marc Becker (New York: Monthly Review Press, 2011), 189. Mariategui, “Man and papers Myth,” in Mariategui: An Anthology 2011, 387. Zeev Sternhell, The Birth of essay who am i, Fascist Ideology (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1994), 40. See John L. Fall Apart Collision? Stanley ed., From Georges Sorel: Essays in Socialism and Philosophy (New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers, 2002) 30-1 and 154-5; and essay about i Sternhell 1994, 21, 39-40. “The Ethics of Socialism” in From Georges Sorel 2002, 106; Sternhell 1994, 43-46. Quoted in Sternhell 1994, 42. Destiny Essay? See From Georges Sorel 2002, 10. Georges Sorel, Reflections on Violence (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2004), 34. See my “How anarchists, syndicalists, socialists and IWW militants were drawn to Bolshevism: four case studies,” LINKS International Journal of Socialist Renewal. http://links.org.au/node/2935 Sorel 2004, 112 and 243. Essay About? Ibid. 250 and 238.

Ibid. 249 and 161. Ibid. 75 and 72. Ibid. 110. Ibid. Persuasive Essay? 30. Ibid. 29. Ibid. 28. Essay I? Ibid. Property Plant And Equipment? Ibid. 29. Who Am? Ibid. 30. Essay Of Confederation? See How anarchists, syndicalists, socialists and who am i IWW militants were drawn to Bolshevism: four case studies” (note 18).

Jose Carlos Mariategui, Seven Interpretive Essays on Peruvian Reality (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1971), xxxiv. Mariategui, “The World Crisis and the Peruvian Proletariat,” in Mariategui: An Anthology 2011, 296. Plant And Equipment? Mariategui, “The Heroic and Creative Sense of Socialism,” in Mariategui: An Anthology 2011 , 212. Mariategui, “Marxist Determinism,” in Mariategui: An Anthology 2011, 208. About? Mariategui, “Modern Philosophy and Marxism,” in Mariategui: An Anthology 2011 , 194. Mariategui, “Man and Myth,” in Mariategui: An Anthology 2011, 383. Ibid. Ibid. Ibid.

384. Ibid. 387. Ibid. Mariategui, “Message to the Workers' Congress,” in Mariategui: An Anthology 2011, 181.

V. I. Stranger A 1953 Essay? Lenin, “What is to be Done?” Marxists Internet Archive. Who Am? https://www.marxists.org/archive/lenin/works/1901/witbd/iii.htm Mariategui, “Message to the Workers' Congress,” in manifest essay Mariategui: An Anthology 2011, 185. Mariategui, “Man and Myth,” in essay who am Mariategui: An Anthology 2011, 387. Mariategui, “Anniversary and a Balance Sense,” in Mariategui: An Anthology 2011, 130. Mariategui, “Heroic and Creative Sense of Socialism,” in Mariategui: An Anthology 2011, 212-3. Jose Carlos Mariategui, “Ethics and Socialism,” Marxists Internet Archive. https://www.marxists.org/archive/mariateg/works/1930-ethics.htm Abel Paz, Durruti in the Spanish Revolution (Oakland: AK Press, 2007), 478. I have also drawn from the following two essays by Mike Ely: Sing our own song: “Igniting a communist aesthetic renaissance,” Kasama Project and “Communist foreshocks: Words, ritual and symbols,” Kasama Project. http://k2.kasamaproject.org/kasama/3938-70communist-foreshocks-words-ritual-and-symbols Alain Badiou, The Communist Hypothesis (New York: Verso, 2010), 249-50.

Robert C. Tucker and Stephen Cohen, ed. The Great Purge Trial (New York: Grosset and Dunlap Publishers,1965), 667. Village By Baldwin? See also Isaac Deutscher and David King, The Great Purges (New York: Basil Blackwell Publisher, 1984). Doug Enaa Greene is an independent historian living in the greater Boston area. He was active in Occupy Boston and essay is a volunteer at how to spend money essay, the Center for about i, Marxist Education in Cambridge. He is the author of a forthcoming book Specters of things collision essay, Communism on about who am i the French communist Louis-Auguste Blanqui.

Issue three, Return of the property plant and equipment thesis, Crowd, now available for about who am i, order.