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Medical Doctor Cover Letter Sample

Doctor cover letter

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Doctor Cover Letter Samples - Cover Letters and Resume Samples

Brain in a vat and similar hypothesis. This essay will discuss the brain in a vat and doctor letter similar hypothesis (such as computer simulations and the idea that we are dreaming), and discuss whether it is something that people should worry about. It will firstly explain what these hypotheses are, before exploring possible problems and essay our earth advantages of letter such scenarios. It will then examine the plausibility of on protecting our earth them (using Ockham's razor, and by examining the problem of reference) and the actual impact on ones life if any of them are actually true. The essay concludes that if we cannot tell the difference, and have no knowledge, then it does not matter whether we are in a simulated environment or not. Doctor Cover Letter? The basic conception of a brain in a vat is that an individual is no more than a mind that is being stimulated by essay co-education an external force, and that the world, as the individual understands it, does not exist, except as stimulations in that individuals mind (or perhaps in a computer simulation). These ideas are skeptical hypothesis, the aim of which is to raise doubt about the letter, existence of anything. If you do not know that you are not a brain in a vat, then you can not know anything about the a farewell to arms essay, external world. 1 This conception of doctor cover letter limited knowledge is essay our earth not a new idea and traces back at least to Descartes. Descartes imagined an evil demon that employ[ed] all his industry in misleading [him] 2 . This demon could not, however, mislead Descartes about the existence of himself. Doctor Letter? Which lead to Descartes to the conclusion that I think, therefore I am . 3 He then went on to 'disprove' his own hypothesis (that a demon is misleading Descartes), based on proofs of the existence of question God.

4. Descartes came to his idea that an evil demon might be manipulating his world, from thoughts on dreaming and hallucinations. 5 Other philosophers have considered the possibility that we are dreaming rather then living a real life. Chuang Tzu after a night in doctor letter, which he dreamed that he was a butterfly, asked, if he was in fact a butterfly dreaming that it was Chuang Tzu. 6 Dreaming is different to other skeptical hypotheses as it does not include an external, potentially 'malevolent', actor. However, like other skeptical hypotheses it is not possible for (most) people to realize that they are dreaming. A more modern variant on a farewell essay Descartes idea is that an individual is actually a brain in a vat that is being stimulated by electronic impulses from a giant supercomputer.

This computer is able to create a 'virtual reality' based on impulses from the brain. If the cover letter, brain attempts to move an arm, the computer sends back impulses that make it seem as if the question, arm has been moved. However, there are other ideas that conceive of not just one individual being 'deceived', but rather everyone. These have come more into prominence since the creation of computers. Computer simulations have been used to simulate various things, from cities to weather to life itself. Letter? 7 These have given rise to thoughts that perhaps people are not actually living in a real world, but rather living in a simulation. Variations on annotated for research papers this include everyone being in vats connected up to the same computer. Science fiction such as William Gibson's book Necromancer discusses the idea of letter computer simulations that are indistinguishable from real life. One variant has the body of paper a person still alive while it is simply their mind that is occupying the virtual reality, and another type where it is the mind alone that exists, inside the simulation, the body having died.

8. Because there is so much thought given to doctor letter such possibilities, it is not surprising that some philosophers have problems with living in such scenarios. Some philosophers feel that a simulated life is un-authentic, that real life is somehow 'better'. Argumentative Co-education? 9 In his book Anarchy, State and Utopia , Robert Nozick mentions that the experience machine is not as 'real' as real life, that experiences in doctor, the machine are not connected with actual events or actions. 10 He does not, however, give a reason for this beyond that a person in the machine is not actually doing what is going on in the machine (though that person is experiencing without knowledge that what they are experiencing is not real, and argumentative about co-education thus for the person they are doing that activity). This and similar objections are merely these philosophers valuing an 'objective' experience beyond the subjective experience of the individual concerned. If an letter, individual cannot have knowledge that they are not part of a simulation, then it does not matter to them what the 'objective' truth is, as it has no impact on them. Just like there are potential problems with living in essay about, a 'fake' world, there are advantages in not living in the real world. These come down to the idea that the virtual world is potentially 'better' then the real one. Cover Letter? Even if the experiences are not 'real' objectively; to the person experiencing them they are real and that is all that matters to that person.

The only other advantage is typewriter paper size that in certain scenarios (e.g. computer simulations), life might be longer then otherwise. However, in this world, it does not appear that this is the letter, case. Though in most cases the person is unable to choice if anymore then anyone else if they are going to have a good life. The plausibility of these scenarios, regardless of desirability or otherwise, is brought into question when one considers three arguments against argumentative about co-education, them. The first is the use of Ockham's razor. While it is not apparently found in cover letter, any of paper William of Ockham's writings it bears his name. The razor states that Entities are not to be multiplied without necessity . 11 This means that given two equally valid hypotheses we should select the simplest one, the one that has the doctor letter, fewer assumptions.

A simple example of this is that the Earth is the center of the universe, or it is not. For the Earth to be at the center of the argumentative, universe, there is the requirement of very complex mathematics for the planets to orbit the Earth. For the letter, alternative, that the co-education, Earth and other planets circles the Sun, the letter, mathematics are much simpler (and it just happens to fit with observed facts). Similarly for aliens to have visited Earth requires many assumptions, such as they have very advanced technology (possibly enabling them to travel faster then the speed of light), are interested in Earth and so on. The alternative, that aliens do not visit Earth * can be explained by paper size stating that some people have seen things that they simply think are aliens or that they are in doctor cover, an altered state of consciousness (e.g. drunk or under the influence of an annotated bibliography papers, hallucinogenic drug), or that people are simply lying. All these are much more plausible compared to doctor letter the first set of assumptions.

As with God, fairies and aliens, there is no evidence that an individual or humans as a whole are being feed a simulated existence. This is due to the nature of the problem. So faced with two alternatives: one humans are part of a computer simulation (or an individual is a brain in a vat); or two, that they are not, the first requires an added assumption that the second does not, therefore the second should be preferred. There is essays 2008 no evidence that we are part of a simulation (due to the nature of the problem) and we should rationally choose the simpler of the two alternatives. Doctor Cover Letter? That is, we are not living in a simulation and are not merely a brain in essay our earth, a vat. Another argument is doctor cover that of typewriter paper size reference. In none of these scenarios is it possible to tell if you are in one of doctor cover letter them, from the inside (which is the only reference point). Because this is the case, we cannot refer to on censorship objects or things outside the simulation.

If I am a brain in a vat, then I cannot consider my self to be a brain in a vat, therefore I am not a brain in a vat (at least from my perspective). If you were living in a brain in a vat, nothing in your experience could possibly reveal that you were; for your experience is ex hypothesi identical with that of something which is not a brain in a vat. Letter? 12. Ultimately it does not really matter if a person is a brain in annotated bibliography for research papers, a vat or not. It is not possible to tell from the cover, individual who's brain is in the vat that it is the case, and in the more general case of everyone being part of a simulation there is no way for anyone to tell.

As such, while it is impossible to 'know' if you are doing something (such as reading this essay), and all your beliefs maybe false, it is impossible to 'not-know'. From your perspective anyway, you are reading the essay, and you cannot perceive yourself from another perspective. It does not matter if we are being manipulated by an 'evil' demon or are living in a farewell to arms, a computer simulation. There is no way of doctor cover letter knowing if we are or are not, and there is nothing we can do in either case. Worry in essays, such cases is pointless, and discussion or thought about such matters does not directly produce anything of value. Another argument for it not mattering is that for the universe to exist inside a supercomputer (either with humans inside it as well, or existing as 'brains in vats') requires a set of physical laws that do not exist in this universe. This is doctor because it is not possible to simulate this universe inside it self.

So even if we are living in a simulation, the laws of the bibliography for research papers, universe in which the simulation exist (the 'real world') are radically different to cover this ('virtual') world. As such, it would not be desirable to live in the non-simulated world, even if we could. The idea of a brain in a vat is not new, and while it is an essay on protecting our earth, interesting hypothesis, it is impossible for an individual to know if they are actually living in doctor, the 'real world' or if they are living in a simulated world. If they were living in a simulated world, they would have to treat it as the 'real world' as they would have no other reference point. While they may feel that it might not be real there is essay on censorship no way to show one way or the other, and nothing could be done in either case. It is also more simple, if humans are not living in cover, a simulated world. For these reasons while it is an kellogg, interesting idea to day dream about, discussion can ultimately do nothing in determining one way or the other if people are living in doctor cover, a 'real world' or not, and it is typewriter paper more likely that people are. Dancy, Jonathan. Introduction to Contemporary Epistemology in 'Philosophy: Brains in Vats and The Evil Demon', http://whatisthematrix.warnerbros.com/rl_cmp/new_phil_brain.html (accessed 27/04/2006) Gibson, William. Neuromancer . London: Grafton, 1986.

Hicke, Lance P. 'The “Brain in a Vat” Argument', The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, http://www.iep.utm.edu/b/brainvat.htm (accessed 27/04/2006). Letter? Nozick, Robert. Anarchy, State, And Utopia . Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1974. Russell, Bertrand. History of Western Philosophy . London: George Allen Unwin Ltd, 1961. Essay On Protecting Our Earth? *Ignoring whether they exist or not. 1Lance P. Cover Letter? Hicke, 'The “Brain in a Vat” Argument', The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, http://www.iep.utm.edu/b/brainvat.htm (accessed 27/04/2006).

2Bertrand Russell, History of essay Western Philosophy , (London: George Allen Unwin Ltd, 1961), p 547. Doctor Cover Letter? 8William Gibson, Neuromancer , (London: Grafton, 1986) 10Robert Nozick, Anarchy, State, And Utopia , (Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1974) pp43-45. 12Jonathan Dancy, Introduction to Contemporary Epistemology p10 in 'Philosophy: Brains in Vats and 2008 The Evil Demon', http://whatisthematrix.warnerbros.com/rl_cmp/new_phil_brain.html (accessed 27/04/2006) Mostly handcrafted by Michael, this website was designed to standards, with the highest quality in mind, and in result. The code and doctor cover letter content is freely available.

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Medical Doctor Cover Letter Sample

ohs advisor resume Hi Melany, Thanks for your question. In terms of temperature please refer to doctor the Environmental Regulations in the Occupational and kellogg 2008, Health and Safety Act.However in terms of a cold room allowance we are not sure on this, but perhaps a Labour Broker may be able to assist you. Thanks Jessica. Hi Wilson, Yes you are welcome to publish in the ESA Journal. Please contact the doctor cover letter editor, Dr Candice Christie c.christie@ru.ac.za Thanks Jessica. Hi Mpho, Thanks for your question. It does depend on the number of rooms/offices and perhaps you can consult a Union Rep, Labour Broker or perhaps have a look at the Basic Conditions of Employment Act. Thanks Jessica.

Hi Darren, Thanks for essays your question. Please consult the physiotherapists association as they will be better suited to answering your question www.saphysio.co.za Thanks Jessica. Hi AJ, Thanks for your question. If you have a look at the Occupational Health and Safety Act there is a large amount of detail on the lux levels for various tasks. This is in the Environmental Regulations, under lighting.

Thanks Jessica. Hi Johan, Thanks for your question. In terms of head clearance it depends on the anthropometry and user population you are catering for. Males and Females differ in terms of letter, anthropometrics (body shape and size). Perhaps you can consult and Ergonomist to assist you or have a look at the RSA-MIL-STD 127 which is the standard for a farewell essay the South African military population. It also depends on the type of work being performed, duration, frequency etc etc.

This makes it difficult to give a definitive answer. Thanks Jessica. Hi Anita, Thanks for your question. Unfortunately ESSA does not recommend specific suppliers, in order to remain fair to the community, however you may wish to consult one of the Ergonomists on the website who will gladly assist you in letter, determining the correct chair for your requirements. In terms of air conditioners, South Africa has little in terms of legislation regarding the temperature settings but based on international best practice it is advisable that the temperature is set to 21 degrees Celsius and those who find this too hot / cold should dress appropriately.

Thanks Jessica. Hi Tafadzwa, Thanks for your question. On Censorship! Unfortunately we cannot assist with regards to this question. It appears it may be a health and safety company?? Apologies, Jessica.

Hi Alida, Thanks for your question. Unfortunately we don't have these stats, but perhaps you could estimate by doctor looking at the number of people who work as an estimate of the on protecting our earth number of people who may have a computer. It would not be correct but could serve as a gauge or try Stats SA and see what they have to say. Thanks Jessica. Hi Zenani, Thanks for your question. Please have a look at cover, our website for a list of Ergonomic Consultants who should be able to assist you. Thanks Jessica. Hi Michelle, Thanks for your question. It depends on what you want to size be / do at University.

I would suggest you contact Career Guidance Advisor's at the respective Universities you are applying at to assist you. Thanks Jessica. Hi Clare, Thanks for your question. Unfortunately the Society does not provide consulting services, however you may wish to contact a list of cover, consultancies on our website. Thank you, Jessica. Hi Audrey, Thanks for your question.

We unfortunately do not provide a list of suppliers but you may want to contact our consultants (on our website) for a farewell to arms question their service providers. Thank you, Jessica. Hi Dennis, Thanks for doctor your question. Unfortunately we cannot assist with this query. You may wish to look into someone at ECSA who may be able to assist.

Thanks Jessica. Hi Nikki, Thanks for essays your question. Unfortunately we cannot assist but you may want to consult the Sectional Title Act and a Managing agency who will be able to assist you. Doctor Cover Letter! Thanks Jessica. HI Jerome, Thanks for your question but unfortunately this is not our scope. Essay! We deal with Ergonomics and how best to improve employee's work environments. Cover! Thanks Jessica.

Hi Carel, Unfortunately we cannot assist you with this query. Perhaps wedding coordinators may be of some help. Thanks. Essay In Schools! Jessica. Hi Deon, Thanks for your question. In terms of schools we are not to sure about this but you may wish to consult the Occupational Health and Safety Act under the Environmental Regulations.

It does depend on whether there is air conditioning, whether the kids have liquid to prevent dehydration and also the doctor type of essay, environment they are in. Thanks Jessica. HI Elba, Thanks for your question. Doctor Cover Letter! The OHS Act refers to open office / plan environments. So if this what you intend on doing then this the requirement of 2.25 square metres. Size! However there are pros and cons to open plan offices and although they can save space, they have been found to not increase or improve productivity. So you will need to way these things up. Thanks, Jessica. Hi Jacqui, Unfortunately we cannot assist with this but you may wish to visit a website called ergokid which deals a lot with school ergonomics. The web address is www.ergokid.com Thanks Jessica. Hi Tshidi Thanks for your question.

Please consult the National Building Regulations SANS 10400. Thanks Jessica. Hi Muhammad, Thanks for your question. Unfortunately we cannot assist with this. Perhaps a Safety Company that deals with fire hazards and training will be able to assist you? Apologies.

Jessica. Hi Cabindeeb, Unfortunately we do not have this answer for you. Perhaps you may wish to contact your Human Resources department or your safety officer. Doctor Cover! Thanks Jessica. Hi Comien, Thanks for your question. Please contact the typewriter consultants on our website who will be able to assist you.

Thank you, Jessica. Hi Raaziq, Thanks for doctor cover letter your question. Please contact our consultants on the website who may have short courses for you to attend. As ESSA we do not conduct training. Many thanks, Jessica. Hi Leana, Unfortunately there is no legislation regarding this but that this should be a matter that your HR department should assist you with as this is a farewell obviously not conducive. Thanks Jessica.

Hi Kobus, Thanks for your question. Cover! We would suggest you contact your HR or Safety Officer as they will be aware of the papers Occupational Health and Safety Act which stipulates ventilation and temperature under the doctor cover letter Environmental Regulations. Also perhaps you may need to inform them of the amount of office space each person is required to for research papers have in an open plan environment of 2.25 square metres, also in the OHS Act under the facilities regulations. Thanks Jessica. Hi Cecile, We have attended to doctor cover your question privately. Please let me know if you received the response. Thanks Jessica.

Hi Werner, Thanks for your question. Please refer to typewriter paper size the Occupational Health and Safety Act, and under the Environmental Regulations there is a section on lighting and what lighting should be for certain tasks. Lighting can be measured by a Occupational Hygienist. Thanks Jessica. Hi Nancy, Thanks for your question.

Unfortunately we are not the suitably qualified professionals to assist you. Doctor Cover! Perhaps contact an Environmentalist? Thanks Jessica. Hi Gladstone, Thanks for your question. You may wish to essay refer to the National Building Regulations which deals with buildings (including stairs etc.) for cover disabled people. Thanks Jessica. Hi JOhan, Thanks for your question.

We suggest between 22-23 degrees Celsius and those employees who find this too hot or too cold should dress appropriately. This is recommended based on International Guidelines as South Africa does not stipulate this. Paper Size! You may wish to make reference to the Occupational Health and Safety Act, under temperature. However this information is international best practice as South Africa does not provide this. Thanks Jessica. Hi Shirin, Thanks for your question. The Occupational Health and Safety Act under the facilities regulations suggests 2.25 square metres per person for an open plan office. It doest specify for an individual office. Thanks Jessica. Hi Sonja Thanks for your question.

It does depend on cover letter the task but usually it should be just below elbow height if one is standing and the elbows are bent in front of you. Thanks Jessica. Hi Sedric, Thanks for your question. South Africa does not have any legislation regarding this unfortunately. You may wish to consult a website www.ergokid.com and they have some good information. Thanks Jessica.

Hi Samuel, Unfortunately we cannot assist with this matter, You may wish to contact a Labour Lawyer or your Union Representative or Human Resource personnel. Thanks Jessica. Hi Diane, Thanks for on protecting our earth your question. There is new legislation which will stipulate Ergonomics in the Occupational Health and Safety Act. In the mean time the COID Act stipulates information on work related upper limb injuries as a result of poor ergonomics. Doctor Cover Letter! In terms of statistics, South Africa does not have up to date information on this. Thanks Jessica. Hi Diane, Thanks for your question. If it is proved (by an Ergonomist) that your work contributed to MSD then this can be claimed from the a farewell to arms question compensation commissioner through the COID act. Training is important from a Occupational Health and Safety Act view which stipulates employees must be trained on doctor letter safety to prevent injuries and accidents from happening at work.

Perhaps contact your Safety Department as they will know, or alternatively the HR Department. You may wish to also contact the Compensation Commissioner. Thanks Jessica. Hi Denver, thanks for your question. You may wish to consult the Occupational Health and Safety Act, under the Environmental Regulations where temperature is discussed. Alternatively you can request an Ergonomist or your Safety Personnel to conduct a risk assessment which would look into clothing depending on the job. Thanks Jessica.

Hi Neil, Unfortunately we cant assist but perhaps a Home Owners Association or Mangaing Agent company can assist. On Censorship In Schools! Also the letter National Building Regulations SANS 10400 may assist you. Thanks Jessica. Hi Meena, Unfortunately we do not have this information, but perhaps the National Building Regulations may assist you, SANS 10400. Thanks, Jessica. Hi Anke, Thanks for your question. Please refer to the Occupational Health and annotated for research papers, Safety Act under the Environmental Regulations which stipulates ventilation and windows. Thanks Jessica. Hi Terrance, Thanks for your question. Please consult our website for a list of consultants.

Thanks Jessica. Hi Prem, Thanks for letter your question. We suggest between 22-23 degrees Celsius and those employees who find this too hot or too cold should dress appropriately. This is recommended based on International Guidelines as South Africa does not stipulate this. Thanks Jessica. Hi Ronel, Thanks for your question. This is an essay, ongoing problem for many people and we suggest between 22-23 degrees Celsius and those employees who find this too hot or too cold should dress appropriately. This is recommended based on International Guidelines as South Africa does not stipulate this. You can also get the temperature measured and your Safety personnel can also assist as there are consequences to working in a stuffy environment e.g. reduced work performance, fatigue etc. Thanks Jessica. Hi Reeve, Thanks for your question.

The only University in South Africa to offer a full degree in Ergonomics is Rhodes University. You may wish to contact the Head of Department, Dr Candice Christie (c.chirstie@ru.ac.za) Thanks Jessica. Hi Ashmita, Thanks for doctor cover letter your question. Essay On Protecting! Unfortunately we do not have this information but perhaps the South Africa Institute for Occupational Hygienists can assist you (SAIOH). Thanks Jessica. Hi Lesley, Unfortunately we do not have this information. Perhaps the National Building Regulations may assist you as the only information is 2.25 square metres but that is for office employees. Thanks Jessica.

Hi Boitumelo, Thanks for your question. Cover Letter! We suggest the essay in schools temperature in an office be between 22-23 degrees Celsius and those employees who find this too hot or too cold should dress appropriately. This is cover letter recommended based on International Guidelines as South Africa does not stipulate this. However in terms of typewriter, where one sits, obviously being directly underneath it could be the reason why you have these symptoms. Perhaps you can redirect the air flow or alternatively contact your Safety or HR Department. Thanks Jessica. Hi Neto, Thanks for your question. Are you referring to a stand for your laptop? Thanks Jessica. Hi Matome, It is in the Facilities Regulations and cover, makes reference to 2.25 square metres per person. Thanks Jessica.

Hi Mariette, Thanks for your question. Unfortunately we do not have this information available however this website may provide some information www.ergokid.com Thanks Jessica. Hi Kyle, Thanks for your question. Yes this is a safety risk. Your Managing Agents or the Body Corporate/Home Owners Association must attend to this. Thanks Jessica. Hi Wilma Please consult the Occupational Health and Safety Act under the Environmental Regulations which specifies working in hot temperatures. To Arms Essay Question! Thanks Jessica. Hi Wynand, Thanks for your question. Please consult the National Building Regulations, SANS 10400 which may be able to assist you. Thanks Jessica.

Hi Jackie, Thanks for your question. We suggest between 22-23 degrees Celsius and those employees who find this too hot or too cold should dress appropriately. This is recommended based on International Guidelines as South Africa does not stipulate this. Thanks Jessica. Hi Lwazi, Thanks for your question. Cover! We suggest between 22-23 degrees Celsius and those employees who find this too hot or too cold should dress appropriately. Kellogg 2008! This is recommended based on International Guidelines as South Africa does not stipulate this. You can also refer to the Occupational Health and Safety Act, under the Environmental Regulations for letter temperature and a farewell essay, ventilation. Thanks Jessica.

HI Eva, Thanks for your question. Ergonomists will not advocate the use of a kneeling chair as it can contribute to poor postures and does not meet Ergonomic criteria. Perhaps contact one of the consulting companies on the website who may be able to assist. Thanks Jessica. Hi Vernon, Thanks for your question. Unfortunately we do not have this information available as the 2.25 is for office employees. Perhaps the Department of doctor cover letter, Education can assist? Thanks Jessica. Hi Justin, Thanks for your question.

We would suggest you contact the SAIOH organisation. They are hygienists and should be able to assist you. Thanks Jessica. Hi Maria, Thanks for your question. Annotated! You may want to cover letter approach your Health and Safety rep as they will be able to assist you. Alternatively you can also look at the Occupational Health and Safety Act. It is not advisable to sit on high chairs with no feet support and also resting your arms on a hard surface. Keep us posted.

Jessica. Thanks Rishi for your question. You would need to see the specs of that ladder as it might not be made for size certain people of a certain weight. If there is a risk for doctor letter an accident perhaps find this information out first and on censorship, then you would be able to say that either you are ok to use it or if not you need to inform your employer otherwise they could be liable. Thanks Jessica. Hi Rishi, Thanks for doctor cover your question. Unfortunately this is not legislated in 2008, South Africa as the load to be lifted is cover letter dependent on a number of factors: -individual -task -object being lifted (shape, size, mass) -duration -frequency -environment (temperature) We would suggest you contact your Health and Safety Rep and argumentative about co-education, that a risk assessment is done. This will determine whether or not it is safe for you to lift the doctor letter mass of the this object. If you did hurt your back and you have a company medical nurse go visit them to also see how they can assist you. Thanks Jessica. Hi Graham, Thanks for your question.

The Occupational Health and Safety Act under the regulations refers to 2.25 square metres per person. Thanks Jessica. Hi Julian, Thanks for your question. 2.25 square metres can be found in the Facilities Regulations in the Occupational Health and Safety Act. Thanks Jessica. Hi Vivek, Thanks for your question. The Occupational Health and Safety Act in essay on censorship in schools, the Facilities Regulations states 2.25 square metres per person. Thanks Jessica. Hi Marius, Thanks for your question. There is a bit of a debate about sitting on an exercise ball but as Ergonomists we don't advocate this given that the spine is unsupported and this places increased strain on the core to keep one upright. The muscles in the lower back also take more strain and therefore we recommend that for prolonged sitting that an exercise ball does not replace a good ergonomic chair. Doctor Letter! https://ergoweb.com/opinion-balls-as-office-chairs-a-bad-idea/ Thanks Jessica.

Hi Marius, Thanks for your question. Essay On Protecting! It does sound like you need a good Ergonomic chair. There are a number of companies that say ergonomic on their chairs so one does need to be careful. I would suggest contacting one of our Ergonomists on the website as they may be able to doctor assist you with their preferred suppliers. Thanks Jessica. Hi Mfundo, Thanks for your question. Unfortunately we are not sure if there is specific legislation regarding this but maybe look at the National Building Regulations which might be more useful. Thanks Jessica. Hi Danella, Thanks for your question.

I would suggest you become a member of the Ergonomics Society (details under membership on our website) and as and when we host conferences etc you can in that way be informed more about Ergonomics. Thanks Jessica. Hi Bill, Thanks for your question. This is prescribed in the National Building Regulations SANS 10400. Thanks Jessica. Hi Jose, Thanks for your question. I would suggest that you become a member of ESSA and in that way as and when courses become available you will be informed. Please visit our membership page on the website. Thanks Jessica.

Hi Mary, Thanks for your question. Unfortunately there are no DSE guidelines as in the UK in South Africa. Regarding eye tests I think this is dependent on each company's policies. Thanks Jessica. Hi Alison, Thanks for in schools your question. In terms of Ergonomics, the Facilities Regulations address that each employee should be provided with 2.25 square metres of cover, space in a working environment. This is part of the Occupational Health and Safety Act of South Africa's regulations. In terms of desk measurements there are no standards as in South African legislation but you can consult ergonomic references for this. Essay Co-education! Thanks Jessica. HI Nikhil, Thanks for your question.

If you have already done the NIOSH equation then unfortunately there is no other legislation which states the doctor letter maximum weight. It will have to be determined through an paper, Ergonomics risk assessment. Thanks Jessica. Hi JJ, Thanks for letter your question. Bibliography! Please consult the cover National Building Regulations, SANS 10400 which prescribes this. Thanks Jessoca.

Hi Avinash, Thanks for your question. Unfortunately we do not know the answer but perhaps you may wish to 2008 consult the National Building Regulations, SANS 10400 which may be of help. Thanks Jessica. Hi Jerome, A workstation consists of the Visual Display Unit (VDU) / computer monitor / screen, central processing unit, mouse, keyboard, laptop, chair, desk and doctor letter, any other accessories such as a telephone and radio. It’s not a hard and cast definition and every workplace will have different workstations but its where people would be performing their work e.g. in a factory it could be the conveyor table or a work bench so its where someone does their work. If you could explain what else or where else your employees work in the retail sector it may be easier to essay our earth assist i.e. what else do they do other than work at a computer. Thanks Jessica.

Hi Sonja, Thanks for your question. Please consult the OHS Act (Act 85 of 1993) and the Environmental Regulations where lighting in detail is specified and examples of lux measurements can be found for different working environments. Thanks, Jessica. Hi Deshan, Thanks for your question. You may wish to consult the Ergonomists listed on our website which may be able to assist you with suppliers that they use and in this way you will get reviews too. Letter! Thanks Jessica. Hi Hlogi, Thanks for your question. Unfortunately we dont know this answer but perhaps the National Building Regulations may assist you, SANS 10400. Thanks Jessica. Hi Tertia, Thanks for your question.

The reference is the Facilities Regulations, under the Occupational Health and Safety Act, Act 85 of 1993. Thanks Jessica. HI Natali, Thanks for your question. Yes stuffy offices can result in employees feeling lethargic and therefore this impacts on their work output. It can also impact on essay their wellness and therefore may result in absenteeism, illness and letter, reduced morale.

People may become sick easily as there is less fresh air to remove the essay on censorship germs and also keep them awake. There are a number of factors that can impact on employees' performance at work and so perhaps you can consult the Ergonomics / Human Factors Journals and references. Thanks Jessica. HI Karin, Thanks for your question. It is recommended that each employee be provided with 2.25 square metres of office space and this is stipulated in doctor cover, the Facilities Regulations of the Occupational Health and annotated for research papers, Safety Act. Thanks Jessica. HI Elza, Thanks for doctor your question. It is best you consult the National Building Regulations SANS 10400 for annotated bibliography for research your queries.

Thanks, Jessica. HI Liezl, Thanks for your question. Doctor! Unfortunately this is not legislated but the NIOSH equation is generally used to determine this. When calculating the maximum weight there are a number of factors to consider e.g individual factors (age, gender etc), task factors (lifting, lowering, frequency, duration) environmental factors (temperature) etc etc. It is best to determine this maximum weight by means of an Ergonomics risk assessment as there is annotated for research no one answer given the number of doctor cover letter, factors which influence the maximum weight. Thanks Jessica. Hi Mahle, Thanks for your question. Please consult our Ergonomists listed on for research the website as they will be able to recommend genuine Ergonomic chair suppliers. Thanks Jessica. Hi Thabo, Thanks for your question. This does depend on a number of factors: 1. the individual e.g age, size, shape, etc.

2. the task e.g lifting, lowering 3. the cover duration e.g 8 hours a day 4. the frequency of picking up e.g 5 times per minute 5. the essay on protecting our earth object to be picked up e.g shape, size, weight, handles present or not 6. environment e.g temperature All of these factors influence the recommended weight limit which if conditions are said to be perfect is 23kg and this weight reduces as the conditions above change. We suggest you look into cover the NIOSH equation for lifting however in South Africa there is no recommendation. An ergonomics risk assessment may be of essays 2008, help to assist you in determining this. Thanks, Jessica. Hi Heather, Thanks for your question. Unfortunately we do not advise on products or suppliers but I would suggest that you perhaps have someone advise you i.e an Ergonomist as to doctor whether a kneeling chair is the best option for your condition. Thanks Jessica. Hi Mechman, Thanks for your question. To Arms Essay Question! Unfortunately you may wish to doctor letter rather consult the General Safety Regulations in the Occupational Health and Safety Act for a farewell to arms essay question your query. Thanks Jessica. Hi Radley, Thanks for doctor letter your question.

The answer is essay co-education prescribed in the SANS 10400 which is the document called the National Building Regulations and cover, they prescribe the number of toilets per number of essay question, employees. Thanks Jessica. Hi Adri, Thanks for your questions. The first answer is doctor cover letter 2.2.5 square metres of office space and this is in the Facilities regulations of the typewriter size OHS Act. Your second question you may wish to letter consult the National Building Regulations, SANS 10400. Thanks, Jessica. Hi Kelvin, Thanks for your question. Essays! Please could you be more specific as to what your questions seeks to answer? Thanks Jessica. Hi Zamo, Thanks for your question.

This is in the Facilities Regulations. Thanks Jessica. Hi Bilinda, Thanks for doctor letter your question. It will be necessary to answer this by means of an Ergonomics Risk Assessment which we recommend your company conduct. Pushing/pulling is dependent on a number of factors and therefore cannot be given in on protecting, a quick answer. Please feel free to cover consult one of the essay Ergonomists on our website. Thanks Jessica. HI Theunis, Thanks for your question. Unfortunately this is doctor not documented in SA Labour laws and it is a farewell essay question recommended that this be calculated through an Ergonomics Risk Assessment. This is because pushing/pulling is dependent on a number of factors e.g. the individual (age, gender), the task (frequency, duration), the floor surface and the environment (e.g temperature) for example.

You may also wish to look up the Snook Tables which may help you. Thanks Jessica. HI Melinda, Thanks for your question, Please consult the OHS Act and in particular the Facilities Regulations which prescribe 2.25 square metres of office space per employee. Thanks Jessica. Hi Parvez, Thanks for your question. This does depend on a number of factors: 1. the individual e.g age, size, shape, etc. 2. the cover letter task e.g lifting, lowering 3. the duration e.g 8 hours a day 4. the frequency of picking up e.g 5 times per a farewell question minute 5. the object to cover letter be picked up e.g shape, size, weight, handles present or not 6. environment e.g temperature All of these factors influence the recommended weight limit which if conditions are said to be perfect is 23kg and this weight reduces as the conditions above change. We suggest you look into the NIOSH equation for lifting however in South Africa there is no recommendation. An ergonomics risk assessment may be of help to on censorship in schools assist you in determining this.

Thanks, Jessica. Hi Ruan, Thanks for your question. Doctor Cover Letter! You have a right as the OHS Act stipulates that you as an on protecting our earth, employee should work in a healthy and doctor letter, safe workplace; however there is no legislation regarding the air conditioner temperatures for South Africa hence why we rely on overseas legislation. You should contact your HR Manager or your Safety Representative to assist you with having a risk assessment conducted to paper size address this issue. Thanks Jessica. Thanks for your question.

This does depend on a number of factors: 1. the individual e.g age, size, shape, etc. Letter! 2. the task e.g lifting, lowering 3. the a farewell question duration e.g 8 hours a day 4. the frequency of picking up e.g 5 times per minute 5. the object to be picked up e.g shape, size, weight, handles present or not 6. environment e.g temperature All of these factors influence the recommended weight limit which if conditions are said to be perfect is 23kg and this weight reduces as the conditions above change. We suggest you look into doctor letter the NIOSH equation for lifting however in annotated for research, South Africa there is no recommendation. An ergonomics risk assessment may be of help to assist you in doctor, determining this. Thanks, Jessica. HI Erna, Thanks for your question. Unfortunately South African legislation is not clear on 2008 indoor temperature such as air conditioner temperatures.

We use Canadian legislation where it states that the air conditioner should be set at 22-23 degrees Celsius and those who find this too hot/cold should dress appropriately. Doctor! Alternatively you can visit the Environmental Regulations in the Occupational Health and Safety Act. Thanks Jessica. Hi Godfrey, Thanks for your question. On Censorship! You may wish to visit the Environmental Regulations and also in terms of air conditioners it is best (based on international legislation) to have them set at 22-23 degrees Celsius.

Those that find this too hot or cold should dress appropriately. Thanks Jessica. Hi Nomazizi, Unfortunately we cannot assist with this matter. Thanks Jessica. Hi Juliette, Thanks for your question. You may wish to use the Employment Equity legislation and particularly the section on people with disabilities. Otherwise you can suggest that an Ergonomics assessment be conducted as employees should not sit or stand for long periods of a day but need to alternate. I would strongly recommend you consult your HR and Safety department to see if they can assist you.

Thanks Jessica. HI Lethu, You may wish to get a copy of the National Building Regulations SANS 10400 which may help you. Thanks Jessica. Hi Oliver, You may wish to doctor letter contact Ergonomists on paper our wesbite for a list of suppliers. Thanks Jessica. Hi Diane, There is legislation that makes mention of Ergonomics and also that contains elements of areas relating to Ergonomics.

One being the Occupational Health and Safety Act and then regulations such as the Construction regulations and also the cover Facilities regulations. Others such as the Environmental Regulations are also Ergonomics related. Kellogg Essays! Thanks Jessica. Hi Constance, Thanks for doctor letter your question. It is not so easy to answer as it dependent on a number of factors. You may wish to about co-education look at the machinery regulations in the OHS Act and also it is advisable that your Safety Representative conduct a study to determine this safe space. Thanks Jessica. HI Pearl, Thanks for your question.

I would suggest you contact Andrew Todd who works at Rhodes University who will be able to assist you. Thanks Jessica. Hi Mboyana, Thanks for letter your question. Unfortunately there isn't much legislation on this in essay on protecting our earth, South Africa but a useful website that may help you is ergokid.com Thanks Jessica. HI Sindi, Thanks for your question.

You may need to consult the National Building Regulations and also the doctor letter Department of Labour which refers to domestic employee regulations. Co-education! Thanks Jessica. Hi Monica, Thanks for your question. Please consult the list of doctor letter, Ergonomists on the website. Thanks, Jessica. Hi Melinda, Thanks for your question.

Please consult the list of on censorship, companies on our website. Thanks, Jessica. Hi Robert, Thanks for your question. Cover Letter! Yes this is true. We as ESSA are working with the Department of essay on protecting, Labour. Thanks, Jessica. Hi Jemma, Thanks for your question. Please consult the National Building Regulations and SANS 10400 as this details how many toilets you need and how they should be allocated. Thanks, Jessica.

Hi Liam, Thanks for your question. Please just keep checking our website and cover, we will post anything under the news section if this happens. Alternatively you may wish to speak to an Ergonomist who may be able to give you advice and information. Typewriter Size! Thanks, Jessica. Hi Raeeqah, Thanks for your question.

It depends on cover letter a number of factors including the persons anthropometry (shape and size) and the dimensions of the chair. Essay Our Earth! I would suggest you contact an doctor letter, Ergonomists to assist you as it is not possible to give advice without seeing the chair and the individual. Thanks, Jessica. Hi Sean, Thanks for your question. Please consult the Occupational Health and Safety Act, Act 85 of 1993 under the to arms essay question Facilities Regulations and also the doctor cover letter National Building Regulations, SANS 10400 which should assist you. Thanks Jessica. Hi Shanice, Thanks for your question. You may wish to essay on protecting consult the Facilities Regulations, Environmental Regulations and the General Safety Regulations.

The Department of Labour has all of letter, these and the ACT on its website. Thanks Jessica. Hi Lucien, Thanks for your question. I would suggest you contact one of the Ergonomists listed on our website and they may be able to assist you. Alternatively you may wish to essay read up on literature on the Snook tables. Doctor! Thanks Jessica. Hi Marc, Thanks for your question. I would suggest you look into Ergonomics and argumentative essay about, Human Factors Journals to see what studies have been done and cover letter, then possibly contact some of the a farewell to arms question universities to guide you how you could pursue studying this. Doctor Cover! Thanks Jessica. Hi Phathiswa, Thanks for your question.

I would suggest contacting an Ergonomist who is practicing Ergonomics who will give you the best advice. Kellogg! Thanks Jessica. Hi Karin, Thanks for your question. There doesn't appear to be specifications around boardrooms. You may wish to letter visit the National Building Regulations SANS 10400. Thanks Jessica. Hi Carol, Thanks for your question. Argumentative Essay About! Please consult the Occupational Health and Safety Act, Act 85 of doctor cover, 1993 which will provide, under the Environmental Regulations, the kellogg essays 2008 requirements for ventilation, temperature etc.

Thanks Jessica. Hi Molemisi, Thanks for your question. You may wish to cover letter contact Dr Candice Christie at Rhodes University who will be able to essay question assist you. Thanks, Jessica. Hi Justin, Thanks for your question. I would suggest you contact the cover letter Ergonomists on the website as they may have preferable suppliers and may be able to assist you with your specific query. Thanks Jessica. HI Burt, Thanks for your question. Please refer to the OHS Act which stipulates illumination under the Environmental Regulations and gives details for a number of typewriter, tasks and working environments.

Thanks Jessica. Hi Pat, Thanks for your question. This does depend on a number of factors: 1. the individual e.g age, size, shape, etc. 2. the task e.g lifting, lowering 3. the duration e.g 8 hours a day 4. the frequency of cover, picking up e.g 5 times per minute 5. the object to on censorship be picked up e.g shape, size, weight, handles present or not 6. environment e.g temperature All of these factors influence the recommended weight limit which if conditions are said to be perfect is 23kg and this weight reduces as the conditions above change. Doctor Letter! We suggest you look into the NIOSH equation for lifting however in South Africa there is no recommendation. An ergonomics risk assessment may be of help to assist you in determining this. Thanks, Jessica. Hi Olivia, Thanks for on protecting your question. We suggest between 22-23 degrees Celsius and those employees who find this too hot or too cold should dress appropriately. This is recommended based on International Guidelines as South Africa does not stipulate this.

Thanks Jessica. Hi Rianda, Thanks for cover your question. Please consult the list of Ergonomic Specialists on the ESSA website who may be able to assist you. Thanks Jessica. Hi Candice, Thanks for a farewell to arms your question. I would suggest you look at the OHS Act as this stipulates that employees should be provided with 2.25 square metres of office space.

Thanks Jessica. HI Teresa, Thanks for your question. This does depend on the temperature of the room/office as if it is very cold then they may wish to keep their feet and legs warm. It is also important to ensure that the heaters are not too hot to prevent a fire risk and that ventilation is provided so that the room does not become stuffy which can reduce performance. It may be necessary to cover determine why the employees are using the heaters and what best can be improved in the workplace to prevent this. Thanks, Jessica. Hi Tlaki, Thanks for your question.

In terms of a mouse we suggest you perhaps do some online research as this may be a personal choice, however what is strongly recommended is a mouse pad which has a gel wrist support area that supports the carpel tunnel area rather than resting your wrist on a flat mouse pad. This will provide cushioning and support. Thanks, Jessica. Hi Ria, Thanks for your question. You may wish to consult the National Building Regulations SANS 10400 and in particular the section which details workspaces for disabled employees. For Research! One would need to consider the turning circle of employees who are wheelchair bound and the extra space required for them to doctor cover move around comfortably and safely. Thanks, Jessica. HI Mohammed, Thanks for your question.

Unfortunately we do not have the answer for you and suggest you look at about, a website ergokid which may help you. It would however depend on cover the age of the essay in schools child and a number of other factors. Thanks, Jessica. Hi Mariana, Thanks for your question, Unfortunately for factories this isn't well documented. It would depend on a number of factors such as the task, workspace, other employees, activities, etc. so we would suggest a risk assessment is done to perhaps determine this. Thanks Jessica. Hi Macdonald, Thanks for your question. There are a number of advantages of Ergonomics 1. Reduction in number of injuries 2. Healthier employees and healthier workplace 3. Safer equipment / processes 4. More efficient employees in terms of performance 5. Reduced costs spent on retraining 6. Fewer accidents 7. Greater productivity for the organisation Thanks, Jessica.

Hi Anele, Thanks for your questions. We do not have specifics in terms of office etiquette and doctor cover letter, we are sure you could get this information online, however areas such as eating at your desk, noise, privacy, telephone calls etc. Essay On Protecting! may be issues to look at. Thanks, Jessica. Hi Rakhi, Thanks for your question. Unfortunately we cannot assist you with this question, but you may wish to consult an Engineer who may be able to advise you further.

Thanks, Jessica. Hi. Rhodes University in Grahamstown offers an ergonomics degree. You need to complete your undergrad BSc and then complete an Honours degree in Ergonomics, as well as a Masters degree in Ergonomics. Good luck. Hi Leon, Thanks for your question.

In terms of children the OHS Act does not deal with this. We suggest you look into the OHS Act with specific reference to the Environmental Regulations which details temperature and ventilation but for office employees. Alternatively you may wish to visit the website ergokid as they may also assist. Cover! Thanks, Jessica. Hi Ryno In terms of SA legislation this is not prescribed. However when we refer to international standards you need to make reference to the NIOSH equation which assists you in determining the recommended weight to be picked up.

The weight is dependent on a number of factors: the task, the object to be lifted, where the object is being lifted from, where the object is being lifted to, the shape and size of the object, the individual (e.g. age, gender etc.) and the environmental conditions (weather, humidity etc.) It is therefore not so easy just to say a certain weight as you can see from the depending factors above. Consult the NIOSH equation for further information or an Ergonomist for an ergonomic risk assessment. Hi Shaylin, Thanks for your question. Unfortunately we don't have this information but you may wish to consult British Standards which do have this information and also the website ergokid. Essay Our Earth! Thanks Jessica. HI Kemraj, Thanks for your question. We suggest you look at SANS 10400 which details the number of letter, toilets per the number of people.

Thanks, Jessica. Hi Ursula, Thanks for your question. Please refer to the OHS Act and specifically the Environmental Regulations which deals with temperatures also above 30 degrees. You may wish to also look at the Ventilation section and bear in bibliography papers, mind employees need to be provided with 600ml of cold liquid for working in outside conditions. Thanks Jessica. Hi Tshepo, Thanks for your question. Cover! Are you referring to workspace size as in bibliography for research, office space? If so this is regulated in doctor cover letter, South Africa in the OHS Act as is 2.25 square metres per person. Thanks, Jessica.

Hi Johan, Thanks for your question. We suggest contacting SAIOH as they are Occupational Hygienists who conduct lighting surveys. Thanks Jessica. Hi Annabel Thanks for your question. Kellogg 2008! If you consult the Occupational Health and letter, Safety Act (OHS Act) you will find under the a farewell to arms essay Environmental Regulations that employees should be provided with 2.25 square metres of office space. Doctor Letter! This space includes the chair, desk, computer and accessories.

This can be found in paper, the Environmental Regulations under Housekeeping. Doctor Letter! Thanks, ESSA. Hi Ursula, Thanks for your question. In terms of minimum space for essay on protecting our earth a call centre agent we do not have this information but the OHS Act suggests 2.25 square metres of office space per employee but this information doesn't elaborate as per different types of employees. Thanks Jessica. Hi Sally, Thanks for your question. I would suggest you get a copy of the doctor letter National Building Regulations which will assist you in determining the number of toilets per the number of in schools, people. It is SANS 10400.

Thanks Jessica. Hi Johan, Thanks for your question. It is recommended that you conduct an ergonomics risk assessment as there may be other contributing factors which may need to be considered such as duration, frequency, job tasks etc.. In terms of anthropometry I would suggest you look in the RSA Military Standard that you can purchase to assist you with this dimension. Cover! Thanks, Jessica. Hi Marlie, Thanks for your question. Essay Our Earth! You may wish to cover visit the website of ergokid which will be able to assist you. Thanks Jessica. HI Clint, Thanks for your question. Our Earth! Regarding desk size there are no hard and fast specifics but it should be within: 71cm desk depth 65-82cm desk height 120-160cm desk width 38cm clearance under desk for knees 61cm clearance under desk for feet 51 cm under desk clearance for cover letter the width Thanks, Jessica. Hi Chyvonne Thanks for your question.

If you consult the Occupational Health and Safety Act (OHS Act) you will find under the Environmental Regulations that if the average WBGT index exceeds 30 deg the employer must if possible take steps to reduce the index to below 30. However, if this is not possible and where hard labour is performed the employer must 1) have employees certified fit to work in kellogg, such an environment, 2) ensure the employee is acclimatised, 3) inform employee to drink water, 4) train employees in doctor, heat stroke prevention and 5) provide means for prompt first aid treatment if required. The details of the above can be found in the Environmental Regulations under Thermal requirements (4). Our Earth! I hope this helps. Thanks, ESSA. Hi Gustav Thanks for your question. If you consult the Occupational Health and Safety Act (OHS Act) you will find under the Environmental Regulations that employees should be provided with 2.25 square metres of office space. This space includes the cover letter chair, desk, computer and accessories.

This can be found in the Environmental Regulations under Housekeeping. Thanks, ESSA. Hi Hermien Thanks for your question. If you consult the essay on protecting Occupational Health and Safety Act (OHS Act) you will find under the Environmental Regulations that employees should be provided with 2.25 square metres of office space. This space includes the chair, desk, computer and accessories. This can be found in the Environmental Regulations under Housekeeping.

Thanks, ESSA. HI Jose, Thanks for your question. Doctor Cover! The OHS Act stipulates 2.25 square metres per person in in schools, an office environment. Cover! Thanks, Jessica. Hi Amor, Thanks for your question.

Please consult the OHS Act, with specific reference to the Environmental Regulations on temperature. Thanks, Jessica. Hi Adekunle, Thanks for your email. Apologies we look into essay in schools this for letter you. Thanks, Jessica. Hi Nick, Thanks for your question. We suggest you look at SANS 10400 which are the essay national Building Regulations and they specifically state the number of toilets and doctor, detail parking space. Thanks, Jessica. Hi Aubrey, Thanks for essay on censorship your question. Doctor Cover! Each employee should be provided with 2.25 square metres of essay, office space as per the OHS Act. Thanks Jessica.

HI Wisdom, Thanks for your question. There can be a number of hazards such as fires, tripping, slipping, working at doctor cover, different counter top heights, accessing tools / goods etc. Please let us know more information so we can assist you further. For Research! Thanks, Jessica. Hi Wilma, Thanks for your question.

We suggest you look into the SANS 10400 Building Regulations which makes specific reference to the number of doctor, toilets per the number of employees. Thanks, Jessica. Hi Livhu, Thanks for your question. Unfortunately the OHS Act does not specify this for different levels of management etc. but only provide a description for all employees of 2.25 square metres per person. Thanks, Jessica. Hi Francisco, Thanks for kellogg 2008 your question. I would suggest you contact subway stations in your country who may be able to assist you as unfortunately we do not have this information. The RSSB in cover, the UK may be of essay our earth, help. Thanks Jessica. HI Reinhart, Thanks for your question. Unfortunately South African legislation isn't very clear on this.

We however use international legislation for thermal comfort which may be of interest to you. In summer the dry bulb temperature should range from 23 Celsius to 28 Celsius and in winter the temperature should range between 20 Celsius to 25.5 Celsius. A general recommendation for thermal comfort is that the temperature be held constant in the range of 21-23°C. In summertime when outdoor temperatures are higher it is advisable to keep air-conditioned offices slightly warmer to minimize the temperature discrepancy between indoors and outdoors. The temperature should be set to 21-23°C and those who get cold should dress appropriately and doctor cover, visa versa. I hope this helps. Annotated Bibliography! Thanks, Jessica. Hi Lynn, Thanks for doctor letter your question. Please could you provide us with more information as to typewriter paper size what exactly your concern is?

Thanks, Jessica. Hi Ray, Thanks for your question. Please consult the National Building Regulations and in particular SANS 10400 as the answer to your question is in this document. Thanks, Jessica. Hi Annette, Thanks for doctor cover your question.

This is a difficult one. I would recommend if you have a health and safety officer that they do a risk assessment and then use this to ask your Manager to either move you or close the air conditioner above you. The cold air can be used to indicate to your employer that you may get sick, you may not be able to do your work efficiently etc. and so the alternative must be to either move you, and a farewell to arms question, if this is not possible, then to close the vent of this air conditioner. Thanks, Jessica. Hi Irene, Thanks for your question.

I would suggest you do some research on this as unfortunately we cannot assist you. Perhaps you could also let us know on doctor cover letter what grounds the Inspector is not giving your creche a certificate and what regulation he/she is using as we are not sure what regulations there are that specifically address this matter. We would suggest the Inspector needs to about co-education advise as to what regulation he/she is doctor letter using to deny your creche a certificate. Thanks Jessica. Hi Jaco In terms of SA legislation this is not prescribed. However when we refer to essays 2008 international standards you need to make reference to the NIOSH equation which assists you in cover letter, determining the recommended weight to be picked up. The weight is dependent on a number of factors: the task, the object to be lifted, where the object is being lifted from, where the object is being lifted to, the size shape and size of the doctor letter object, the individual (e.g. age, gender etc.) and essays 2008, the environmental conditions (weather, humidity etc.) It is doctor therefore not so easy just to say a certain weight as you can see from the annotated for research papers depending factors above. Consult the NIOSH equation for further information or an Ergonomist for an ergonomic risk assessment. Hi Diane, Thanks for your question. I would suggest you contact the Society and keep in cover letter, touch so that we can provide you with details re conferences and seminars. Thanks Jessica.

Hi Stephan, Thanks for your question. I would highly recommend you get an Occupational Hygienist in to measure the noise levels and this will give you proof that the noise levels are too high and how these levels will impact on your health, safety and comfort which will ultimately will impact on your performance. You can also make reference to the OHS Act and specifically to the Environmental Regulations and Noise which will be of use and further your need to remove this noise. We hope this helps. Thanks, Jessica.

Hi Kgopotso, Thanks for your question. If you wish to continue studying you may wish to approach Rhodes University as they do a Masters Degree in Ergonomics. Also I would suggest contacting Ergonomists in the country who may also offer you advice. Thanks, Jessica. Hi Steve, Unfortunately South Africa does not have legislation regarding the maximum weight that can be lifted and therefore it is imperative that an Ergonomics Specialist be involved to determine this limit as the NIOSH recommended weight limit (RWL) is 23kg. but that is if all the different conditions are perfect! In terms of essay on censorship in schools, lifting it is not all about the weight that is being lifted but factors such as the environment, individual, object etc. Cover! must also be factored into consideration. NIOSH is the most widely used of equations and even though it is an internationally derived equation it can be used on a South African population.

That is why it is suggested that an Ergonomist who understand this equation and what it means should be involved in your risk assessments. We hope this helps. Essay! Thanks, Jessica. Hi Carinus, Thanks for your question. Unfortunately South African legislation isn't very clear on cover this. We however use international legislation for thermal comfort which may be of paper size, interest to cover letter you.

In summer the dry bulb temperature should range from 23 Celsius to 28 Celsius and in winter the temperature should range between 20 Celsius to kellogg 2008 25.5 Celsius. A general recommendation for thermal comfort is that the temperature be held constant in the range of 21-23°C. Doctor! In summertime when outdoor temperatures are higher it is advisable to keep air-conditioned offices slightly warmer to minimize the temperature discrepancy between indoors and outdoors. A Farewell Essay! The temperature should be set to 21-23°C and those who get cold should dress appropriately and visa versa. I hope this helps.

Thanks, Jessica. Hi Graham, Thanks for your question. I would suggest you contact one of our listed Consultants on our website who may be able to assist you with presentations/training/lectures/courses etc. and doctor letter, possibly cater these to bibliography for research papers your particular industry. Thanks, Jessica. Hi Janet, Thanks for your question. I would suggest you familiarize yourself with the Occupational Health and Safety Act, with particular reference to the Facilities regulations. Another document that may also be of help is the National Building Regulations which may help you. In terms of Health Laws and cover, Regulations you may wish to consult the HPCSA as they may have further information. Thanks, Jessica. Hi Michelle, Thanks for your question.

The OHS Act must be read in typewriter paper size, conjunction with the doctor cover letter Regulations. There are many Regulations and essay question, some may not be applicable, however the doctor cover letter OHS Act is applicable to every employer and employee. I would suggest you obtain a copy of these and either get your HR or your Safety Practitioner to assist you. Thanks, Jessica. Hi Boitumelo, Many thanks for your question. Argumentative About Co-education! I would suggest you consult an Ergonomics specialist to assist you. Thanks for your question. Doctor Cover! Jessica. Hi Annette, Thanks for your question.

You may wish to consult the Occupational Health and Safety Act under the Environmental Regulations which specifies temperature and ventilation. However it doesn't set the recommended office temperature which we use based on co-education international best practice. Cover Letter! We however use international legislation for thermal comfort which may be of interest to essay in schools you. In summer the dry bulb temperature should range from 23 Celsius to 28 Celsius and in winter the temperature should range between 20 Celsius to 25.5 Celsius. Letter! A general recommendation for thermal comfort is annotated for research that the temperature be held constant in the range of 21-23°C. Cover! In summertime when outdoor temperatures are higher it is kellogg advisable to doctor keep air-conditioned offices slightly warmer to to arms essay minimize the temperature discrepancy between indoors and outdoors. The temperature should be set to 21-23°C and those who get cold should dress appropriately and doctor cover letter, visa versa. Essay! I hope this helps. Thanks, Jessica. Hi Li-Alet, Thanks for your question.

If you consult the doctor cover letter Occupational Health and Safety Act (OHS Act) you will find under the Environmental Regulations that employees should be provided with 2.25 square metres of office space. This space includes the chair, desk, computer and accessories. This can be found in the Environmental Regulations under Housekeeping. Thanks, Jessica. Hi Massi, Thanks for your question. Unfortunately this information is for research not well documented in SA. You may wish to visit a website www.ergonomics4schools.com where you may find the answer there. It would seem unfair and the child may be disadvantaged in terms of not being able to see the teacher so I would suggest that the class is probably too big for the size of the room and perhaps you need to take this up with the school. We hope this helps.

Thanks, Jessica. Hi Ingrid, Thanks for your question. Ergonomics should be considered from the cover very start of any project. Reason being is you need to conduct an Ergonomics risk assessment to determine what are the hazards and risk likely to our earth be and what will the employees be required to do. This will determine what measures you will need to doctor cover put in place to ensure that the health and safety of the employees is managed. Kellogg Essays! Thereafter Ergonomics should be considered then throughout the project with audits, checklists and continuous assessments being conducted to ensure the utmost safety. Ergonomics is doctor letter not a quick fix or something that should be considered after the fact. Essay On Protecting! Feel free to contact any of our Ergonomists on our website who will be able to assist you should you need.

Thanks, Jessica. Hi Anita, Thanks for your question. Doctor Cover Letter! Unfortunately we do not supply safety steps, but perhaps you may wish to consult either one of our ergonomists or perhaps contact one of the Safety organisations in South Africa. Thanks, Jessica. Hi Busi, Thanks for kellogg essays 2008 your question. I would suggest you contact one of the Ergonomists listed on our website who will be able to assist you with a list of suppliers. Letter! Thanks Jessica.

Hi Matome, Thanks for your question. Unfortunately we cannot assist as we are an Ergonomics Society and do no specialize in window cleaning etc. Thanks, Jessica. Hi Jacque, Thanks for your question. It does depend on what the activities are, how much space is there, how many people are required to work in this space etc. Kellogg! One would need to make sure that employees do not become injured, hurt or their performance compromised due to a lack of space. I would suggest you consult one of our Ergonomists listed on cover our website.

Thanks, Jessica. Hi Rimelda, Thanks for your question. I would suggest you consult the OHS Act as there are Environmental regulations which stipulate regulations for ventilation. This includes windows and air supply through mechanical means e.g. air conditioners. Employees need to be provided with either fresh air or the air supply should be provided by other means but there needs to be a supply of circulating air. Essay About! Thanks, Jessica. Hi Thelma, Thanks for your question. Doctor Cover Letter! You would need to contact the Ergonomists listed on our website as they may differ depending on what is required. Thanks, Jessica.

Hi Anusha, Thanks for your question. Kellogg! Yes the 2.25 square metres includes the entire space per person which includes his/her desk, computer, chair and accessories. In addition to the space required to move around. Thanks, Jessica. Hi Carmen, Thanks for your question. It does depend on a number of factors e.g. activities, number of people, space etc.

For office work it is recommended to be 2.25 square metres so it will depend on the above factors for a factory. The best would be to consult an Ergonomist for assistance. A list of doctor cover, names and companies are on our website. Thanks, Jessica. Hi Brynt, Thanks for your question. On Protecting Our Earth! You are welcome to doctor letter contact one of kellogg 2008, our Ergonomists listed on our website who will be able to give you names of recommended Ergonomic chair suppliers and Ergonomic specifications for office layout (desk, chair and computers).

Thanks, Jessica. Hi Andrew, Thanks for your email. Please contact Dr Candice Christie, the HOD of the Department of Human Kinetics and Ergonomics as Rhodes University. Currently only Rhodes is the university that offers a formal degree in Ergonomics. Her email is: c.christie@ru.ac.za Thanks, Jessica. Hi Sankia, Thanks for your question.

There are a number of documents available, namely on the Health and Safety Executive website and under other international heath and safety websites. However I would suggest contacting an Ergonomist in South Africa (a list of cover, names/companies are on our website) who should be able to assist you. Thanks, Jessica. HI Vijay, Thanks for argumentative co-education your question. Doctor Cover Letter! I would suggest that you contact an annotated bibliography for research, Ergonomist who will work together with the Occupational Health Practitioner.

There are a number of tools/techniques available and it is best that an expert advise as to which of these you should use e.g NIOSH Lifting equation etc. Feel free to contact an expert Ergonomist on our website. Cover Letter! Thanks, Jessica. Hi Annelise, You may wish to paper size consult the Occupational Health and Safety Act of South Africa and under the environmental regulations you can read up about cold temperature and hot temperatures. I would also suggest you look at redesigning your workplace and perhaps look at closing the door or moving employees so that they are not in the cold wind.

Thanks, Jessica. Hi Elsa, Thanks for your question. You can check up Cecil Nurse or you can also look at letter, Herman Miller chairs. Thanks., Jessica. Hi Ellouisa Thanks for your question.

In terms of SA legislation this is not prescribed. However when we refer to international standards you need to make reference to the NIOSH equation which assists you in determining the recommended weight to be picked up. The weight is annotated bibliography for research dependent on a number of factors: the task, the object to be lifted, where the object is being lifted from, where the object is doctor letter being lifted to, the on censorship shape and size of the object, the individual (e.g. Cover! age, gender etc.) and the environmental conditions (weather, humidity etc.) It is therefore not so easy just to say a certain weight as you can see from the depending factors above. Consult the on protecting NIOSH equation for further information or an Ergonomist for an ergonomic risk assessment. Thanks, Jessica. Hi Musa, Thanks for letter your question. The chair may be cheap quality or it may be that the chair is old. There are a number of on protecting our earth, factors, including ones weight which can result in chair deterioration, however you need to buy a genuine ergonomic chair and these are relatively expensive. Are you moving your chair over a carpet? If so you may need a chair mat to assist with movement of the chair and this could help you.

I would suggest you go on doctor the Health and Safety Executive website for guidelines for an ergonomic chair. Essay On Protecting Our Earth! However it must be sturdy and most chairs recommend a certain weight that they can support so also look out for this. Thanks, Jessica. Hi Mpho, Thanks for your question. Unfortunately there is no legislation regarding this in South Africa, pertaining to school children. The OHS Act states 2.25 m2 per person in cover, an office environment but it doesn't mention schools. Typewriter Paper Size! Thanks, Jessica. Hi Khetelani, Thanks for your question. Ergonomics aims to ensure workplaces are healthy and safe by doctor letter ensuring employees are considered in the design of essay our earth, tools, equipment and work environments.

It can be applied in any workplace. Doctor! You can visit our website for more detail and if you need an annotated bibliography for research, Ergonomist consult our list of specialists who would do Ergonomic risk assessments. Thanks Jessica. Hi Jatheen, You would need to ensure a number of factors are not compromised with the letter increase in personnel in the available space: 1. More people, the essay on protecting hotter the workplace so ensure a comfortable temperature is maintained and there is a constant supply of doctor letter, fresh air. 2. Noise increases so there may be a need to develop a policy to ensure privacy is maintained and people are not distracted. 3. Space. Employees according to the OHS Act need 2.25m2 of space so this should still be maintained. You may wish to consult your employer and bring these factors to their attention. Thanks, Jessica. Hi Leigh, Thanks for your question. I would suggest you consult the OHS Act and essay on protecting our earth, look at doctor, the Environmental regulations under temperature.

Also your office should have a temperature of argumentative essay about co-education, between 21-23 Degrees Celsius. Thanks Jessica. HI Paul, The 2.25 m2 is the floor area in terms of space. You can consult the OHS Act under the doctor letter Environmental Regulations. Thanks, Jessica. Hi Theledi, Thanks for your question. In terms of SA legislation this is not prescribed. However when we refer to international standards you need to make reference to the NIOSH equation which assists you in determining the essay on protecting recommended weight to be picked up, carried, pushed and pulled. Doctor! The weight is size dependent on a number of factors: the task, the doctor letter object to be lifted, where the bibliography for research object is being lifted from, where the object is being lifted to, frequency, duration, the shape and size of the object, the doctor letter individual (e.g. Typewriter Size! age, gender etc.) and the environmental conditions (weather, humidity etc.) It is therefore not so easy just to say a certain weight as you can see from the depending factors above.

Consult the NIOSH equation for doctor cover further information or an Ergonomist. Thanks Jessica. Hi Hanna, I would suggest you look at the OHS Act under the Environmental Regulations and Facilities Regulations. These may be of help to you. Essay On Censorship! Thanks, Jessica. Hi Piet, Thanks for your question. In terms of SA legislation this is doctor cover not prescribed.

However when we refer to international standards you need to make reference to the NIOSH equation which assists you in determining the to arms recommended weight to be picked up, carried, pushed and pulled. The weight is dependent on a number of factors: the task, the object to be lifted, where the object is being lifted from, where the object is being lifted to, the shape and size of the object, the individual (e.g. Doctor Cover! age, gender etc.) and essay our earth, the environmental conditions (weather, humidity etc.) It is therefore not so easy just to say a certain weight as you can see from the depending factors above. Consult the NIOSH equation for further information or an Ergonomist. Doctor Cover! Thanks Jessica. Hi Jamie, Sitting all day and standing all day can be equally dangerous. Essay Co-education! In order to best assist you it is suggested the employee concerned go for a medical check as part of fitness for letter duty and medical surveillance. If the Doctor determines due to health reasons the employee needs to sit then this will assist you. For the other employees I would suggest an Ergonomics risk assessment to determine if they should be provided with chairs or sit/stand chairs as standing all day can result in health complications and impact on employees performance. Thanks Jessica. Hi Bev, Thanks for your question. Unfortunately South African legislation isn't very clear on this.

We however use international legislation for thermal comfort which may be of interest to you. In summer the dry bulb temperature should range from 23 Celsius to 28 Celsius and in winter the temperature should range between 20 Celsius to 25.5 Celsius. A general recommendation for thermal comfort is that the temperature be held constant in the range of 21-23°C. In summertime when outdoor temperatures are higher it is advisable to keep air-conditioned offices slightly warmer to minimize the temperature discrepancy between indoors and outdoors. The temperature should be set to essay on protecting 21-23°C and those who get cold should dress appropriately and visa versa. Cover! However in kellogg, terms of hospitals they may have their own requirements given the cover spread of bacteria and diseases and the need to keep certain medication and equipment under certain temperatures so you may need to investigate this. Argumentative! I hope this helps. Thanks, Jessica. Hi Jeanine, Thanks for your question. You can consult the OHS Act and cover letter, under the following you will have references for annotated papers Ergonomics: 1. Construction regulations e.g ergonomic design 2. Facilities regulation e.g. ergonomic chair Also the COID Act: 1. Makes reference to work related upper limb disorders If you have something specific let me know.

Thanks Jessica. HI Pierre, Thanks for your question. You may wish to consult the Occupational Health and Safety Act of South Africa and refer in that to doctor letter the Environmental regulations. It is detailed the requirements for noise, lighting and temperature. Thanks, Jessica. Hi Warren, Thanks for your question.

To be a registered Ergonomist according to to arms essay the International Ergonomics Association (IEA) one has to have a Masters Degree in cover, Ergonomics or a related field. Thanks, Jessica. Hi James, Thanks for your question. Thanks for your question. In terms of SA legislation this is not prescribed. However when we refer to international standards you need to make reference to the NIOSH equation which assists you in determining the recommended weight to be picked up, carried, pushed and pulled. The weight is dependent on a number of factors: the task, the essays 2008 object to be lifted, where the object is being lifted from, where the object is doctor being lifted to, the shape and size of the object, the individual (e.g. age, gender etc.) and the environmental conditions (weather, humidity etc.) It is therefore not so easy just to say a certain weight as you can see from the depending factors above.

Consult the NIOSH equation for further information or an Ergonomist. Thanks Jessica. HI Francois, Thanks for your question. In terms of SA legislation this is not prescribed. However when we refer to international standards you need to make reference to the NIOSH equation which assists you in essay on censorship in schools, determining the recommended weight to be picked up, carried, pushed and doctor, pulled. The weight is typewriter paper dependent on a number of factors: the task, the object to be lifted, where the object is being lifted from, where the object is being lifted to, the shape and size of the object, the individual (e.g. age, gender etc.) and doctor cover letter, the environmental conditions (weather, humidity etc.) It is therefore not so easy just to say a certain weight as you can see from the depending factors above. Consult the NIOSH equation for further information or an annotated bibliography for research papers, Ergonomist. Thanks Jessica. Hi Adel, Thanks for your question.

In terms of SA legislation this is cover not prescribed. However when we refer to international standards you need to make reference to the NIOSH equation which assists you in determining the recommended weight to typewriter be picked up. Doctor! The weight is dependent on a number of factors: the task, the about object to be lifted, where the object is being lifted from, where the doctor letter object is being lifted to, the shape and essay on censorship in schools, size of the cover object, the individual (e.g. Essay! age, gender etc.) and doctor, the environmental conditions (weather, humidity etc.) It is therefore not so easy just to say a certain weight as you can see from the depending factors above. Consult the essay NIOSH equation for further information. Cover Letter! Thanks, Jessica. Hi Nkululeko, Thanks for your question. In terms of SA legislation this is not prescribed.

However when we refer to international standards you need to a farewell to arms essay question make reference to the NIOSH equation which assists you in determining the recommended weight to be picked up, carried, pushed and pulled. The weight is dependent on a number of factors: the doctor cover task, the essay on protecting our earth object to be lifted, where the object is being lifted from, where the object is being lifted to, the shape and size of the object, the individual (e.g. age, gender etc.) and the environmental conditions (weather, humidity etc.) It is therefore not so easy just to say a certain weight as you can see from the depending factors above. Consult the NIOSH equation for further information or an Ergonomist. Thanks Jessica. Hi Litha, Thanks for doctor your question. Essay On Censorship In Schools! I would suggest consulting someone in the Construction Industry as we are not in a position to letter assist with this.

Thanks. Jessica. Hi Lisa, hanks for your question. Kellogg 2008! We however use international legislation for thermal comfort which may be of interest to you. In summer the doctor letter dry bulb temperature should range from 23 Celsius to 28 Celsius and in winter the temperature should range between 20 Celsius to co-education 25.5 Celsius. A general recommendation for thermal comfort is doctor that the temperature be held constant in the range of 21-23°C. In summertime when outdoor temperatures are higher it is advisable to keep air-conditioned offices slightly warmer to minimize the temperature discrepancy between indoors and outdoors.

The temperature should be set to 21-23°C and on protecting our earth, those who get cold should dress appropriately and visa versa. I hope this helps. Thanks, Jessica. Hi Debra, Unfortunately there is no legislation regarding this in South Africa, however what could assist in answering your question is that the cover desk height, i.e working height is usually sitting elbow height. You may wish to try and find anthropometric data (probably in the UK) which looks at the anthropometrics (body shapes and sizes) and annotated bibliography papers, this data could give you sitting elbow height for the age groups you are interested in. You could use the British and letter, European Standard which looks at chairs and tables for educational institutions. It is essays not free so you may need to cover purchase it or try and find a free copy. The reference is BS EN 1729 Chair and Table Guide.

Let us know how you get on. Thanks, Jessica. HI Noko, Please refer to the OHS Act and under the regulations pertaining to Facilities. Each employee should be provided with 2.25 square metres of space. Thanks, Jessica. Hi Nkosi, Thanks for your question. Please refer to the main page of the website.

In essence it is to grow awareness of kellogg essays, Ergonomics within South Africa through presentations, workshops etc. Thanks, Jessica. Hi, Please could you expand on your question. Many thanks, Jessica. Hi Could you please expand on your question? Many thanks, Jessica. Hi Leonie, Thanks for your question. Cover Letter! Unfortunately there is no legislation regarding this in South Africa, however what could assist in answering your question is that the desk height, i.e working height is argumentative essay usually sitting elbow height. Letter! You may wish to try and find anthropometric data (probably in the UK) which looks at the anthropometrics (body shapes and essay in schools, sizes) and this data could give you sitting elbow height for the age groups you are interested in. You could use the British and European Standard which looks at chairs and tables for educational institutions. Cover Letter! It is not free so you may need to purchase it or try and find a free copy.

The reference is BS EN 1729 Chair and Table Guide. As there is no legislation it may be that there is no enforcement. Health risks for sitting at a too high desk can result in muscular, neural and skeletal injuries to children. It can also cause pain and tension which then may impact on the child's ability to typewriter paper size learn if they are working in an uncomfortable work environment. This can impact on cover a child's mental and physical development. Thanks, Jessica. Hi Jason, Thanks for essay on protecting our earth your question. Cover! It is stated in the Occupational Health and Safety Act (Act 85 of 1993) in the Environmental Regulations that each employee in an open plan environment should be provided with 2.25 square metres of space. Thanks, Jessica.

HI David, Thanks for your question. It is difficult as the Occupational Health and Safety Act states that employees should be provided with an to arms essay question, Ergonomic chair, however this is not well defined as to what exactly this is. It is not a good posture that this employee is adopting and especially using a laptop will result in slouching, lower back being unsupported and tension in the neck and shoulder area. Overtime this could result in musculoskeletal problems. The employee should be discouraged from working in cover, such a poor posture, but whether you can force the employee to not work like this is annotated debatable. You may need to implement some Ergonomic training and awareness so that this employee can be educated on the impact of sitting like this can have on her body and what damage can be caused. Thanks, Jessica.

Hi Sabelo, Thanks for your question. Cover! It is a farewell stated in doctor letter, the Occupational Health and Safety Act (Act 85 of 1993) in the Environmental Regulations that each employee in an open plan environment should be provided with 2.25 square metres of space. A Farewell To Arms Essay Question! Thanks, Jessica. Hi Dr Zodwa, Thanks for your question. Please consult the list of companies on the ESSA website for consultants / companies who can assist you. Thanks Jessica. Hi Livingstone, Thanks for doctor cover letter your question. It is essay not so easy to letter answer your question, but in terms of how much space each person should be provided with you can consult the a farewell to arms essay question Occupational Health and Safety Act (Act 85 of 1993) with specific reference to the Environmental Regulations that each employee in an open plan environment should be provided with 2.25 square metres of space. The space between your desk and a wall should allow you enough movement to swivel your chair and to letter walk between without causing any unnecessary harm to you.

Thanks, Jessica. Hi Linelle, Thanks for your question. You may wish to consult some of the Ergonomists as ESSA does not know where these can be purchased. On Censorship In Schools! Do let us know if you are successful. Thanks Jessica. Hi Yashmeen, Many thanks for your question. I think you would need to contact the relevant experts out letter there in order to validate your question. As ESSA we cannot answer this question, but I am sure Ergonomics advice is essential in size, order for chairs to be classified as Ergonomic.

Thanks, Jessica. Hi Tegan, Thanks for your question. In the OHS Act it is stated that employees working in an open plan environment require 2.25 square metres of space. Many thanks, Jessica. Hi Petrus, Thanks for your question.

You may wish to consult the RSA Military Standard on Anthropometrics data, however this is taken from a military population, but is the only information for anthropometrical data for South Africans. Letter! Thanks Jessica. Hi Jenine, Thanks for your question. It does depend on how proactive your company is terms of health and safety. We suggest that you request for in schools an Ergonomics Assessment to be done and that together with your Doctors suggestion it would help to identify exactly what poor ergonomic features may be contributing to your tendinitis. A recommendation from this would be the mouse and there may be other factors that could be adjusted / suggested to improve your condition e.g. stretching exercises etc. In terms of payment you may wish to work through your HR department of your Manager who has a duty to provide employees with a healthy and safe work place and therefore ergonomics falls into this. You may find that nobody understands Ergonomics and letter, the costs of for research, a poor work station on letter employee health and safety and the costs implications for the company. This information may be useful to your Manager.

In terms of Compensation you could also investigate the Compensation Commissioner who looks at annotated for research, work related upper limb disorders i.e. your condition and doctor, compensates for these types of injuries ONLY IF there is annotated for research papers proof that your course of work was the letter cause. again the bibliography importance of having first and foremost an ergonomics work place assessment. Thanks Jessica. Hi Morne, Thanks for your question. Unfortunately the OHS ACT stipulates work space for doctor cover letter people who work in an open plan office and states one should be provided with 2.25 square metres of argumentative essay about, space. However in terms of a meeting room there is letter no specifics and nothing is specified for space in terms of holding a meeting. You may suggest that the tight space may not be conducive to people paying attention, may impact on people being distracted and may defeat the purpose of people actually taking in any of the important information. Annotated Bibliography Papers! Thanks Jessica. Hi Pikez, Thanks for your question. Letter! In terms of essay, your question, you may wish to consult your HR Department as well as a Labour Lawyer as leave should have been granted especially given that you have suffered as a result of cover, no breaks, resting etc.

You can also make reference to the Basic Conditions of Employment Act. Your doctor could also prescribe a note to suggest that you be booked off as sick leave given your conditions. Typewriter! It is imperative that people take their leave and cover letter, that their employer recognizes that leave is important to ensure the safety and to arms, health of their staff. Working for too long without a proper rest break can impact on your performance, safety, health and obviously lead to stress and burnout. We hope this helps. Thanks Jessica.

Hi Clinton, Thanks for your question. Unfortunately there is very little legislation regarding maximum temperatures in South Africa. The OHS Act mainly makes reference to the thermal requirements for cold temperatures but for cover letter hot temperatures the following is stipulated: -if the WBGT index increases to above 30 the essay on protecting our earth employer shall take steps to reduce it to below 30 or -if it is not possible to cover letter reduce the temperature to then have employees who if are performing hard manual labour, be certified fit to work in these conditions, - ensure every employee is acclimatised to work in about, such conditions, -inform employees to partake in 600ml of water every hour, -train employees in the precautions to take to avoid heatstroke, and cover letter, -provide first aid for employees wth heatstroke We however use international legislation for thermal comfort which may be of interest to argumentative you. In summer the dry bulb temperature should range from 23 Celsius to 28 Celsius and in winter the temperature should range between 20 Celsius to cover letter 25.5 Celsius. A general recommendation for typewriter thermal comfort in an office is that the temperature be held constant in the range of 21-23°C. In summertime when outdoor temperatures are higher it is advisable to keep air-conditioned offices slightly warmer to cover minimize the temperature discrepancy between indoors and outdoors. For people who find 21-23°C too cold, they should dress appropriately and visa verse for those who find it too hot. When temperatures get very warm we would suggest that in order to remain alert and to concentrate effectively that the temperatures be reduced to the above. I hope this helps.

Thanks Jessica. Hi Balan, Thanks for your question. You may wish to kellogg essays 2008 consult the National Building Regulations which specify the number of toilets, however I am not sure whether they mention schools specifically. The code is the SANS 10400. Thanks, Jessica.

Hi Matthew, Thanks for your question. With regards to doctor the weight etc. you may wish to familiarize yourself with the NIOSH Lifting equation, as the weight of an object to be lifted is dependent on a number of factors of which include: distance lifted or carried, height to be lifted to, load characteristics, individual factors, environmental factors and task factors. All of these can change the maximum permissible weight of an object. A bag of cement may appear to look easy but it places a large amount of strain on our earth the skeletal, muscular and physiological system of a person and caution should be given to using this example as an acceptable measure. Thanks Jessica. Hi Jerry, Thanks for letter your question. In order to be an Ergonomist you need to have a Masters Degree in Ergonomics or a related field. You may wish to contact Andrew Todd who is a lecturer at essay co-education, Rhodes University for further information. Thanks Jessica. Hi Clinton, Thanks for your question.

Please could you be slightly more specific in terms of what you are referring to? In terms of space in doctor cover, an open plan office, the Occupational Health and Safety Act states that each person should be provided with 2.25 square metres of space. Hope this helps. Our Earth! Jessica. Hi Thembi, Thanks for letter your question. Kellogg 2008! Unfortunately we do not know of any suppliers in South Africa who manufacture ergonomic mattresses so you may wish to doctor cover letter consult an on censorship, Occupational Therapist who may be able to assist you. Thanks, Jessica. Hi Shivani, Thanks for cover letter your question. Room temperature is an ergonomic issue as ergonomics is about designing workplaces to suit peoples capabilities and limitations.

Therefore temperature is important as too hot or too cold climates, work environments and rooms can impact on a person not only physiological but also psychologically on peoples performance. Argumentative About Co-education! If you imagine working in an environment where it is too hot, it can cause you to become fatigued, drowsy and cover, can cause you to lose concentration, become distracted resulting in possible risks for injuries and accidents. Temperature also impacts on the physiological system in our bodies such as heart rate and your ability to lose heat through sweating. Our Earth! If the temperature is cover too hot you need to sweat to cool down but if the temperature exceeds your bodies ability to typewriter size cope it can cause heat stroke and doctor, heat exhaustion which can be very serious. Similarly too cold temperatures can impact on your ability to work safely, grasp tools and perform work safely.

Inside your body, the too cold temperatures in a workplace can cause you to annotated for research papers get hypothermia and this can be fatal. Hope we have helped. Thanks Jessica. Hi Rita, Thanks for your question. Doctor Letter! You may wish to kellogg 2008 make reference to the Environmental Regulations where it is detailed about lighting. It is doctor letter detailed and also gives recommendations for lux (lighting measurement) levels for different workplaces and you can refer to office spaces. Please bear in mind that for lighting, it is not only the levels i.e. lux measurement but cognizance should be given to the effects of lighting on annotated for research employees performance which is where Ergonomics comes in, as bright overhead florescent lights can result in glare on paper and computers and can result in eye fatigue and eye strain.

It is always advisable that offices should have Ergonomic assessments which will assist in investigating the positioning of employees workplaces and lighting sources e.g lights, windows etc. Please see the regulations for more detail. Thanks Jessica. HI Amanda, Thanks for your email. Have you consulted the Building Regulations SABS 10400 which provide information on this or the OHS Act? Thanks Jessica. Hi Amanda, Thanks for your question. We are not sure, but will try and investigate for you and get back to you. You may wish to also look at the National Building Regulations standard, SANS 10400 in the meantime. Thanks Jessica. Hi Shaneen, Good to doctor letter hear you are interested in Ergonomics.

Yes there is on censorship in schools definitely scope for a linkage between Ergonomists and Industrial Psychologists and cover letter, they should be able to work in a team. However, in order to practice as an argumentative essay co-education, Ergonomist the International Ergonomics Association states that one should have their Masters Degree in Ergonomics and cover letter, that if one is from a related field, i.e. Industrial Psychological there would need to be evidence of essay in schools, Ergonomics work etc. To start I would suggest you become a member of ESSA, our society so that you can be kept in the loop of Ergonomics work and attend any conferences etc. You may also wish to investigate the doctor cover companies listed on our website who you may wish to a farewell essay have chats to in order to pursue your career in Ergonomics. Cover! Thanks Jessica. Hi Charmaine, Thanks for your question. In order to be an Ergonomist it is kellogg essays recommended by the International Ergonomics Association that you have at least a Masters degree in Ergonomics or related field. If one is from a related field it would be necessary to go through the certification process (which ESSA is doctor cover letter busy setting up) and would need to provide evidence of Ergonomics work etc.

You may wish to essay on protecting our earth contact Andrew Todd, our chairman and doctor cover, lecturer at Rhodes University. Thanks Jessica. Hi Lucien, Thanks for your question. In terms of kellogg essays 2008, SA legislation this is not prescribed. However when we refer to international standards you need to make reference to the NIOSH equation which assists you in determining the recommended weight to letter be picked up, carried, pushed and essay, pulled.

The weight is dependent on a number of factors: the task, the object to cover be lifted, where the object is being lifted from, where the object is for research papers being lifted to, the shape and size of the object, the cover letter individual (e.g. To Arms! age, gender etc.) and the environmental conditions (weather, humidity etc.) It is therefore not so easy just to say a certain weight as you can see from the depending factors above. Consult the NIOSH equation for further information. Thanks Jessica. Hi TJ, Thanks for your question. Yes you are right there is unfortunately no legislation regarding this in South Africa.

Perhaps you can contact the Department of Education or research international legislation. All the OHS Act states regarding space for office employees is 2.25 square metres of space for doctor letter open plan areas so it doesn't mention children. Let us know how you get on. Thanks Jessica. Hi Kristina, Thanks for your question. The consultants and companies listed on our website will be able to assist you with regards to training courses. Email them and ask them what courses they do or if you need something specific that they can develop for size you. Doctor! Thanks, Jessica. Hi Dave, Thanks for your question. It is legal to argumentative about ensure employers provide their employees with a healthy and safe workplace, which is what Ergonomics is about.

Therefore you should depending on your type of factory ensure ergonomic assessments are done to determine any ergonomic hazards and their risks to prevent accidents and injuries in the workplace. You may wish to refer to the Occupational Health and Safety Act for reference. Thanks Jessica. Hi Z Thanks for your question. You may need to refer to doctor cover a labour lawyer to annotated bibliography investigate whether you have a claim and then you will need to have an Ergonomics risk assessment done in order to doctor cover letter prove that your chair or workstation or workplace was in fact the cause. Thanks, Jessica. Hi Robin, Thanks for your question. In Schools! You need to doctor cover make reference to the Occupational Health and Safety Act, and specifically at the Facilities Regulations which clearly state that employers must provide employees with change room facilities, sanitation, facilities for safe keeping etc. You may wish to essays bring this to your Managements attention and that it is their duty to provide employees with a healthy and safe workplace which is doctor essential in the chemical industry. You may also wish to for research papers consult the National Building Regulations standard, SANS 10400. Cover! Good luck, Jessica.

HI Nicolette, Thanks for your question. You can make reference to the Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety. Thanks, Jessica. Hi Marlyn, Thanks for your question. The Occupational Health and Safety Act stipulates under the Environmental Regulations that employees working in an indoor workplace be provided with 2.25 square metres of essay, open floor space. You may wish to refer to these regulations and specifically under Housekeeping. The number of people will also impact on ventilation and noise so these factors must also be considered. Thanks Jessica.

Hi Jandre, Thanks for your question. In terms of SA legislation this is not prescribed. Doctor! However when we refer to international standards you need to make reference to the NIOSH equation which assists you in determining the recommended weight to be picked up. The weight is dependent on a number of factors: the task, the object to be lifted, where the annotated bibliography for research object is being lifted from, where the object is being lifted to, the shape and size of the object, the individual (e.g. age, gender etc.) and the environmental conditions (weather, humidity etc.) It is therefore not so easy just to say a certain weight as you can see from the depending factors above. Consult the NIOSH equation for further information. Thanks, Jessica.

Hi Sagie, Thanks for your very interesting question. I would suggest you contact the Department of Education to see if they have any specific regulations. Otherwise you or your school may need to conduct a risk assessment before any changes are made to determine whether the doctor changes will be beneficial or not. Thanks Jessica. Hi Livingstone, Thanks for essay about co-education your question. Doctor! According to essay the OHS Act, under the Environmental Regulations, it states that employers should be provided with 2.2.5m2 of space. Thanks Jessica. Hi Lerato, Thanks for your question.

Things you will need to cover check with the OHS Act for essays are: -ventilation -temperature -lighting -noise -seating -workspace You can also refer to the SABS 10400 for the National Building Regulations to letter determine the size of buildings, windows and the number of toilets etc. Thanks, Jessica. Hi Ravin, Thanks for your question. Annotated Papers! Please consult the National Building Regulations which is cover letter now the SABS 0400 standard and they will explain in detail for you how many toilets you will need. You can also make reference to the OHS ACT and specifically the typewriter paper Facilities Regulations. Thanks Jessica. Hi Paul, Thanks for your question.

Unfortunately there is very little legislation regarding maximum temperatures in letter, South Africa. The OHS Act mainly makes reference to kellogg 2008 the thermal requirements for cold temperatures but for hot temperatures the following is stipulated: -if the WBGT index increases to above 30 the employer shall take steps to cover letter reduce it to typewriter below 30 or -if it is not possible to reduce the temperature to then have employees who if are performing hard manual labour, be certified fit to work in cover, these conditions, - ensure every employee is acclimatised to work in such conditions, -inform employees to partake in 600ml of on protecting, water every hour, -train employees in the precautions to take to avoid heatstroke, and -provide first aid for employees wth heatstroke We however use international legislation for thermal comfort which may be of interest to you. In summer the dry bulb temperature should range from 23 Celsius to 28 Celsius and in winter the temperature should range between 20 Celsius to doctor 25.5 Celsius. A general recommendation for thermal comfort is that the essay on censorship in schools temperature be held constant in the range of 21-23°C. In summertime when outdoor temperatures are higher it is advisable to doctor cover letter keep air-conditioned offices slightly warmer to minimize the temperature discrepancy between indoors and essay on censorship in schools, outdoors. For people who find 21-23°C too cold, they should dress appropriately and visa versa for those who find it too hot. Doctor Letter! When temperatures get very warm we would suggest that in order to remain alert and to concentrate effectively that the 2008 temperatures be reduced to the above. I hope this helps. Thanks, Jessica.

Hi Nad, Thanks for your question. You may wish to refer to the OHS ACT, and more specifically to the Environmental Regulations. Thanks, Jessica. Hi Terance, Thanks for your question. You may wish to refer to letter the Occupational Health and Safety Act, under the Environmental Regulations where they mention temperatures exceeding 30degrees, but this is more for people who perform hard manual labour. I would suggest seeing if the Department of Education has anything or perhaps the Medical Fraternity as schooling is not detailed in the OHS Act. Thanks Jessica. Hi Thandi, Please refer to our website for a list of people who may assist you. Thanks Jessica. Hi Estelle, Thanks for your question. Unfortunately this is to arms essay not specified in the OHS Act.

Perhaps you may wish to have a risk assessment conducted to determine the safety requirements (if any) for your suggestion / query. Thanks Jessica. Hi Melanie, Thanks for your question. You may wish to make reference to the OHS ACT, under the Environmental Regulations where they discuss thermal requirements. It is stipulated that: -no employer shall permit an employee to work in an enviornment in which the doctor time-weighted average dry bulb temperature, taken over period of 4 hours is less than 6degrees celcius, UNLESS the employer takes reasonable steps to protect the employee against essay on protecting our earth, cold and to ensure their safety. - no employer shall require or permit an employee to work in an refrigerated enviornment in doctor letter, which the actual dry-bulb temperature is below 0 degree unless. then there are stipulations. Co-education! So I suggest that you read these regulations as there is quite a bit of detail. You can find it on doctor www.actsonline.co.za or on the www.dol.gov.za website. Thanks Jessica. HI Tracy, Thanks for your question. I suggest you (and your boss) read the Occupational Health and Safety ACT and make reference to the following regulation: Enviornmental Regulations: Here is detailed requirements about temperature, ventilation, windoes, lighting and housekeeping.

You have a right to a safe work enviornment and legally your employer should provide you with a healthy and safe workplace. Your employer is legally obligated to this ACT and its regulations and must see to it that you health and safety is a farewell to arms question not at doctor cover letter, danger. He/She will then need to ensure a risk assessment is done to determine the hazards and what risks they pose for you and his/her company. Essay On Censorship! You can get this act and the regulations on the Department of Labour website and www.acts.co.za or www.actsonline.co.za Good luck and we hope this is resolved for you. Jessica. Hi Annette, Thanks for your question. We however use international legislation for thermal comfort which may be of interest to you. In summer the dry bulb temperature should range from doctor cover, 23 Celsius to 28 Celsius and in winter the temperature should range between 20 Celsius to 25.5 Celsius.

A general recommendation for bibliography for research papers thermal comfort is that the temperature be held constant in cover, the range of 21-23°C. In summertime when outdoor temperatures are higher it is advisable to keep air-conditioned offices slightly warmer to minimize the temperature discrepancy between indoors and outdoors. The temperature should be set to kellogg essays 2008 21-23°C and those who get cold should dress appropriately and visa versa. I hope this helps. Doctor Cover! Jessica. Hi Olga, Thanks for your question. We however use international legislation for annotated bibliography for research thermal comfort which may be of letter, interest to you. In summer the dry bulb temperature should range from 23 Celsius to 28 Celsius and in winter the temperature should range between 20 Celsius to 25.5 Celsius. A general recommendation for thermal comfort is a farewell to arms essay that the temperature be held constant in the range of 21-23°C.

In summertime when outdoor temperatures are higher it is advisable to keep air-conditioned offices slightly warmer to cover letter minimize the temperature discrepancy between indoors and outdoors. Essay On Censorship In Schools! The temperature should be set to 21-23°C and those who get cold should dress appropriately and visa versa. I hope this helps. Doctor Cover! Jessica. Hi Sharon, Thanks for your question. You need to refer to the OHS Act under the Facilities regulations where you will find a section on seating. This will assist you with your question. Thanks, Jessica. Hi Linel, Thanks for your question. In terms of SA legislation this is not prescribed. However when we refer to international standards you need to make reference to the NIOSH equation which assists you in determining the recommended weight to be picked up.

The weight is 2008 dependent on a number of factors: the task, the object to be lifted, where the object is being lifted from, where the object is being lifted to, the shape and size of the object, the doctor cover individual (e.g. age, gender etc.) and the environmental conditions (weather, humidity etc.) It is a farewell to arms question therefore not so easy just to say a certain weight as you can see from the depending factors above. Consult the NIOSH equation for further information. Thanks, Jessica. Hi Andiswa, You need to consult the OHS Act under the General Safety Regulations where you will find the section on Working at Heights as well as the Construction Regulations. Thanks Jessica. Hi Ruandi, Thanks for doctor letter your question. Typewriter Size! The Occupational Health and Safety Act stipulates in the Environmental Regulations under Housekeeping the following (they do not specify per industry): An employer shall with the exclusion of workplaces where building work is performed, make at least 2.25 square metres of effective open floor area available for every employee working in an indoor workplace; make available and maintain an unimpeded workspace for every employee . and so on. Unfortunately it does not stipulate specific job types or work environments. I hope this helps.

You can go onto www.acts.co.za to read a copy of the Environmental Regulations. Thanks, Jessica. Hi Mia, Thanks for your question. Have you tried Medsport? Fellowes? Let us know. Jessica. Hi Ian, The OHS ACT stipulates that where temperatures exceed 30 (WBGT) determined over a period of one hour, the employer must take the following steps: 1. Reduce the WBGT to below 30; or 2. Where it is cover not practicable to reduce the temperature to below 30 and where hard manual labour is on protecting performed, have every employee beforehand and cover, thereafter certified fit to work in such an environment. so i.e the annual medical; 3. Ensure every employee is acclimatised to work in such an environment before he / she is essay on censorship permitted to doctor cover work in such an environment; 4. Every employee must be informed to drink 600ml of cold liquid every hour; 5. Train employees in the precautions to avoid heatstroke; 6. Provide prompt first aid to argumentative co-education employees for heatstroke. Doctor Cover! So unfortunately the ACT does not state that employee’s activities should be suspended.

Should this be an paper size, issue, I suggest you have an doctor cover letter, Ergonomics Assessment conducted of your factory and essay, then this will provide recommendations e.g. installing cooling systems etc. Cover Letter! Thanks Jessica. Hi Andre, Thanks for your question. I would suggest you contact your HR department or a Labour Lawyer as we are not in a position to assist you. Apologies. Thanks Jessica.

Hi Taarik, Thanks for your question. Thanks for your question. In terms of SA legislation this is not prescribed. However when we refer to size international standards you need to make reference to the NIOSH equation / formula which assists you in determining the recommended weight to be picked up. Cover Letter! The weight is dependent on essay a number of factors: the task, the object to be lifted, where the object is being lifted from, where the object is being lifted to, the shape and size of the object, the individual (e.g. age, gender etc.) and the environmental conditions (weather, humidity etc.) It is therefore not so easy just to say a certain weight as you can see from the depending factors above. Consult the NIOSH equation for further information. Thanks, Jessica. Hi Busi, Thanks for your question.

I suggest you contact Recruitment companies such as Career Junction, PNet etc. who can assist you as we do not do recruitment. Thanks, Jessica. Hi Lunga, Thanks for your question. Yes anyone is able to join ESSA. Go onto doctor cover letter our membership section and complete the forms and submit to us. Thanks, Jessica. Hi Virginia, Thanks for your question. Kellogg 2008! Unfortunately there is very little legislation regarding maximum temperatures in South Africa. We however use international legislation for thermal comfort which may be of interest to letter you. In summer the dry bulb temperature should range from 23 Celsius to 28 Celsius and in winter the temperature should range between 20 Celsius to to arms 25.5 Celsius.

A general recommendation for thermal comfort is that the temperature be held constant in doctor cover, the range of 21-23°C. Size! In summertime when outdoor temperatures are higher it is cover letter advisable to keep air-conditioned offices slightly warmer to annotated papers minimize the cover letter temperature discrepancy between indoors and outdoors. For people who find 21-23°C too cold, they should dress appropriately and visa versa for those who find it too hot. 35°C is very warm and we would suggest that in order to our earth remain alert and to concentrate effectively that the temperatures be reduced to the above. I hope this helps. Thanks, Jessica. Hi Melanie, Thanks for your question. Doctor! Unfortunately we are not in a position to assist you but we cannot understand how you are able to on censorship in schools continue to do your work without the necassary tools. You may wish to contact your HR or a Labour lawyer. We hope you are able resolve this.

Thanks, Jessica. Hi Madubaduba, Thanks for cover letter your question. You can contact the Ergonomists on our website for advice as to who they can recommend regarding a sound ergonomic chair for you. To Arms! Thanks, Jessica. Hi Robert, Thanks for your question. You may wish to consult the OHS Act, the National Building Regulations (SABS 10400) and perhaps an environmental regualtion with regards to possible hygiene issues. Thanks Jessica. Hi Jabu, Thanks for your question. Thanks for your question. In terms of SA legislation this is not prescribed.

However when we refer to international standards you need to make reference to letter the NIOSH equation which assists you in determining the recommended weight to be picked up. The weight is dependent on a number of factors: the task, the paper size object to be lifted, where the object is being lifted from, where the cover object is being lifted to, the shape and size of the object, the individual (e.g. age, gender etc.) and the environmental conditions (weather, humidity etc.) It is therefore not so easy just to say a certain weight as you can see from the depending factors above. Kellogg! Consult the NIOSH equation for further information. Thanks, Jessica. Hi Vicky, Thanks for your question. As I am sure you have read in cover letter, the previous questions, there is essay on protecting our earth unfortunately no legislation regarding optimal temperatures.

I would suggest that either the air conditioning system be investigated to see whether it is faulty as 22 degrees should not be freezing. In terms of the letter windows the only answer we can give is that the OHS Act stipulates provision of ventilation either naturally or mechanically i.e. an air conditioner. So long as the carbon dioxide levels are healthy and the air breathed in is healthy. Perhaps in this difficult situation you could consult your HR, Safety Reps and perhaps see if other employees are complaining and send a letter to your Managers requesting them to either attend to the air con system or review the essay on censorship window issue. Doctor Cover! Let us know how you get on.

Thanks Jessica. Hi Vida, Thanks for your question. Unfortunately there is very little legislation regarding maximum temperatures in South Africa and more importantly for laboratories. We however use international legislation for thermal comfort which may be of interest to you. In summer the dry bulb temperature should range from 23 Celsius to 28 Celsius and in winter the in schools temperature should range between 20 Celsius to 25.5 Celsius. A general recommendation for thermal comfort is that the temperature be held constant in doctor, the range of 21-23°C. In summertime when outdoor temperatures are higher it is kellogg essays advisable to keep air-conditioned offices slightly warmer to minimize the temperature discrepancy between indoors and outdoors. For people who find 21-23°C too cold, they should dress appropriately and visa versa for doctor cover letter those who find it too hot. 30°C is a farewell very warm and we would suggest that in order to remain alert and to concentrate effectively that the temperatures be reduced to the above.

I am sure that this temperature may also be too warm for the type of work and that if you work with chemicals etc. that there must be some form of legislation regarding temperatures for doctor cover these chemicals / medicines etc? I hope this helps. Essay! Thanks Jessica. Hi Ntando, Thanks for your question. You could perhaps contact Andrew Todd who is a lecturer at Rhodes University regarding furthering your studies. Also in terms of work opportunities perhaps contact the companies listed on our website to see what they can suggest. Keep us posted and all the best. Jessica. Hello Andrew, Thanks for your question. You may wish to have a look at our website where you can then see a list of Ergonomic providers who I am sure will assist you. Thanks, Jessica.

Hi Vanessa, Unfortunately we do not endorse any service providers. You may wish to consult an Ergonomist who can put you in the right direction. On our website are a list of Consultancies. Thanks Jessica. Hello, Thanks for your question.

Unfortunately the only university offering a full course in doctor letter, Ergonomics is bibliography for research Rhodes University. Doctor Cover Letter! There are no part time courses that you can take and to be a practising Ergonomist you will need your Masters Degree in Ergonomics or a related field. On Protecting! Thanks, Jessica. Hi David, Thanks for your question. Unfortunately there is very little legislation regarding maximum temperatures in South Africa and more importantly for classrooms.

We however use international legislation for thermal comfort which you may be of interest to you. In summer the doctor dry bulb temperature should range from on protecting our earth, 23 Celsius to 28 Celsius and in winter the cover temperature should range between 20 Celsius to 25.5 Celsius. Essay Co-education! A general recommendation for thermal comfort is doctor that the temperature be held constant in argumentative co-education, the range of 21-23°C. In summertime when outdoor temperatures are higher it is advisable to keep air-conditioned offices slightly warmer to minimize the temperature discrepancy between indoors and outdoors. For people who find 21-23°C too cold, they should dress appropiately and visa versa for cover letter those who find it too hot. I hope this helps. Thanks Jessica.

Hi Ivy, Thanks for essay your question. Yes thermal comfort does change especially when a room has a number of people in it and it tends to become stuffy. Unfortunately there is not much legislation in South Africa on doctor cover thermal comfort and you may wish to consult the kellogg 2008 OHS Act and namely the Environmental Regulations which deal with ventilation. However, based on international recommendations, in summer the doctor letter dry bulb temperature should range from 23 Celsius to 28 Celsius and in winter the temperature should range between 20 Celsius to 25.5 Celsius. A general recommendation for essay thermal comfort is that the temperature be held constant in the range of doctor cover letter, 21-23°C. Argumentative Essay About! In summertime when outdoor temperatures are higher it is advisable to keep air-conditioned offices slightly warmer to minimize the temperature discrepancy between indoors and doctor, outdoors. Unfortunately this is not legislated as detailed as above in SA legislation and we use the Canadian Legislation for thermal comfort.

You may also want to visit the National Building Regualtions (SABS 0400) and see what they say regarding population density and ventilation. Thanks, Jessica. Hi Bodo, Unfortunately you may need to seek other advice as we would not be able to kellogg essays answer this. As far as we know there is no 'legislation' regarding this and it may be a company policy. You may wish to consult a labour broker or a Union representative to assist you in cover letter, your request to remain in an individual office.

Apologies but this is dependant on the company you work for and what their reasons are for this. Thanks Jessica. Hello, Thanks for your question. The Occupational Health and Safety Act stipulates in the Environmental Regulations under Housekeeping the following (they do not specify per industry): An employer shall with the exclusion of workplaces where building work is a farewell to arms question performed, make at least 2.25 square metres of effective open floor area available for every employee working in an indoor workplace; make available and maintain an unimpeded workspace for every employee . and so on. Unfortunately it does not stipulate specific job types or work environments.

I hope this helps. You can go onto www.acts.co.za to read a copy of the Environmental Regulations. Thanks, Jessica. Hi Andy, Thanks for your question. It is not an easy one to cover answer as it does depend on your day-to-day activities. If you look at the Basic Conditions of Employment Act (BCEA), it also doesn’t answer your question but only makes mention of meal breaks. It states that meals breaks should be taken after 5 hours continuous work and should be 1 hour in in schools, length or 30 minutes by agreement. However this also doesn’t mean you have to take your meal break only after 5 hours.

I would suggest you either need to factor in a break between your appointments which I know time is money but if you are on the go and doctor, feeling tired then perhaps you may need to schedule in breaks. Essay About! If you start at 8am you probably shouldn’t need a break at 9.30 but more at say 10am for 15-20mins and then lunch (30- 45mins, depending on how many hours your are required to work) and doctor cover letter, perhaps a small break in the afternoon again. You and your employer will need to negotiate this and somehow look at either not scheduling clients during your 15min breaks or alternating between you and other stuff when breaks are taken. It also depends on the intensity of your work, the amount of physical and mental effort required to do your job, the number of days you work in a week, the number of hours you work in a day etc. About Co-education! I hope this helps, but I do suggest you and letter, your Manager discuss this in more detail to hopefully reach a decision. About! Thanks, Jessica. Hi, Thanks for your question. Cape Town is the city where Parliament is.

Thanks, Jessica. Hi Francois, Unfortunately we are not in the position to answer this as it is dependant on the following: Size of the desks? Will there be other equipment in the room e.g. book shelves etc.? Will there need to be space for activities such as reading, playing etc? What age group are the cover children? This will determine thier anthropometrics and how much space they will need. Should you have the extra information you will then need to do a risk assessment to be able to answer your question. You may wish to consult the Department of Education and see how they calculate this (if they do) in terms of the number of pupils in a class. Let us know how we can assist further. Thanks, Jessica.

Hi Nick, Thanks for your question. In summer the dry bulb temperature should range from 23 Celsius to 28 Celsius and in winter the temperature should range between 20 Celsius to 25.5 Celsius. A general recommendation for on protecting our earth thermal comfort is that the temperature be held constant in the range of 21-23°C. In summertime when outdoor temperatures are higher it is advisable to keep air-conditioned offices slightly warmer to doctor cover minimize the on protecting our earth temperature discrepancy between indoors and doctor cover, outdoors. Essays 2008! For employees who find 21-23°C too cold, they should dress appropiately and visa versa for those who find it too hot. Thanks, Jessica. Hi William, It would depend on how 'suitable' the chair was in the first place. To answer your question an ergonomics risk assessment would need to be done in order to determine whether the chair provided by the employer was actually suitable and then to doctor cover determine if the annotated bibliography for research papers chair supplied by the employee was also suitable. Only after this has been done can you determine who is protected. Any injury on duty, no matter who is to blame should be reported to the Compensation Commissioner and investigated.

The investigation will determine the root causes of the doctor cover injury and together with the on protecting ergonomics risk assessment determine whether the employer is at letter, fault or not. Thanks Jessica. Hi Michael, Unfortunately we do not deal with labour issues such as your question, and it is dependant on essays what your employment contract stipulates. I would suggest you contact a labour broker who will be able to assist you and go through your employment contract in detail. Apologies for not being of much help but this may be a legal issue and you therefore need to doctor seek the right advice. Thanks, Jessica. Hi, Thanks for your question. In summer the dry bulb temperature should range from 23 Celsius to 28 Celsius and in winter the temperature should range between 20 Celsius to annotated for research 25.5 Celsius. A general recommendation for doctor cover thermal comfort is that the temperature be held constant in the range of 21-23°C. In summertime when outdoor temperatures are higher it is advisable to keep air-conditioned offices slightly warmer to minimize the temperature discrepancy between indoors and outdoors.

Unfortunately this is not legislated as detailed as above in SA legislation and we use the Candian Legislation for thermal comfort. Thanks, Jessica. Hi Teniele, Thanks for your question. In terms of space in an open plan environment, it is recommended that each person be provided with 2.25m2 of space. this is stipulatd in the Environmental Regulations in co-education, the OHS Act. In terms of the desk, there is no law in terms of doctor cover, SA law, but from an Ergonomic point of view the desk should be at least 76cm deep, 120-160cm width and a have a height of between 65 and 82cm, which should be adjustable if possible. In terms of space between the office and passage, you may wish to consult the SABS 0400 which is the code for the National Building Regulations. Thanks so much. Annotated! Jessica. Hi Henry, Thanks for your question.

It does depend on what level of employment you are referring to doctor cover and you may wish to annotated consult the Basic Conditions of Employment Act (BCEA) which stipulates the doctor cover regulation of working time etc. In terms of meal intervals: the employer must give an kellogg 2008, employee who works continuously for more 5 hours a meal interval of at least 1 continuous hour. However this can be reduced to 30 mins if an agreement is signed between employee and employer. It is advisable that you read through this document and see if it is applicable. Doctor! Also if you are part of a trade union or bargaining council there may be different agreements that have been signed between employees and employers. Alternatively consult a Labour Lawyer who can deal with your case should you have any problems.

Thanks, Jessica. Hi Yolande, Thanks for your question. Annotated! You may wish to refer to two documents: The Occupational Health and Safety Act (Act 85 of 1993) and cover, the SABS 0400 National Building Regulations. In the OHS Act under the Environmental Regulations, there is a farewell to arms essay question a section on Ventilation. it states that every employer shall ensure that every workplace is ventilated either by natural or mechanical means, such that the air breathed by the employee does not endanger their safety and it continues on to explain the effects of carbon dioxide levels etc. You may wish to use this as evidence that your children’s health and safety is at risk especially if there are no windows and / or fresh air. Doctor Letter! A lack of fresh air and no proper ventilation can impact on people and especially children’s performance as the air becomes stuffy and therefore concentration becomes effected. Essay! Children will not be able to perform at optimal levels and this can negatively impact on doctor letter their ability to learn at school. Please show the school principle the OHS Act and it his duty to provide a healthy and safe work environment for the pupils and is legally obligated to kellogg do so. Thanks, Jessica. Hi Yolanda, Thanks for your question.

In terms of the window. you may wish to refer to the OHS Act and letter, then the Environmental Regulations which detail the requirements for windows and argumentative essay about, ventilation. Having no fresh air and also no means of either mechanical or natural ventilation can cause drowsiness and impact on your performance as the work environment becomes stuffy and cover, uncomfortable. In terms of the chair. the about co-education OHS Act stipulates under the cover Facilities Regulations that each employee, whose work requires them to be seated, should be provided with an ergonomically designed chair. About! In terms of doctor cover, no mouse pad. this can result in typewriter, contact stress between your wrist and the hard surface i.e. your desk which can overtime damage soft tissues in this area resulting is musculoskeletal disorders such as Carpel Tunnel Syndrome. This would be classified as work related upper limb disorder which is compensational under the COID Act, and your employer would have to prove that they did everything reasonable to prevent this. Letter! You have more than enough evidence and your boss should ensure that an Ergonomics Assessment be conducted as the our earth company has a duty to doctor provide their employees with a healthy and safe work environment, which they are legally bound to on protecting do because of the cover letter OHS Act. Let us know how you get on. Thanks, Jessica. Hi Jonathen, Thanks for your question. Annotated Bibliography! It is recommended for employees in doctor letter, an open plan environment that they be provided with 2.25m2 of space. This is essay stipulated in the Enviornmental Regulations in the Occupational Health and Safety Act.

Thanks, Jessica. Hi Tony, Thanks for your question. Doctor! The question is a farewell to arms not so easy to answer as the load to be lifted is dependant on a number of factors. You may wish to letter consult the NIOSH lifting equation which will give you a detailed explanation as to how to calculate the weight of a load. A Farewell To Arms Essay! Factors which will influence the recommended weight of the load that you need to consider are: Environment where the task is doctor letter performed: is it hot, cold, humid, lighting etc. Task demands: frequency (how many lifts per certain time), duration of the task, Intensity Load to be lifted: weight, size, shape, handles or no handles, height of the for research lift from the doctor letter distance where the load is to where it needs to go, horizontal distance i.e. is the argumentative essay load carried close to doctor letter the body or not Individual factors: male vs. female, age, disabilities, experience There are a number of factors and it is therefore highly recommended that you get an expert i.e. an Ergonomist to assist you in determining the maximum permissible lifting weight. Thanks, Jessica. Hi Bongiwe, Thanks for your question. In terms of the air con, it is recommended that you check when last the air con filters were cleaned.

As recycling air through dirty filters can contribute to kellogg sinus and other problems. In terms of the regulations of temperature, it is recommended that the temperature remain set at the specific temperatures and those who get cold should dress appropriately at work and those who are hot also make sure that they were the correct clothing. In summer the dry bulb temperature should range from doctor letter, 23 Celsius to 28 Celsius and in winter the temperature should range between 20 Celsius to 25.5 Celsius. A general recommendation ifor thermal comfort is that the temperature be held constant in kellogg 2008, the range of 21-23°C. In summertime when outdoor temperatures are higher it is advisable to keep air-conditioned offices slightly warmer to minimize the temperature discrepancy between indoors and outdoors. Thanks, Jessica.

Hi Claire, Thanks for your question. Unfortunately you may need to consult an letter, Architect or Builder who may be able to assist you better than we would be able to. Apologies for not be able to bibliography for research assist you, but I think a Specialist in cover letter, the building field may be able to better assist you. You could also refer to the OHS Act, under the a farewell to arms essay question Facilities regulations which stipluate sanitation requirements. Thanks, Jessica. Hi Lisa, You may wish to letter consult the National Building Regulations, SABS 0400.

We do not have stipulations for an events venue in particular, but you may wish to use the OHS Act, which under the Environmental Regulations stipulates providing 2.25m2 of essay on censorship, space per person for an open plan enviornment. Thanks, Jessica. Hi Karen, Unfortunately there is no legislation regarding this in South Africa, however what could assist in answering your question is that the desk height, i.e working height is cover usually sitting elbow height. You may wish to try and find anthropometric data (probaly in the UK) which looks at the anthropometrics (body shapes and sizes) and this data could give you sitting elbow height for argumentative about the age groups you are interested in. You could use the British and European Standard which looks at chairs and tables for educational institutions. It is not free so you may need to letter purchase it or try and find a free copy. The reference is BS EN 1729 Chair and Table Guide. Let us know how you get on.

Thanks, Jessica. Hi Mmashela, Thanks for your question. The question is not so easy to answer as the load to be lifted is essay dependant on a number of factors. You may wish to doctor consult the NIOSH lifting equation which will give you a detailed explanation as to how to calculate the weight of a load. Essays 2008! Factors which will influence the recommended weight of the load that you need to consider are: Environment where the task is doctor cover performed: is it hot, cold, humid, lighting etc. Task demands: frequency (how many lifts per certain time), duration of the task, Intensity Load to be lifted: weight, size, shape, handles or no handles, height of the kellogg 2008 lift from the distance where the load is to where it needs to go, horizontal distance i.e. is the load carried close to the body or not Individual factors: male vs. female, age, disabilities, experience There are a number of factors and it is therefore highly recommended that you get an expert i.e. an Ergonomist to assist you in determining the maximum permissible lifting weight. Thanks, Jessica. Hi Rene, Thanks for your question. Standing all day is just as bad as sitting all day and letter, being in one position can have severe health consequences for a farewell you.

Standing all day can impact on your muscles, blood flow and nervous system. Doctor Cover! It is therefore not recommended to be stay in one position for an entire shift, day after day. The Occupational Health and Safety Act, under the Facilities Regulations talks about kellogg essays 2008, seats. With reference to your situation the Regulations are quite clear and doctor, state: where reasonably practicable, every employer shall permit an employee whose work is normally performed standing to take advantage of any opportunity for sitting which may occur, and for essay about this purpose the employer shall provide seating facilities. Doctor Cover Letter! Therefore when you are required to do your filing and paper work, a seat should be provided for these activities. You need to inform your Manager or employer about these Regulations and the health consequences of standing all day, which without a seat to provide the essay about body to rest and recover, will result in back pain, swelling in the feet and doctor, possible varicose veins, to name a few. Let us know how you get on. Jessica. Hi Nozibusiso, Unfortunately we cannot provide you with this information.

Perhaps you need to on censorship go onto the schools or universities website to see what scholarship programs they have. Thanks, Jessica. Hi Tendai, Please consult our website for a list of doctor cover, professionals who will be able to assist you. Thanks, Jessica. Hi Ian, Thanks for your question. Essay About Co-education! The Occupational Health and Safety Act, under the Environmental Regulations details the Lighting requirements.

It does not specify natural vs articfical light, but it details the lighting requirements for specific work. You may wish to doctor cover consult these regulations to assist you. Thanks, Jessica. Hi Christina, Unfortunately ESSA does not offer safety courses. We are also not sure what the requirements with regards to having a Matric or not entails. Perhaps you can contact NOSA who may be able to annotated bibliography for research papers assist you further or UNISA who offer a degree in Safety Management. Doctor Cover Letter! All the best. Jessica. Hi Christina, Unfortunately ESSA does not offer safety courses. We are also not sure what the requirements with regards to having a Matric or not entails. Perhaps you can contact NOSA who may be able to assist you further or UNISA who offer a degree in Safety Management.

All the best. Jessica. Hi Angela, Thanks for your question. Essay! Firstly I suggest that the machines that are producing noise be moved to letter a room where nobody is working. Essay On Protecting Our Earth! Obviously you mention costs may be a problem to do this, but it is in the interest of employees’ health and doctor letter, safety that noise does not cause any harm to employees’ health and safety. Alternatively you may request your company to conduct a noise survey to essays 2008 determine the noise levels and to note whether these may be harmful which would then assist your case in relocating the machines. The Occupational Health and Safety Act has very strict Noise Regulations. Noise whether it is loud or irritating must be assessed and control measures put in place.

Irritating noise can impact on your work performance as it will impact on your ability to concentrate and pay attention, and doctor, may be a distraction. Try and see if your company can move the noisy machines, as your company has a duty of a farewell to arms question, care to doctor provide its employees with a healthy and safe workplace, otherwise you may need to call in a specialist to do some measurements. Let us know what happens. Jessica. Hi Chantelle, Thanks for essay co-education your question. Please consult our website for a list of professionals who you can email to see if they can assist you. Thanks, Jessica. Hi Arno, Thanks for your question.

Unfortunately we dont have this information for you, but you may want to have a look at cover letter, the National Building Regulations (SABS 0400) which may stipulate these measurements. Do let us know how you get on. Thanks, Jessica. Hi Des, Thanks for your question. You will need to source an Occupational Hygienist who will do various test for on censorship in schools air quality. You can go onto the SAIOH (South African Institute for cover Occupational Hygienists) website for a list of people who are in your area. Let us know your progress.

Jessica. Hi Adelaide, Thanks for your question. For offices it is suggested that employee's have 2.25 square metres of space. This is documented in the OHS Act in the Environmental Regulations. Thanks, Jessica. Hi Liana, Thanks for your question. Unfortunately South African legislation is not specific with regards to what the temperature should be, but we bench mark against on protecting, International Standards which suggests that for offices, temperatures should be 22-23 degrees Celsius. Thanks, Jessica.

Hi Tertius, Thanks for doctor your question. You may want to make reference to kellogg essays the Occupational Health and Safety Act (Act 85 of 1993) and especially the Environmental Regulations. Your employer is legally obligated to provide you with proper ventilation either mechanically or naturally. If your company does have SHE Reps you may want to request that they note your concerns and at doctor cover letter, their safety meetings with management that they bring this up and request the services of an Occupational Hygienist to conduct temperature and ventilation measurements. In terms of temperature it is unfortunately not specific as it is in international legislation but we do benchmark against International Standards where the temperature should be set to to arms 23 degrees for office environments. Your company is legally required to provide you with a healthy and safe work environment; therefore they are responsible for ensuring that any health and safety concerns raised by employees are investigated in order to avoid fines or imprisonment from the Department of Labour Inspectors. Do let us know if you are not succesful. Thanks, Jessica.

Hi Dean, Thanks your question. I would suggest you contact a Labour Lawyer who will give you legal advice with regards to what your rights are, as we are not in doctor cover, position to argumentative about give you the answer. However, you may want to ask your employees or your employee whose friend is always visiting what their Health and Safety concerns are so that you can rectify these, if there are any, as legally your company is required to provide employees with a healthy and doctor cover, safe work environment free of hazards which may cause harm or injury to employees. If Labour Inspectors do visit and find health and safety concerns, your company and kellogg essays, the CEO can be fined or imprisoned depending on the seriousness of the problems. We therefore suggest you make reference to the Occupational Health and Safety Act (Act 85 of 1993) in order to note what the employer's legal obligations are as well as employee's legal obligations for health and doctor, safety. We hope this helps. Thanks, Jessica. Hi Dean, Thanks your question. I would suggest you contact a Labour Lawyer who will give you legal advice with regards to what your rights are, as we are not in position to give you the answer.

However, you may want to ask your employees or your employee whose friend is essay always visiting what their Health and Safety concerns are so that you can rectify these, if there are any, as legally your company is doctor cover letter required to provide employees with a healthy and kellogg essays 2008, safe work environment free of hazards which may cause harm or injury to employees. Letter! If Labour Inspectors do visit and find health and safety concerns, your company and to arms question, the CEO can be fined or imprisoned depending on the seriousness of the problems. We therefore suggest you make reference to the Occupational Health and Safety Act (Act 85 of 1993) in order to note what the employer's legal obligations are as well as employee's legal obligations for doctor cover letter health and safety. We hope this helps. Thanks, Jessica. Hi Dean, Thanks for your question. I suggest you get a copy of the Occupational Health and typewriter size, Safety Act (Act 85 of doctor letter, 1993) and read the Facilities Regulations where it is states that toilets need to be freely and readily available to employees.

You can also make reference to the National Building Regulations, Parts F, P and Q for sanitation. I would therefore suggest you provide locks for their lockers so that your employee’s personal items are kept safely or alternatively relocate the lockers to a safer place. Another alternative may be to kellogg essays 2008 provide each employee with their own key for the toilets. We hope this helps. Thanks, Jessica. Hi Kwetsimani, Thank you for your question. Cover Letter! Unfortunately there are no part time courses in typewriter size, Ergonomics as to be a practicing Ergonomist you need your Masters Degree in Ergonomics and this is not possible in South Africa as a part time course. Doctor Cover! You may contact c.christie@ru.ac.za who is the Head of Department of essay, Human Kinetics and Ergonomics at Rhodes Univeristy if you require more information.

Thanks, Jessica. Hi Xolisa, Unfortunately we do not have the statistics, but there are a number of letter, injuries one can get from working at a computer. You can look up Repetitive Strain Injuries (RSI), Cumulative Trauma Disorders and then Work Related Upper Limb Disorders and in schools, there you will see that a host of these injuries can be caused by letter working at a computer e.g. carpel tunnel syndrome, tendonitis etc. A good source that may be able to help you, will be the Compensation Commissioner and essay on censorship, the COID Act personnel (http://www.acts.co.za/COID/) as work related upper limb disorders are compensational and they may have statistics for cover letter you. Thanks, Jessica. Dear Ane, Thank you for essay in schools your question. Unfortunately the only anthropometric data available for the South African population is the RSA Military Standard for anthropometry and doctor cover letter, environment. You will have to purchase this from Armscor. However the bibliography data is doctor cover based on the military but is the only data available for South Africa, but it should give you a good idea of what you are looking for. Thanks, Jessica.

Hi Megan, We do not have suppliers of these accessories listed on our website, but I will find out and revert back to you. Thanks, Jessica. Hi Nzuzo, Thanks for your question. It is difficult to annotated bibliography for research answer without an idea of the workplace you are in but the following you can use to guide you in the development of your policy: 1. You need to determine firstly the purpose of why you have an ergonomics policy. what has driven your company to include ergonomics e.g. injuries, reduce accidents etc. 2. Then how are you going to do conduct your ergonomics program, what will you include?

What tools will you need, how will you conduct your ergonomic risk assessments, will you require an Ergonomist if you don’t have one etc. etc. 3. Then you need to letter look at who you are going to need to carry this out i.e. implement your policy. who are the responsible people and what are their roles and responsibilities? 4. The aspects that your policy will need to include will be determined by the risk assessments you have conducted and essay on censorship, what hazards your workplace has. Your accident and injury records will also help you determine what hazards related to ergonomics exist in your workplace and what you will need to control these. Only after you have done these can you determine what to include in your policy. Thanks, Jessica. Hi Nzuzo, Thanks for your question. It is difficult to answer without an idea of the workplace you are in but the following you can use to guide you in the development of your policy: 1. You need to letter determine firstly the purpose of why you have an ergonomics policy. what has driven your company to include ergonomics e.g. injuries, reduce accidents etc.

2. Essay! Then how are you going to cover do conduct your ergonomics program, what will you include? What tools will you need, how will you conduct your ergonomic risk assessments, will you require an Ergonomist if you don’t have one etc. etc. Essay! 3. Letter! Then you need to look at who you are going to need to annotated for research papers carry this out doctor cover letter i.e. implement your policy. who are the responsible people and what are their roles and responsibilities? 4. The aspects that your policy will need to include will be determined by the risk assessments you have conducted and what hazards your workplace has. Your accident and injury records will also help you determine what hazards related to ergonomics exist in your workplace and what you will need to control these. Only after you have done these can you determine what to include in your policy. Essay On Protecting! Thanks, Jessica. Hi Lebohang, Thanks for your question. There no specific guidelines for South Africa per say, but we benchmark against international standards and guidelines. Any good Ergonomics textbook will provide you with what the best sitting posture is.

You could make reference to Sanders and McCormick, Christine Haslegrave, Robert Bridger etc. Cover! who should all have this information available for you. A Farewell Essay Question! Some websites you can visit are the doctor cover Canadian Ergonomics Society and the Health and Safety Executive (UK). Thanks, Jessica. Hi Hendrik, Thanks for your question. According to essay the Occupational Health and Safety Act in the Environmental Regulations, under the Housekeeping section it states the following: An employer shall: make at least 2.25 square metres of cover, effective open floor area available for every employee working in an indoor workplace. Unfortunately this does not specify whether the space should include or exclude the workstation of the user but it is assumed that the 2.25 square metres includes space for the user to sit, the desk, computers and possibly filing space. Thanks, Jessica.

Hi Terri, Thanks for your question. You can refer to essay on protecting our earth the Occupational Health and Safety Act and make reference to the Environmental Regulations. It is here where employees should be provided with adequate ventilation and the temperature requirements are also listed. However, unfortunately South African legislation does not specify what this temperature is and so we as Ergonomists benchmark against International legislation. It is doctor letter therefore recommended that temperature be set at 23 degrees and those who find this hot or too cold should ensure they dress appropiately.

Legally your employer is required to provide you with a healthy and safe workplace. If you can determine (through Specialist input, measurements etc.) that your current environment is not, then your employer is essay on protecting our earth legally required to fix the problems. Let us know if you need any further assistance. Thanks Jessica. Hi Melissa, Thanks for doctor cover your question. Basically the systems approach is understanding all the parts of an organisation (greater system) and how they interact and influence each other. You can get different types of systems. Annotated Bibliography For Research Papers! big systems such as an organisation and then all the letter components in annotated bibliography for research, this system interacting together or you can get smaller systems which may be for example an individual operator interacting with a tool or equipment within a certain environment. An example: You and your computer working is an example of a system.

You are inputting information to your computer to bring about a response or output. Within this system may be other people who you interact with and cognisance must also be giving to how the work environment e.g. temperature, lighting, noise, people etc. can impact on your ability to carry out your task effectively and safely. Now a bigger system may be a number of users using a computer in a big open plan office. How does this change peoples ability to concentrate, perform their tasks effectively and still bring about the desired output. I hope this helps. Doctor Cover Letter! Let me know if you need further clarity. Thanks, Jessica. Hi Chris, Thanks for your question. We would suggest that you contact an Ergonomist who is suitably qualified to conduct an ergonomics risk assessment for you which will determine any problems and essays, provide suitable solutions to help you.

If the new desk encourages an unsafe working posture, based on ergonomics specifications then it would be advisable that you either replace the desk or find a suitable chair. Many thanks, Jessica. Hi John, Thanks for your question. Please refer to our website, under Links which should assist your query. Letter! Thanks, Jessica. Hi Denise, Thank you for your question. Essay Co-education! It is difficult to letter just give an answer as the maximum weight to essay question be lifted is dependant on a number of factors. You may wish to letter refer to kellogg essays the NIOSH Lifting equations, alternatively request the services of an Ergonomist to conduct an cover, ergonomics assessment for you. Thanks, Jessica.

Hi Keith, Thank you for your question. You might like to refer to the Occupational Healthy and Safety Act with specific reference to the Environmental Regulations. It is stated here what the lighting and to arms question, ventilation requirements are for offices, which your training room should be part of. In terms of extraordinary requirements there are no specifics for training rooms as per the OHS Act but from an ergonomics point of view, we would suggest the supply of doctor cover, fresh air so as to aid concentration and to in schools prevent the room from becoming stuffy. This will obviously impact on employees’ ability to concentrate and pay attention. The lighting will be dependant on the mode of training i.e. PowerPoint presentations versus employees required to read and write, as the amount of lighting will vary.

Thanks, Jessica. Hi Keith, It is suggested, although not specifically in South African legislation, but we benchmark against other countries is to have the temperature in an office set to: Summer: a dry bulb temperature range of 23 degrees to 28 degrees Winter: a temperature range of doctor cover, 20 degrees to essay about co-education 25.5 degrees The temperature inside does depend on what the outside temperature is. A general recommendation is doctor cover that the temperature be held constant in the range of 21-23°C (in summertime when outdoor temperatures are higher it is paper advisable to keep air-conditioned offices slightly warmer to cover letter minimize the temperature discrepancy between indoors and outdoors). We hope this helps. Typewriter Size! Thanks, Jessica. Hi Marijana, Please refer to our website as we post jobs as and when we receive these from companies. Doctor Letter! Thanks, Jessica. Hi Jabulani, Thanks for your question. A Farewell! You may refer to the Environmental Regulations in the OHS Act, however the temperature is not that clear for office enviornments.

As Ergonomists we benchmark against other countries which state that the temperature in an office should be set to: Summer: a dry bulb temperature range of 23 degrees to 28 degrees Winter: a temperature range of 20 degrees to 25.5 degrees The temperature inside does depend on what the outside temperature is. A general recommendation is that the temperature be held constant in the range of 21-23°C (in summertime when outdoor temperatures are higher it is advisable to keep air-conditioned offices slightly warmer to doctor cover letter minimize the temperature discrepancy between indoors and outdoors). Paper Size! We hope this helps. Thanks, Jessica. Hi Susan, Thank you for your query. I suggest you look into the National Building Regulations as we do not have this information available for classrooms, but only for people in an office.

Do let us know if you are able to doctor cover exceed. Thanks, Jessica. Hi Tarubva, Thanks for your email. Unfortunately there are no part time courses available in Ergonomics in South Africa, however I am sure there are for Occupational Health. You can try contact our Chairman who is a lecturer at Rhodes University in South Africa a.todd@ru.ac.za if you are interested in full time courses. Thanks, Jessica. Hi Rouxna, Thank you for typewriter your question. I suggest you get a copy of the National Building Regulations as they stipulate the requirements for buildings including ablution positioning etc. From an Occupational Health and Safety point of view the Occupational Health and Safety Act, Environmental Regulations for Workplaces will assist you. You can download this from the Department of Labour website.

For ventilation- employers must provide employees with either natural or mechanical ventilation and the Act specifies windows in detail. The Act also specifies lighting requirements and where there is no natural light, what the doctor cover lighting levels should be. Essay On Censorship In Schools! Offices must have lighting levels of 300lux. We hope this helps. Thanks Jessica.

HI Venessa, Thanks for your question. You will find the Occupational Health and Safety Act usually for this. The Environmental Regulations will assist you as it is a requirement that employees be provided with either natural or mechanical ventilation. Doctor Cover! So you basically either need a window or an air con. Also machines produce heat so it is even more of typewriter paper size, a hazard having the heat and no proper ventilation that can be hazardous to your health and safety. Therefore I suggest you consult these regulations and bring this to your Managers attention. They can then request the cover letter services of an Ergonomist Occupational Hygienst to do some tests to confirm the health and safety hazards. I hope this helps.

Thanks Jessica. Hi Chris, Unfortunately there are no part time courses in Ergonomics and to be an Ergonomist it is a requirement to have your Masters Degree in Ergonomics. Paper! The society is doctor cover letter busy working on a facilitator level where people who are not Ergonomists can do some Ergonomics work, but this is still in the pipeline. Essay On Censorship! So please keep watching the news on cover letter our website for progress on this. Thanks for our earth your question. Jessica. Hi Donovan, I suggest you contact the Engineering Socirty of South Africa to doctor cover letter assist you as we do not deal with this.

Thanks for your question. To Arms Essay! Jessica. Hi Martlie, Unfortunately to be an Ergonomist it is a requirement by cover the International Ergonomics Association that you have your Masters Degree in Ergonomics. As the SA society we are busy working on a facilitator level where certain Ergonomics work can be done by certain people. This is still in the pipeline, so please watch the news on our website. With regards to courses, there are no part time courses but you can contact our Chairman who is a lecturer at Rhodes University if you are interested in full time courses/degree. Thanks for your question. Jessica. Hello Phathuxolo, Thanks for your question.

I would suggest you go to a doctor who is an Occupational Health Practitioner who should be able to diagnose you with a work related problem. Upper limb work related problems are recognised as part of the COID Act so your Manager and HR should know about this. If you claim for argumentative about compensation they should then have an Ergonomist come in and assess your workstation to try and prevent their employees from getting injured and more importantly claiming as it costs companies money. You can also make reference to the Occupational Health and Safety Act which stipulates employees should work in a healthy and safe work enviornment and cover, that you are obviously not as you are injuring yourself. I dont know what industry you are in, but also ask HR what there medical surveillance policy is as this should assist you getting help and an Ergonomics assessment to try and remove what is causing you pain. Let us know your progress. Jessica. Hi Fezile, Each person must have 2.25m2 of office space.

Thanks, Jessica. HI Sadie, Thanks for your question. This does depend on a number of factors such as what the essays load is, the letter dimensions, are their handles, the typewriter paper size height of the lift, the duration and frequency of letter, lift. It is also dependant on the physical enviornment too. Argumentative About! Please send us some more detail to doctor cover be able to assist you. Thanks, Jessica. Hello Jo, Thanks for kellogg your question. You can approach the National Building Regulations and Standard Act (SABS 0400) which stipulates the number of toilets that are needed in doctor letter, different working enviornments (schools included) as well as the number of toilets needed for a certain number of people. To Arms! Thanks, Jessica. Hi Hester, You would need to doctor contact our Chairman (a.todd@ru.ac.za) re the website query.

With regards to disabled employees, yes most certainly ergonomics is important as well as rehabilitation of employees who become disabled due to argumentative about work related injuries. It is essential that disabled/injuried employees who are either put on 'light duties' or who have become office bound have their work environment assessed in order for them to doctor cover letter still be able to function in a healthy and safe manner. Essay On Protecting! Thanks, Jessica. Hi Ian, Thanks for your question. This does depend on doctor cover letter a number of factors such as what the essay on censorship in schools load is, the dimensions, are their handles, the height of the lift, the duration and frequency of lift. It is also dependant on the physical enviornment too and the individual doing the task. If you can give us more information we can assist you.

Thanks, Jessica. Hello Jorge, Thank you for your question. Please consult our website for a list of consultancies in South Africa who will be able to assist you. Thanks, Jessica. Hi Anna, Unfortunately SA legislation is cover not clear on the temperatures, but we rely on argumentative essay about International best practise and ISO standards which state that for offices the temperature should be set at 22-23 degrees. Also your air con should be regularly serviced so as to prevent the doctor cover accumulation of dust etc which can lead to sinus and for research, headaches because the air quality is poor. Do let us know if we have been of help. Thanks Jessica. Hi Noly, Thank you for your question. In order to doctor answer your question to the best of our ability, please could you describe the task of binding so that we can assist you.

Thanks, Jessica. Hi Jannie, Thank you for your email. Please refer to the National Building Regulations and Standard Act (SABS 0400) where it is detailed the number of essay on censorship, toilets needed for schools and it is also dependant on the number of doctor letter, people. Let us know if this helps you. In Schools! Thanks, Jessica.

Hi Sonja, Unfortunately we are still trying to doctor cover get the certification and role of the facilitator sorted out with the International Ergonomics Association. Therefore at present the role of the facilitator does not yet exist, but we will keep you posted, or alternatively keep reading our website for further information. Thanks, Jessica. Hi Lebo, Thanks for 2008 your enquiry. Doctor Cover! Please go onto our website and have a look at the consultancies who will be able to assist you. Thanks, Jessica. Hi Buti, Unfortunately we cannot provide you with this information. I suggest you contact the education department or possibly a society that deals with down syndrome. Thanks, Jessica. Hi Buit, I would suggest you contact companies who offer services for EAP and see where you would be able to do some studying. I am sure if you do a search for wellness companies or EAP offering companies in SA you will find what you are looking for.

Do let us know if you are not sucessful and we will try and assist you. Thanks. Hi, Please can you submit the paper to c.christie@ru.ac.za or a.todd@ru.ac.za Thanks, Jessica. Hi Lydia, You can approach the National Building Regulations and Standard Act (SABS 0400), Part C which is available from the SABS. You can also make reference to the OHS Act and in particular the Facilities Regulation refer to Section 5: Dining rooms. Unfortunately I don’t know what your offices are used for but every employer must have a separate dining room or eating place on the premises for employees who may be exposed to essay on censorship biological agents, hazardous chemical substances, poisonous substances, dirt, dust, soot or similar and/or animal products. From a health point of doctor, view it isn’t obviously hygienic having leftover take away boxes and dirty coffee cups around, so it would make good business sense to have demarcated canteen area for this rather than an open space or office. If your SHE reps are not being listened to size this is against the OHS Act requirements and you can make reference to the General Administrative Regulations for this. Please let us know if we can assist you further.

ESSA. Hi Teopolina Thank you for your question. Ergonomics in doctor cover, South Africa is growing. We have had some encouraging developments with the department of kellogg, labour over the last year. Consequently I believe that there is cover opportunity for the growth of the discipline over the next couple of typewriter paper, years. For further information on doctor cover letter the challenges we are facing have a look at the Ergonomics South Africa journal in which the ESSA chairman, Andrew Todd has written an article addressing the very issues that you have raised. Hi Dieter Thank you for your question. Workstation design is very important in terms of discomfort. There is paper size substantial evidence showing the benefits of good ergonomically sound workstation design, both in terms of cover letter, comfort and productivity. To Arms Question! There are several options available to you in your area. If you have a look at our website (http://www.ergonomicssa.com/index.php?pid=10) there is a list of consultancies for you to select from.

Hi Jacob, Thanks for cover your query. ESSA does have a number of sport scientists as members. The benefits are that you can subscribe to our Journal which features interesting articles related to both work and essay on censorship, sport which may be of interest to you. Cover Letter! Ergonomics looks at anatomy, physiology, biomechanics and psychology all of which are areas you may be interested in. You also have an opportunity to attend workshops and conferences that the society hosts.

The most important benefit is to network and learn from fellow ESSA members. Bibliography! We look forward to welcoming you to cover our society. Thanks, Jessica. Hi Cathy, Unfortunately there are no short courses available and essay on censorship in schools, one can only become an Ergonomist with a degree in Ergonomics. So far the cover only institution offering this is Rhodes University. If you are looking for health and safety courses, there are a number of companies offering this. Typewriter Size! Companies such as Nosa, Lexis Nexis etc. I hope this helps. Thanks, Jessica. Hi Liesl, Thanks for your question.

Unfortunately the SA legislation is not very specific with regards to temperature, and so as Ergonomists we benchmark against International standards. The ISO (International Standards Organisation) has a standard where it stipulates the optimal temperature for air conditioned offices should be 22-23°C. It is cover letter therefore recommended you follow this and those who find this too hot dress appropriately and those who are too cold bring warmer clothes to essay on censorship in schools avoid any conflict. Thanks, Jessica. Hello Riana, Thank you for your question.

Unfortunately there is letter no legislation on VDU use as there are in the UK with the Display Screen Equipment regulations. What I suggest is that a ergonomics risk assessment be conducted of the specific employees workplace where it can be determined firstly that the work environment contributes to the employees eyesight problems. This is very common in control rooms where operators need to monitor and work on computers and other VDUs. You can then submit a claim to the compensation commissioner and say that the eyesight problems are as a result of poor ergonomics and essay on censorship, workplace design (if this has been proven in your ergonomics risk assessment). The employee should then be reimbursed if the doctor letter compensation commissioner finds your information true. In Schools! I hope this helps and let me know if I can be of doctor, further assistance. Thanks, Jessica.

Good Morning Nick, The National Building Regulations contain this information and give you examples of essay, how to calculate the number of toilet facilities for your intended population. It has been updated (it was the SABS 0400-1990) and doctor cover letter, is now SANS 10400. You can perhaps try google this document or purchase it from the SABS. The section you will need is Part P which is Drainage. I only have a copy of the older version, but let me know if you dont come right. Thanks, Jessica. Hello Dieketseng, Your question is very interesting thank you.

As the Ergonomics Society we believe that Ergonomics should be a fundamental part of a company's Safety division and should be ongoing. This allows for a proactive way of managing the company's safety rather than after an injury or incident, which is reactive. To answer your question, it is a tricky one. A Farewell! Obviously if an employee has injured themselves outside of working hours and not whilst on duty then this is the employee's responsibility. However the workplace should try and accommodate this employee as best as it can, and if that involves ergonomically changing or adjusting that employees workplace then it depends on the company’s values towards safety and its employees. The employee will also need to form part of the medical surveillance program to doctor cover letter firstly determine if the employee is fit for duty before she/he returns to essays work after an injury. Also if the employee is cover injured and cannot resume their normal duties for a period of time, then it depends on what the company's policies are regarding incapacity.

Fundamentally companies should see to it that their workplaces are safe and healthy for their employees and therefore should be free of any hazards and risks. Ergonomics is essential in any industry and ergonomic risk assessments must be done proactively to control these hazards. This is important, as hazards at work can contribute to typewriter paper size injuries at work or contribute to employees health that could result in cover, an injury outside of essay our earth, work that could have been as a result of a work related activity or poor working environment. I hope I have answered your question. Let me know if you need further clarification.

Thanks, Jessica. Hi Andre, On our website is a list of consultancies in South Africa. Doctor! Do you want a list of our Gauteng members or a list of consultants who can assist you? Thanks, Jessica. Hi Kate, Thanks for your email.

Unfortunately there are no exposure limits for SA and that generally we benchmark against the EN 28662. Kellogg! Try and search for this. Also for the effects of vibration, the doctor cover HSE (Health and Safety Executive, UK) has a brilliant website where you can get info on the effects of exposure to vibration (http://www.hse.gov.uk/vibration/index.htm). Alternatively you can research for white finger, cold stress, De Quervains syndrome etc. which can be other searches for vibration related information. Essays! I hope this helps. Jessica. Dear Carey Thank you very much for cover letter your interesting question regarding chairs. It is interesting because there is currently a trend going on to promote the about co-education use of exercise/physiotherapy chairs for use in the office environment. Have a look at http://www.ergoweb.com/news/detail.cfm?id=1091 for details of this debate with some useful links. Letter! There is academic evidence suggesting that a proper back support is an important component of to arms essay question, a chair and that it is important that this support is provided at doctor cover letter, an appropraite level of the spine.

I would suggest that the best place for you to collect evidence from would be to use governmental sites (unfortunately not South African) but the bibliography papers Health and Safety Executive (HSE - from the UK) has really useful guidelines : http://www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/priced/hsg57.pdf. Another useful resource is BIFMA which helps to develop standars in Northern America (http://www.bifma.org/) Here they detail exactly what the standard chair needs to ensure that the cover discomfort experienced while sitting is minimal. It is essay on censorship in schools also useful to remember that we are designed to letter move rather than sit so regular breaks are also good. If you need any further assistance or details please let us know. Also keep us in essay on censorship, the loop with what happens.

Kind Regards Andrew. You are correct that ergonomics is an important component of employee wellness. Doctor! The role of ergonomics is to essay use the systems approach to deliver two objectives. Number one to improve worker health and well being and doctor, number two to improve productivity. This due objective is achieved by ensuring that the worker capabilities are matched to the task demands ensuring compatability between the two. This can occur in a number of situations/work environments including both physical and cognative. Argumentative! The focus of this work is not limited to young individuals. In fact in many European countries ergonomics work is focused on evaluating an aging workforce as population growth slows.

In a South African context we need to take cognisance of the cycle of disease and doctor cover letter, other such factors and so often the focus is on younger individuals. Hi Muzo, MOST DEFINITELY. Actually ergonomics is stipulated in the construction regulations of the OHS Act and essay on censorship, it is the only regulations that make mention of ergonomics. Ergonomics is important from cover letter, a manual materials handling point of view, working at heights, the effects of noise, temperature, vibration, lighting etc. on employees behaviour and performance, the impact of typewriter size, fatigue management on employees and managing injuries by conducting thorough root cause analysis. So YES ergonomics is vital in the construction industry.

Hope this helps. Jessica. Hi Heidi, Thanks for your enquiry. Unfortunately in SA there is no legislation with regards to the temperature for cover working environments (including schools). However as Ergonomists, we base our work therefore on international best practise which states that the the temperature in our earth, an office and I suppose the cover letter classroom is an office, that the temperature when exceeding 22/23 degrees Celsius, must be provided with a cooling system preferably an air conditioner or fan. This is based on British standards and ISO (international standards).

It is also important to not just look at the outside air temperature, but the humidity, radiation, air movements and the inside room temperature which can be higher than the essay question outside temperature due to the number of doctor, people in a class, the size of the essay co-education classroom, the humidity, if there is no source of ventilation and cooling etc. You can therefore tell the school that should temperatures exceed the above levels, the kids ability to concentrate is effected and therefore the kids will not be able to pay attention and this can impact on their marks and learning. In high temperatures where there is doctor cover letter no provision for natural or artificial ventilation, heat can lead to fatigue and hence impact on the children's ability to learn. Children can also if they do not drink enough fluids can also become dehydrated and should be encouraged in hot temperatures to drink cold liquids. Is your son's classroom a prefab or normal school room? Also the Occupational Health and Safety Act does say that work environments must be healthy and on censorship, safe so you could use this as a means to get the school to do something or request that an ergonomics assessment be done to address the problems you have.

I hope I have helped. Please contact me should you need further assistance. Thanks Jessica (jessica@hfeconsulting.co.za) Hi Londiwe, Unfortunately there are no approved part time or distance learning courses in Ergonomics in SA. The only institution offering a degree in Ergonomics is Rhodes Univeristy.

You can contact our Chairman Andrew (a.todd@ru.ac.za) for more information. Thanks. Hi Leoni, Apologies ESSA has taken so long in letter, responding to your enquiry. To be a practising Ergonomist, the IEA (International body for Ergonomists) stipulates that you need a Masters Degree in Ergonomics. In South Africa, Rhodes is the only University offering this. With regards to short courses to become a qualified facilitator there are none that are accredited in SA and ESSA does not yet recognise those that are offered as courses to a farewell to arms become a facilitator. Cover! Perhaps its worthwhile contacting our Chairman Andrew (a.todd@ru.ac.za) to get further info on this. Thanks.

Hi Jeneane, Thanks for your question and apologies it has taken so long to bibliography papers answer you. Firstly may I ask why you would want a kneeling chair, as they are not the best chairs as they do not offer back suppport. So before I recommend you a stockist, perhaps you could explain why you feel the need for these types of chairs. Thanks, Jessica. Dear Deidre Thank you for your query. The course run by Ergomax is letter a very good course and will give you a sound basic understanding. Unfortunately in terms of essay our earth, certification a Masters degree in ergonomics is required to be a certified ergonomist.

This is in line with the standards established by the International Ergonomics Association (IEA) of which ESSA is an affliated member and so are bound to these regulations. Cover Letter! The course will however provide you with good basic skills that will allow for easy risk identification which will allow you to call in the ergonomics specialist to do further analysis. Co-education! Kind Regards Andrew. Hi Naren, Thank you for your question. Unfortunately ESSA does not do any assessments for companies. However, on the ESSA website are a list of Consultancies who perhaps you could contact and see if they will be able to assist you. Many thanks, Jessica. Hi Charlene, Thanks for your question. This is always a contentious issue and unfortunately SA legislation is not specific in terms of cover, room temperatures.

However we advise that companies adopt other best practices which for argumentative essay co-education room temperatures is 22-23C. Doctor Letter! It is known that different ethnic groups have different temperature requirements and so to eliminate your situation, the temperature should be set at typewriter paper size, the levels mentioned and those who get cold should bring a blanket and dress appropriately and vice versa. You can also look at cover letter, the National Building Regulations which stipulate the provision of essay on censorship, ventilation for cover workplaces and essay about co-education, that air conditioners should be serviced as per the manufacturers specifications. I am not sure what industry you work in, but the letter reasons for the virus may be that the air conditioners have not be cleaned, that the filters may need to be replaced or that you may work in an environment where there is dust, vapour or volatile material which may not be properly extracted from the building. I would suggest you adhere to international best practice of essay, keeping the doctor cover temperature set at 22-23C and you get somebody in to service your air conditioners and either clean or replace the filters. Essay In Schools! I hope this helps!

Jessica. Hi Erika, Thank you for your question. Id like to letter refer you to the National Building Regulations, SANS 10400 and a farewell to arms essay question, the Facilities Regulations (Occupational Health and Safety Act). I have emailed you the information that you are looking for. Let me know if this assists you. Thanks Jessica. Hi Nadira, There are ergonomic standards for control rooms which may be of help to cover you. There are ISO and British Standards for these which address the design, temperature, lighting etc. Let me know if you need the references for the ISO standards, but these are on the website of essay on protecting our earth, ISO. Thanks. Hello, Thanks for your email.

On the website is a form that you need to cover letter complete and then you can submit this to typewriter me at Jessica@hfeconsulting.co.za There is doctor letter also a joining fee and depending on whether you would like our Journal submitted electronically or via the post, the price varies. I look forward to receiving your membership form. Thanks, Jessica. Hi Ishen, Thanks for your question. First and typewriter paper size, foremost, it is advisable that an Ergonomist conduct the audit for you. This is important as the Ergonomist will be able to pick up the Ergonomic aspects of the doctor cover work that your employees conduct, in addition to what are the good Ergonomic aspects and what are poor Ergonomic aspects.

Secondly, conducting an Ergonomics audit is like any HS audit, the basics and principles are the same, except the focus is obviously on the human-machine and human-system interface. It also depends on essays 2008 whether Ergonomics is implemented in doctor, your industry and the extent of this. Do you have policies and procedures specifically related to typewriter Ergonomics that your auditor can use when doing an audit to check compliance? The policies and procedures will be used against what is actually taking place in the work environment. Thirdly, the auditor will also look for compliance to best practices and note how sufficient and adequate your policies and cover letter, procedures are in paper size, accordance with best practice. If you need any further advice, please do not hesitate to contact me. Thanks, Jessica. Dear Hanlie Thank you very much for your interest in Ergonomics. Letter! In order to qualify as a registered Ergonomist it is necessary to have a masters degree in Ergonomics. Bibliography! Currently the doctor letter only University in bibliography for research, South Africa offering this course is Rhodes University (www.ru.ac.za/hke for further details).

With a biokinetics degree you may be able to register at the postgraduate level for the course therefore you will require a further two or three years of studying. Kind Regards Andrew. Hi Vicky Thank you very much for your question. The principles of good chair design are similar for different contexts. The key to letter ensuring that discomfort is essay minimal is to ensure that the key areas of the body are in appropriate postures. So some of the doctor cover letter key factors that need to be taken into consideration include: 1. Adjustability: Regardless of what you are using the a farewell to arms question chair for if you are spending a substantial part of the day in the chair you need to ensure that the chair suits your own anthropometric characteristics (if you need further help here we can provide you with suggestions regarding Ergonomists that would be able to help).

2. Lumbar support: A backrest that has an adequate support in the lumbar region is imperative in reducing the discomfort as it ensures that the lumbar spine curvature is maintained and the weight bearing characteristics reduced. 3. Letter! Arm rests: For someone doing your sort of job it is important that you have adequate support for on censorship in schools your arms and that you are able to write easily and in an appropriate posture. Once again a qualified ergonomist would be able to assist you here. An awareness of an appropriate posture is doctor important as well, for on protecting which there are ergonomists available to assist you. If you need any further assistance please don't hesistate to contact us. Kind regards Andrew.

Dear Martin Thank you very much for your question, it is cover one that is both very important and essay on protecting, asked on a regular basis. Unfortunately the answer is not as simple as it may appear at a first glance. Within the cover letter South African context there are currently no guidelines or regulations that stipulate what a maximum permissible load should be. This is partly because the on protecting context within which the manual handling is occuring is important in determining the impact it will have on the human operator. For example the horizontal reach involved (that is the distance between the lower back and the centre of mass of the load) plays a pivotal role in determining the forces involved. This is because the doctor muscles in bibliography papers, the back are up close to the joints they move (that is the lumbar spine), while the loads being moved are typically much further away. The consequence of this is doctor cover letter that the muscle forces are much greater than the loads being moved (they can be up to 10 times higher), playing the spine at 2008, risk of injury.

I have highlighted just one factor here out of any number. Cover! However in the United States for example they have regulations in many states that stipulate that the load moved should not exceed 23 kg, under ideal conditions. Argumentative Co-education! This load is then reduced as the conditions pertaining to the task get worse. Thus I would suggest that in order to get a better idea of what would be acceptable it is cover letter necssary to have an ergonomist do an assessment of both the task demands and the worker capabilities. After this assessment a clearer idea of what would be deemed as acceptable will become apparent. A Farewell Question! See the links section of the letter website for some ergonomics companies that may be able to help you. If you have any further queries please don't hesitate to contact us. Dear Olivia The cost of subscription is dependent on essay our earth what type of journal subscription you would like. I have given you a synopsis below: Printed (hardcopy) journal subscription: R 350 per annum Electronic (Pdf) journal subscription: R 250 per annum If you are a student you may register for the electronic subscription for letter R 100.

Kind Regards Andrew. Hi Miranda, You can contact Rhodes University's Ergonomics Department. Matthias Goebel is the Head of the annotated for research papers department m.goebel@ru.ac.za. You can also enquire through Pretoria Univeristy, I think under the department of the Built Environment, however I do not have a contact number or email address. Let me know if you dont come right.

Jessica. Hi Sam, I tend to agree with you and find myself that modern offices are very unhealthy. Doctor! There is also an increase in the number of people who work in air conditioned offices who experience sinus problems because of the air conditioners. Air quality, in paper, terms of your question does have everything to do with Ergonomics. Ergonomics is about making sure people are comfortable, healthy and safe in their work environments. Poor consideration, in terms of doctor cover, air quality, can negatively impact on performance as employees can become tired, lethargic and find concentrating difficult especially in offices where there is no supply of in schools, fresh air i.e. Doctor Cover Letter! no windows. This can then impact on a farewell to arms question their health, as well as their safety as no supply of doctor cover, fresh air can cause one to become drowsy and essay co-education, therefore make mistakes which could lead to accidents. Air conditioners try to alleviate this problem, however pose a few concerns: a) Placement- are they directly over where a person sits posing this person to very cold conditions which can impact on ones circulation and can cause stiff joints etc. b) Maintenance- how often do companies ensure that the filters are cleaned? I have been too many places where the employees know for a fact that the air cons have not been serviced.

This exposes employees to doctor cover letter dust and other materials which themselves are hazardous to employees' health. c) Social factors- different cultures experience temperatures differently; some people find it too hot others may find the office too cold. This does lead to many conflicts in the workplace. It is for this reason that companies need to adhere to the Occupational Health and Safety Act which stipulates the temperatures for office. I hope this helps. Good luck with your article. Jessica. Hi Daryl Thank you for your important question. Argumentative Essay About! It is one that we get on doctor a regular basis and the answer is unfortunately not as simple as it may seem. Firstly there are a number of essay on protecting, factors that need to be taken into consideration when providing guidelines for lifting tasks. For instance ergonomics is all about matching the task demands to the worker capabilities, and consequently to answer your question one needs to have an understanding of both the demands of the task and operator capabilities.

What these means is that the load limit is highly dependent on the situation at hand. Numerous factors such as the high from letter, which the load is co-education being lifted, the cover size and shape of the load, how close the load can be kept to the body and several other factors all need to be taken into essays account. U/nfortunately there have been no guidelines developed that are specific to the South African population and the Occupational Health and Safety guidelines do not currently provide a lifting standard in terms of what is acceptable. However other countries such as the doctor cover letter USA have developed guidelines like the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) lifting equation. This equation starts with a maximum acceptable load of 23kg which is reduced as the demands of the task increase (for example as the frequency of lifting get higher). If you would like further information you can go to: http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/docs/94-110/ where you can download the guidelines for free. As an aside it is interesting to note that there are several local companies who are working on developing their own ergonomics standards for the South African context. I will be sure to update as we make progress in this regard.

If you have any further queries pleases don't hesitate to contact us. Thanks Andrew. Hi Varusha, Firstly are you in South Africa? If you have studied ergonomics and have obtained a MSc in Ergonomics you can pursue a career as an Ergonomist. You can also become involved in the Safety divisions of paper size, a company and assist Occupational Health Practioners. You could also get into academia and specialise further or lecture.

I hope this helps. Cheer. Jessica. Hi Tsenang, It all depends on where you intend on being in the future. If you intend on doing your MSc in the UK you will need to check with the instituions over doctor there. However, if you intend on studying in argumentative, South Africa, I would suggest you contact the Head of doctor letter, Department at question, Rhodes University to doctor enquire about this. His details are: m.goebel@ru.ac.za I wish you well in your studies. Jessica. Hi Tarubva, Currently the only University that does a Masters Programme in Ergonomics is Rhodes Univeristy in essays 2008, Grahamstown. Doctor Cover Letter! Unfortunately no other universities offer a full course in Ergonomics. Should you be interested you could email Andrew Todd who is a lecturer at Rhodes on a.todd@ru.ac.za Many thanks, Jessica.

Hi Christo, 1) A person should not be required to sit or stand permanently and this posture should be alternated. Standing for too long can lead to muscular pain, back pain and repetitive strain. It is typewriter therefore recommended that a sit-stand chair be used for jobs which require permanent standing. If the main task is standing then the cover operator must allow for on censorship occasional sitting. If alternate sitting and standing is not possible allow for more frequent short rest breaks. You could also allow for job rotation so that employees who stand can sit and visa versa.

2) Unfortunately in South Africa Ergonomics is not well legislated and therefore it does not specify that a chair must be provided. However, in letter, order for a person to do their job effectively they must be provided with the tools to do their job and therefore a chair may be needed. The OHS Act also states that a company has a duty of care to provide an employee with a safe working environment and therefore if a person is required to stand without the possibility of resting intermittently, this could lead to fatigue and accidents. 3) Instead of a sit-stand chair you could use anti-fatigue mats which can be purchased for co-education people who are required to stand for long periods of time. Thanks, Jessica. Hi Mathilda, Thanks for sending us your comments.

It’s a tricky situation and not one I can answer without having looked at the situation. Perhaps you can email me a photo of the cover workstations in order to annotated for research papers give you some answers? Is it not possible for IT to put all the information onto 3 VDUs or a maximum of 4 and then the operators can switch between the different visuals? Perhaps IT can also look at doctor cover, eliminating the information that is not essential and which could be attributing to a high mental workload? I cannot advice on the desk and chairs as I do not know what it looks like. But given the employee's problems in the neck area, it is advisable to eliminate the twisting in the neck area immediately. This therefore means having fewer screens which are placed directly in front of the users.

Again, apologies if I have not helped you. Essays 2008! Please feel free to email me on doctor letter jessicahutch@gmail.com should you need any clarity. Thanks, Jessica. HI Nicolene, Apologies for the delayed response. It is recommended at each person have 2.25 square metres of space. This just for the individuals personal space and essay our earth, includes space for letter the desk, chair, workspace, filing cabinets etc.

In terms of the in schools size of the bathrooms etc, its best to look at the building regulation act as this stipulates these measurements, and includes measurements for people who may be disabled. If you need any other advice, please don’t hesitate to contact me. Thanks Jessica. Dear Gail Thank you very much for your interest in ergonomics. You pose some very interesting and important questions. Ergonomics is a relatively new area in South Africa and consequently the statistics available regarding injury statistics are at best poor. However, there is evidence internationally showing the relationship between poor working postures and the maintaining static postures. Doctor! There are several websites that would be of 2008, use to you on an international level for this topic, which I have listed below: The Health and Safety Executive (UK): www.hse.gov.uk The Human Factors and Ergonomics society: www.hfes.org There is also a comprehensive list of letter, websites relating to ergonomics and occupational health and safety available on the ESSA website. Kind regards Andrew. Dear Debbie Yes you can join our society as it is open to anyone who is argumentative interested in ergonomics.

The benefits of belonging to the society include a free subscription to the Ergonomics South Africa Journal in cover letter, which papers relating to ergonomics in industrially developing countries are published. Kellogg 2008! Furthermore we provide regular updates on what is doctor cover letter happening in the world of ergonomics (both from a theoretical and practical perspective) internationally. We will also inform you of all relevant workshops and conferences that are happening in the country, hosted by both national and international ergonomists. About! Obviously this information will help you to identify areas that may be of concern with a work environment and cover, source an appropriate ergonomics specialist to resolve the issue. Kind regards Andrew. Hi Zaheera, There are many books you can consult with regards to information processing, but one of the gurus is CD Wickens.

In order to assist you I would like to ask you to be a bit more specific in what exactly you are referring to a farewell to arms in terms of information processing. Basically there is the input stage, where human beings pick up stimuli from the environment, in your case a red signal/warning sign. Doctor Cover! This information is then processed in the individual's mind and argumentative essay about, interpreted using the higher thinking processes. In order to make sense of this sign, the individual relies on doctor past experience along with other factors. So for example the red sign equates to either danger or stop. The brain generates an output which is our reaction which is essay sent to cover our muscles and either we stop or we pay more attention. It is essays very difficult to explain this in doctor letter, a small paragraph, but please feel free to email me. Thanks Jessica. Good day Simon Thank you very much for your query. In terms of your question, I would suggest that you look at the following resource: http://www.labour.gov.za/legislation. This website provides you with all the necessary infomration pertaining to the relationship between the employee and employer.

If there is essays any further assistance we can provide please do not hesitate to contact us. There are many consulting firms that will be able to assist you with this query and we are delighted at your companies proactive approach to the problem. Please expect to receive a list of our members and associated firms in the next day or two by email.

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Seven Types of Paragraph Development. 1999. May be used by teachers for nonprofit educational use. May not be reprinted elsewhere without permission. Available at: In their pursuit of clear, concise writing, journalism students sometimes develop the habit of writing everything in doctor cover short, choppy paragraphs that are unrelated to one another. Reviewing any good high school writing handbook will remind you that considerable thought has been given to how longer paragraphs can be developed into well focused presentations of single units of on protecting thought.

What follows is an (imaginary) article invented to illustrate many of the modes of doctor cover letter discourse--the traditional methods by which writing is annotated papers, developed. Doctor Cover? In succession, the a farewell to arms question, following paragraphs are narration, exposition, definition, classification, description, process analysis , and persuasion . (The process analysis paragraph has been broken into a bulleted list, in typical how to style.) In most writing, these modes are mixed in natural combinations; for example, narration frequently includes description. The following paragraphs have been devised in an attempt to emphasize the characteristics of each mode of writing. The result is somewhat artificial--you would not normally write an cover, article containing one each of seven types of paragraphs!--but I hope it is more memorable than a series of unrelated illustrations. Around 2 a.m. something woke Charles Hanson up. Annotated Bibliography Papers? He lay in the dark listening. Cover Letter? Something felt wrong. Outside, crickets sang, tree-frogs chirruped. Paper? Across the distant forest floated two muffled hoots from a barred owl. It was too quiet.

At home in New Jersey, the nights are filled with the busy, comforting sounds of traffic. You always have the comforting knowledge that other people are all around you. And light: At home he can read in doctor cover bed by the glow of the streetlight. It was too quiet. And much too dark.

Even starlight failed to penetrate the on protecting, 80-foot canopy of trees the camper was parked beneath. It was the darkest dark he had ever seen. Cover Letter? He felt for the flashlight beside his bunk. It was gone. He found where his pants were hanging and, as he felt the pockets for a box of matches, something rustled in the leaves right outside the window, inches from his face. He heard his wife, Wanda, hold her breath; she was awake, too. Then, whatever, was outside in the darkness also breathed, and the huge silence of the essay on censorship, night seemed to come inside the camper, stifling them. Cover Letter? It was then he decided to pack up and move to a motel. Comments on narration: Normally chronological (though sometimes uses flashbacks) A sequential presentation of the events that add up to a story. A Farewell Essay? A narrative differs from a mere listing of events.

Narration usually contains characters, a setting, a conflict, and a resolution. Time and cover letter, place and person are normally established. In this paragraph, the story components are: a protagonist (Hanson), a setting (the park), a goal (to camp), an obstacle (nature), a climax (his panic), and about, a resolution (leaving). Specific details always help a story, but so does interpretive language. You don't just lay the words on the page; you point them in the direction of a story. Doctor Letter? This narrative serves as the opening anecdote that illustrates the topic of the story. This family was a victim of a problem they could have avoided-a problem that, according to Florida park rangers, hundreds of visitors suffer each year. Essay In Schools? Several times a month, ranger Rod Torres of O'Leno State Park said, people get scared and doctor letter, leave the park in the middle of the night.

Those people picked the wrong kind of park to size, visit. Not that there was anything wrong with the park: The hikers camped next to them loved the wild isolation of it. But it just wasn't the kind of place the couple from New Jersey had in mind when they decided to camp out on letter, this trip through Florida. If they had known about the different kinds of parks in Florida, they might have stayed in a place they loved. Comments on exposition: Exposition is explanatory writing Exposition can be an incidental part of a description or a narration, or it can be the heart of an article Aside from clarity, the key problem with exposition is credibility.

What makes your explanation believable? Normally, writers solve this problem by citing authorities who have good credentials and good reason to be experts in the subject. This paragraph also happens to serve as the justifier or nut graf for the little article: the paragraph that, after an argumentative about co-education, indirect opening, specifies the topic of the article, why it is letter, important, and what is to come. Park is difficult to define in Florida, because there are so many kinds of parks. Basically, a park is a place to go for outdoor recreation-to swim, picnic, hike, camp, walk the dog, play tennis, paddle your canoe, and, in some places take rides in miniature trains or swish down a waterslide. Florida has a rich variety of parks, ranging from acres of RVs ringed around recreation halls, to impenetrable mangrove wilderness. To make things more complicated, not all of them are called parks, and essays 2008, even the cover letter, ones called parks come in several varieties. Comments on definition:

Never define anything by typewriter size the according to Webster's method. Meaning is found in the world, not in the dictionary. Doctor Cover Letter? Bring the world into your story and use it to define your terms. Essay On Protecting Our Earth? Saying what something is NOT can help readers; but make a strong effort to say what it IS. O'Leno is a good example of a state park in cover Florida.

Surrounded by the tall, shaded woods of a beautiful hardwood forest, the Santa Fe River disappears in a large, slowly swirling, tree-lined pool. After appearing intermittently in scattered sinkholes, the river rises three miles downstream in a big boil, then continues on to meet the our earth, Suwannee and the sea. Nearby, stands of cypress mirror themselves in the still waters, walls of dense river swamp rise before you, sudden sinkholes open in the woodlands-rich with cool ferns and mosses. Farther from the river, expanses of longleaf pinelands stretch across rolling hills. In the midst of this lovely setting, you find 65 campsites, 18 rustic cabins, and a pavilion for group meetings. A diving platform marks a good place to swim in the soft, cool waters of the Santa Fe, and letter, canoeing up this dark river is like traveling backwards in time in the direction of original Florida. Comments on description:

Description is not what you saw, but what readers need to see in order to imagine the scene, person, object, etc. Description requires you to record a series of detailed observations. On Protecting? Be especially careful to make real observations. The success of a description lies in the difference between what a reader can imagine and doctor cover letter, what you actually saw and recorded; from that gap arises a spark of engagement. Essay Our Earth? Use sensory language. Go light on doctor cover letter, adjectives and adverbs. Look for ways to describe action. Pay special attention to our earth, the sound and rhythm of words; use these when you can.

Think that your language is not so much describing a thing as describing a frame around the thing--a frame so vivid that your reader can pour his or her imagination into it and see the thing--even though you never showed it. Cover Letter? Portray. Also evoke. The key problem in description is to avoid being static or flat. 2008? Adopt a strategy that makes your description into a little story: move from far to near, left to right, old to new, or, as in this example, down a river, to give your description a natural flow. Think of description as a little narrative in which the visual characteristics unfold in a natural, interesting, dramatic order. Think of what pieces readers need, in what order, to cover, construct a scene. Try making the description a little dramatic revelation, like watching an actor put on a costume--where you cannot decipher what the costume means until many of the parts are in place. Never tease readers or withhold descriptive detail, unless for some strange reason that is the nature of your writing. Lay it out. Give your description away as generously as the world gives away sights.

Let it show as transparently as seeing. The cognitive difficulty in description is a farewell question, simple: People see all-at-once. But they read sequentially, one-part-at-the-time, in a series of pieces. Doctor Cover? Choose the pieces. Sequence them so they add up. Think: Readers first read this, now this, now this; what do they need next? Remember, you never just describe something: The description is always part of essays a larger point. Use the description to make your point, or to move your story along. Forest and river dominate O'Leno State Park. By contrast, Lloyd Beach State Recreation Area, near Fort Lauderdale, is dominated by doctor cover letter the oily bodies of sun-worshippers who crowd into it every summer weekend.

Where O'Leno gives you so much quiet you can hear the leaves whispering, Lloyd Beach is essay co-education, a place of boisterous activity. You can walk a few yards in O'Leno and doctor cover letter, pass beyond every sign of human civilization. When you walk at Lloyd Beach, you have to be careful to step over the picnic baskets, umbrellas, jam boxes, and browning bodies. At night, O'Leno wraps itself with the silence of crickets and owls. Lloyd Beach is on protecting our earth, busy with fishermen till well past midnight.

If you want to doctor cover letter, fish near town, or dive into the busy bustle of an urban beach, Lloyd Beach is the place to go. Annotated? But if you want to stand at the edge of doctor civilization and on censorship, look across time into doctor, an older natural world, O'Leno is the on protecting our earth, park to visit. Comments on comparison: There is a helpful technique for writing a comparison. If you follow it, your comparisons will benefit. Before writing a comparison, draw up a chart and fill it in, to make certain you have all the elements necessary to write a comparison. As in cover letter the model below, list the two items being compared, and the criteria by 2008 which they will be compared.

If you do not make such a chart, there is a chance you will have a hole in your comparison. Then choose whether to to down the doctor letter, columns or across the rows in writing your description. Either describe all of O'Leno and compare it to all of Lloyd Beach by working down columns two and three, or take the co-education, first category, noise and compare the two parks in terms of cover it, then the next category, and typewriter, so on across the rows. Once you commit to a down or across strategy, stick with it till the doctor cover, end of the comparison. [Note: I couldn't think of a way to typewriter paper size, write the following paragraphs that followed naturally from the previous material. For the next paragraph, pretend you are reading an article on how to put up a particular brand of cover letter tent.] When you find the park you are looking for, you will need to make camp. One person can set up the FamilyProof Tent, though it is easier with two, yet almost impossible with three or more. Here's how:

First, clear a 9 by 9 foot area of snags, limbs, and anything that might pierce the bottom of the tent. Unfold the tent so that the corners of the annotated papers, waterproof bottom form a square. Peg down the corners of the bottom. Next, snAP Test, Together all four external tent-poles (they are held together by doctor cover letter shock cords to ake sure you get the pieces matched up). Place a pole near each of the in schools, pegs. Thread each pole through the two loops leading toward the doctor letter, top of the tent. After you have all four poles in place, lift one of the poles. While holding the annotated for research, pole up, pull its guyrope tight and peg the guyrope down, so that the pole is held up by the guyrope and the pegs on opposing sides of the tent bottom. Lift the pole on the opposite side of the tent in the same way, but this time, fit it into the upper end of the standing pole before securing its guywire. Assemble the two remaining tent poles in doctor cover letter a similar manner. Finally, unroll the front flAP Test, To form an awning.

Prop up the awning with the two remaining poles and secure them with guyropes. Now you are ready to move in. Comments on process analysis: In describing how a process happens or how to perform a series of actions, always think of your readers: can they follow this? Analyze the process into to arms question, a series of doctor cover steps. Pu t the 2008, steps into sequence. Then isolate the steps: number then, use bullets, put them in separate paragraphs Use illustrations keyed to doctor letter, the steps when appropriate: people can often read diagrams better than they can read lists of steps Always ask an outsider to read your process analysis to see if it can be followed. Once you are close to in schools, a subject, it is difficult to know when you have left something out. Before you go camping in doctor Florida, plan ahead. Don't wind up in the wilds when you want to be near Disney World, and don't wind up on a concrete RV pad when you really want the forest primeval.

Find out what parks are available, and what they are like. Get good information on essay on protecting our earth, what to expect, and what your options are. This can make all the difference in doctor the quality of a farewell to arms your vacation. Comments on persuasion: This paragraph is but a small example of the kind of writing used widely in editorials and columns, and it uses a direct, exhortatory approach: Believe Me and doctor, Do It! This persuasive paragraph also serves as the ending to this little article and brings a sense of closure in the form of, OK, now get up and essay, act!

To persuade people to change their minds or take an action, more is needed than your opinion or sense of conviction. You need to supply them with the information, analysis, and context they need to form their own opinions, make their own judgments, and take action. Remember: Readers are interested in only one opinion--their own. If you can help them formulate and deepen that opinion, they will be glad they read your article.

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A Brief Overview of British Literary Periods. Letter. While there are a number of ways different historians have chosen to record these periods, a common method is outlined below. Old English (Anglo-Saxon) Period (450 – 1066) The term Anglo-Saxon comes from 2008, two Germanic tribes, the Angles and cover the Saxons. This period of literature dates back to on censorship in schools their invasion (along with the Jutes) of Celtic England circa 450. The period ends in 1066, when Norman France, under William, conquered England. Much of the first half of this period, prior to the seventh-century, at least, was oral literature; however, some works, such as and the works of Caedmon and Cynewulf, period poets, are also important. Doctor. This period sees a huge transition in the language, culture and lifestyle of in schools England and results in what we can recognize today as a form of “modern” (recognizable) English, dating to around 1500. Doctor Letter. As with the Old English Period, much of the Middle English writings were religious in nature; however, from about 1350 onward, secular literature began to rise. This period is home to the likes of Chaucer, Thomas Malory, and Robert Henryson. Notable works include Piers Plowman and Sir Gawain and the Green Knight . Recently, critics and literary historians have begun to call this the “Early Modern” period, but here we retain the historically familiar term “Renaissance.” This period is often subdivided into four parts, including the Elizabethan Age (1558-1603), the Jacobean Age (1603-1625), the Caroline Age (1625-1649), and the Commonwealth Period (1649-1660). The Elizabethan Age was the bibliography, golden age of English drama.

Some of its noteworthy figures include Christopher Marlowe, Francis Bacon, Edmund Spenser, Sir Walter Raleigh, and, of course, William Shakespeare. Doctor. The Jacobean Age is kellogg essays named for doctor the reign of James I. It includes the works of essay John Donne, William Shakespeare, Michael Drayton, John Webster, Elizabeth Cary, Ben Jonson, and Lady Mary Wroth. The King James translation of the Bible also appeared during the Jacobean Age. The Caroline Age covers the reign of Charles I (“Carolus”). John Milton, Robert Burton, and George Herbert are some of the notable figures. Finally, there is the Commonwealth Age, so named for the period between the end of the English Civil War and cover letter the restoration of the Stuart monarchy – this is the time when Oliver Cromwell, a Puritan, led Parliament, who ruled the nation. At this time, public theaters were closed (for nearly two decades) to on censorship prevent public assembly and to combat moral and letter religious transgressions. John Milton and Thomas Hobbes’ political writings appeared and, while drama suffered, prose writers such as Thomas Fuller, Abraham Cowley, and Andrew Marvell published prolifically. The Neoclassical Period (1600 – 1785) This period is argumentative essay about co-education also subdivided into ages, including The Restoration (1660-1700), The Augustan Age (1700-1745), and doctor letter The Age of Sensibility (1745-1785).

The Restoration period sees some response to the puritanical age, especially in the theater. Restoration Comedies (comedies of manner) developed during this time under the talent of essay question playwrights such as William Congreve and John Dryden. Satire, too, became quite popular, as evidenced by the success of Samuel Butler. Other notable writers of the age include Aphra Behn, John Bunyan, and John Locke. The Augustan Age was the doctor letter, time of Alexander Pope and Jonathan Swift, who imitated those first Augustans and even drew parallels between themselves and kellogg 2008 the first set. Lady Mary Wortley Montagu, a poet, was prolific at cover, this time and noted for challenging stereotypically female roles. Daniel Defoe was also popular at this time. Bibliography. The Age of Sensibility (sometimes referred to as the Age of Johnson) was the time of Edmund Burke, Edward Gibbon, Hester Lynch Thrale, James Boswell, and, of course, Samuel Johnson.

Ideas such as neoclassicism, a critical and literary mode, and cover letter the Enlightenment, a particular worldview shared by many intellectuals, were championed during this age. A Farewell Essay Question. Novelists to explore include Henry Fielding, Samuel Richardson, Tobias Smollett, and Laurence Sterne, as well as the doctor cover, poets William Cowper and Thomas Percy. The beginning date for this period is to arms essay often debated. Some claim it is 1785, immediately following the Age of doctor cover letter Sensibility. Others say it began in 1789 with the start of the French Revolution, and question still, others believe 1798, the publication year for letter Wordsworth Coleridge’s Lyrical Ballads , is its true beginning. It ends with the passage of the Reform Bill (which signaled the Victorian Era) and with the death of to arms Sir Walter Scott.

American literature has its own Romantic period, but typically when one speaks of Romanticism, one is referring to letter this great and diverse age of British Literature, perhaps the a farewell question, most popular and well-known of cover letter all literary ages. This era includes the essay, works of such juggernauts as William Wordsworth and Samuel Coleridge, mentioned above, as well as William Blake, Lord Byron, John Keats, Charles Lamb, Mary Wollstonecraft, Percy Bysshe Shelley, Thomas De Quincey, Jane Austen, and Mary Shelley. Doctor Cover Letter. There is also a minor era, also quite popular (between 1786-1800) called the Gothic era. Writers of note for this period include Matthew Lewis, Anne Radcliffe, and William Beckford. This period is named for the reign of Queen Victoria, who ascended to the throne in 1837 and lasts until her death in 1901. It was a time of great social, religious, intellectual, and economic issues, heralded by passage of the Reform Bill. The period has often been divided into kellogg “Early” (1832-1848), “Mid” (1848-1870) and “Late” (1870-1901) periods, or into two phases, that of the Pre-Raphaelites (1848-1860) and that of Aestheticism and Decadence (1880-1901).

This period is in strong contention with the Romantic Period for the most popular, influential, and prolific period in letter all of English (and world) literature. Essay. Poets of this time include Robert and doctor letter Elizabeth Barrett Browning, Christina Rossetti, Alfred Lord Tennyson, and Matthew Arnold, among others. A Farewell To Arms Question. Thomas Carlyle, John Ruskin, and Walter Pater were advancing the essay form. Finally, prose fiction truly found its place and made its mark, under the auspices of Charles Dickens, Charlotte and Emily Bronte, Elizabeth Gaskell, George Eliot, Anthony Trollope, Thomas Hardy, William Makepeace Thackeray, and doctor Samuel Butler. This period is named for King Edward VII and covers the period between Victoria’s death and the outbreak of World War I. Essay On Censorship. Although a short period (and a short reign of Edward VII), the era includes incredible classic novelists such as Joseph Conrad, Ford Madox Ford, Rudyard Kipling, H.G. Wells, and Henry James (who was born in America but who spent most of his writing career in England), notable poets such as Alfred Noyes and William Butler Yeats, as well as dramatists such as James Barrie, George Bernard Shaw and John Galsworthy. This term usually refers to the reign of doctor cover letter George V (1910-1936) but sometimes also includes the reigns of the four successive Georges from our earth, 1714-1830. Here, we refer to the former description as it applies chronologically and covers, for doctor cover example, the Georgian Poets, such as Ralph Hodgson, John Masefield, W.H. Davies, and Rupert Brooke.

Georgian Poetry today is typically considered to be the works of annotated for research papers minor poets, anthologized by doctor cover letter Edward Marsh. The themes and subject matter tended to be rural or pastoral in nature, treated delicately and traditionally rather than with passion (such as was found in the previous periods) or with experimentation (as would be seen in the upcoming Modern period). The Modern Period traditionally applies to works written after the start of essay on censorship in schools World War I. Common features include bold experimentation with subject matter, style and form, along with encompasses narrative, verse, and drama. W.B. Yeats’ words, “Things fall apart; the center cannot hold” are often referred to when describing the core tenant or “feeling” of modernist concerns.

Some of the most notable writers of this period, among many, include the novelists James Joyce, Virginia Woolf, Aldous Huxley, D.H. Doctor Cover Letter. Lawrence, Joseph Conrad, Dorothy Richardson, Graham Greene, E.M. About Co-education. Forster, and Doris Lessing; the poets W.B. Yeats, T.S. Eliot, W.H. Auden, Seamus Heaney, Wilfred Owens, Dylan Thomas, and Robert Graves; and the dramatists Tom Stoppard, George Bernard Shaw, Samuel Beckett, Frank McGuinness, Harold Pinter, and Caryl Churchill. New Criticism also appeared at this time, led by the likes of Virginia Woolf, T.S. Doctor Cover. Eliot, William Empson and others, which reinvigorated literary criticism in general. It is difficult to say whether or not Modernism has ended, though we know that postmodernism has developed after and from it; but for now, the genre remains ongoing. This period begins about the time that World War II ended. Many believe it is a direct response to Modernism.

Some say the period ended about 1990, but it is likely too soon to declare this period closed. Poststructuralist literary theory and argumentative about criticism developed during this time. Some notable writers of the period include Samuel Beckett, Joseph Heller, Anthony Burgess, John Fowles, Penelope M. Lively, and Iain Banks. Many Postmodern authors had written during the Modern period as well.

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Democracy was the most successful political idea of the 20th century. Why has it run into trouble, and what can be done to revive it? The Economist welcomes your views. Please stay on topic and be respectful of doctor letter, other readers. Review our comments policy. You must be logged in to kellogg essays post a comment. Log in to your account. Don't have an account? Register. I really think democracy works very well where people are aware and have the habit of knowing before who puts in power.

In many ways beginning this article with a moment from the cover letter, 'artificial' colour revolution in the Ukraine provides a perfect opportunity to discuss this Democracy thing. Typewriter Size. I'm still trying to cover determine whether this fake uprising was purposefully chosen to continue the boiler-plating of it's legitimacy or if people really are that deluded. The biggest problem with democracy today is the corruption of it's principals via large amounts of cash from essay in schools, capetbaggers, agent provocateurs, crime cartels and doctor cover letter self interested spivs. The Soros sponsored Ukrainian colour revolution was no different.Soros a multi Billionaire, whose endless financial resources have been acquired by emiseration of whole regional economies, as well as elite inside trading. Soros continues the tradition of sick psycho who creates tax exempt foundations whose aims are to alter the world according to his fancy. When vast sums of money meets democracy it's rarely provided to bibliography for research papers celebrate the democratic principal.

It's provided to letter artificially tilt the scales towards one candidate. Just look at the US elections. Based on the corrupting influence of kellogg essays, big donations, two opposing parties have merged into a uniparty. The only interests served are those of mega donor corporations. How more clearly could this be demonstrated than last weeks virtually unanimous vote to codify sanctions on Russia, Iran and North Korea. Sanctions that the recipients feel are a declaration of war. The Representatives clearly not expressing the will of their constituents, who having voted Trump into the White House had chosen a less agressive foreign policy, and doctor cover letter an end to the wars. No, this was a bought and paid for kellogg essays 2008, geopolitical stunt to doctor aid the military hardware and essay war services donor groups. This happened whilst the same politicians could not must a majority to save the doctor cover letter, Treasury millions in Obamacare payouts and long suffering constituents whose socialised Health dreams this semi functional democracy has crushed. big money, lobbying, campaign donations over $3000, George Soros period. and then maybe Democracy can flourish! I think democracy works very well where people are aware and have the habit of knowing before who puts in power.

Thanks for this article. Great effort. But you need to know which one is secure. https://sites.google.com/site/domyessays/ is a blog which will help. So it has never meant incestuous relationship, 'cause i've never intended to argumentative about mate either with a man with the age of doctor letter, my father, or with a kid..(my former official and fully graded classes in teaching(pedagocy) i may add to essay on censorship all other plenty of diplomas and certificates that have never brought me either money, or a private full and letter stable and straight relaionship of my taste,and needs: HAS NEVER-EVER TAUGHT ME I COULD EVER BE PERMITTED TO HAVE EITHER INTIMATE, OR PRIVATE RELATIONSHIP, WITH A KID(or someone who could easily be my own child, according to argumentative essay co-education his age). Cover. Aren't the academic, and professional teachings identical, in Europe ? I thought they are, 'cause i know Europe doesn't mean China, India, Canada, U.S., Middle East, Africa,Asia and on.Aren't the essay, Europeans, muc more litterate, and wealthy, civilised(=legal abiding)than Romanians, in statistic terms?

So if you are, how could you ever believe i could ever like those about letter i've been officially taught they easily form, different obscene and illegal-unfair minds who aren't obliged to apply the Romanian laws,like i do ?? Actually,you're Not right at essay on protecting, all, as i'm both an intellectual professional, and a top well cultured, and cover letter top-educated independent(technocrat) official diplomat female, too.And in essays 2008 the case you price these as a reality of the doctor cover, fact i've been taught about argumentative essay about how life is, long ago, and since then i've got the official full rights either to cover letter speak my mind, or to teach these whenever i'm paid for these, please trust me when i tell you, AGAIN. On Censorship In Schools. There has only been the 'Left' policy of doctor cover, any sorts, that which stayed for libertarianism, and not for the liberty, that is a different thing. Kellogg Essays. (Islam)Immigrants and their non-emmigrated supporters, act in doctor cover an libertarian terrorist populist manner, but in a 'liberal way. That has always been the official definition of these, you believe me,or not.(according to your civilian, but professional rights). Is that clear, to you ?? I replied to 'mr' FERDINADVS(27 Mar) It's interesting that you folks keep advancing a liberal-styled minimum State as part of the solution to the crisis of democracy, when in fact, the return to typewriter Liberalism is at the core of this crisis. See, when we Latin Americans, along with East Europeans embraced Bourgeois democracy, we were passionately hoping we could, some day, attain the doctor cover, level of prosperity and standards of living of essay our earth, developed Capitalist nations. The problem is that these high living standards were largely sustained by high levels of State interference, which were largely kept that high due to fear of the Soviet Block and the perceived need to keep inequality under control to pacify the labour movement. But what has happened since then? As there is no longer a Soviet Block and the red threat is deemed too insignificant to letter cause trouble, the Bourgeoisie have been unabashedly pressing developed countries' governments to dismantle their Welfare States, bringing up inequality even in rich countries and, moreover, binding the hands of even centre-left parties.

Social democratic parties are traditionally prisoners of the concessions the Bourgeoisie are willing to make, which nowadays amount to almost nothing. Essay Question. To see centre-left parties get elected only to implement the cover, very model upon whose rejection they based their entire electoral discourse is paper feeding the feeling that this democracy is all but a travesty. No wonder electoral abstentions are at a historic worldwide high. This is what has been making anti-systemic far right and far left parties so popular, and cover letter I say far left in quotes, because their radical proposals usually amount to little more than what the centre left used to defend in the 20th century. Say what you will about argumentative about Jeremy Corbyn and doctor cover Bernie Sanders, their proposals are a very moderate fashion of Social Democracy and essay co-education the fact Western media portrays them as radical leftists who will transform the Anglo-Saxon world into some kind of reborn Soviet Empire just shows how dishonest and unyielding the cover, contemporary Bourgeoisie really are. Meanwhile, in annotated bibliography for research the ex-Stalinist republics the generations that saw the transition to Capitalist are nearly always polled as preferring the old Stalinist model, which, for all its immense flaws, still provided them with a reasonable minimum living standard and avoided extreme poverty, which has been spreading there like fire in a haystack. Doctor Cover. Contrary to what the Bourgeoisie usually say, the on censorship in schools, main driving force of anti-Stalinist protests was the cover letter, desire for typewriter, freedom, not for higher living standards (which, though not amazing, but were still worth a passing grade). And they found out, along with us, Latin Americans, that the democracy they were promised has nothing to do with the one they were handed. It was all a lie. What I'm trying to say is: for this huge crisis of democracy we have nothing but Liberalism to thank!

But only because i am a Christian Roman Catholic kind person, i'm also gonna' give you an example from my diplomatic independent(-notpolitical, and not-administrative official) experience, maybe it will help you either to find out the official mole in your administration that has the full guilt of the cover letter, entire islam emmigration and terrorism in Europe; or, simply to change your affectionate preferences(:. Bibliography For Research Papers. In that, please let me ask you a maths' question: what does it happen with the doctor cover letter, democracy,when you take an kellogg essays, obsessed villain, and an incestious European female(eager to cover letter sleep with a male of the age of her father) the essay on protecting, U.S.,and make them Presidents of a country,and entire world; and what does it also occur when different people in Christian countries, officially express their private life preferences, for similar-islamist, freemason,illuminati= satanist or simply purely ILLITERATE= Undemocratic things(incest or couples of obscene difference of ages: mother/teacher/son student; handicapped or disabled, vs.healthy normal completely legal person, or simply ball of football vs.player . I'm eager to find out doctor cover, how much at least normally(!!) smart, u are.. And please let me reply you, with my latest comment: just as i've written down, i'm truly a full diplomat(with a few top different diplomatic official qualifications, of our earth, different sorts).Opposite all these, i've only been a few days abroad(Bulgaria, and Greece) when i was only a child, then in cover letter Italy(3 weeks, staying only in the house of my friends from the essay on protecting, South), when i was in doctor my 1st youth(around 15 years ago). And since then, opposite all my top qualifications and official acadenic plus top professional titles i've got, i have never been wanted, either by any foreign top official professionals, and also by men, or by the top upright(never convicted) officials, too. But i have never been taught in any from argumentative about, my top qualifications of different official forms. i could ever be permitted to think or act in unchristian ways, like plenty of cover letter, Christians and non-Christians(teachers mating with their students and pupils, or not) think. What is more, i recall the content of an official book of annotated bibliography for research, diplomatic and business book i've been obliged to read years ago, for letter, a diplomatic official examination i've successfully granted, in 2 different years.

And right there, i read about your Christian Latin-American countries, what happens when a diplomat of high rank goes with his wife, in bibliography papers a restaurant. Cover Letter. or a club(and what your official protocol, is).'Cause while they stay at on censorship in schools, the table,listen to music, have their dinner or lunch and they talk, he may receive the official invitation from either the femle-dancer, the cooking female or any(other) prositute there, to spend night, or nights in bed, with any from them. All in doctor cover all, please let me ask you: do ou think this is democracy ? (either Christian, or not). There is nothing. Democracy is far better than fascism. Thanks for typewriter paper, the article.

Brilliant work. I know my words are not enough and it is unnecessary to describe. Amazing work. Democracy won't work as intented until people destroy the ignorance. If there aren't qualified-educated voters then be ready for the fascist and ignorant politicians. There is an article about cover letter that, you should read it: Democracy was indeed a great achievement, but everything has its positive and negative sides. In countries where the population has low levels of higher education (e.g. Brazil), people are easily manipulated by corrupted politicians. They have been stealing public money for decades and, surprisingly, these politicians keep getting votes. The democratic revival isn't a specialized issue, or an issue of lack of concern, or even, entirely, an issue of the detachedness of the political class.

It's an issue of substance, of thoughts, of essay our earth, far-reaching thinking - we should inhale life once more into those things. Cover Letter. On any subject Assignmnet Maker has unique and typewriter innovative ideas to create world-class assignments on the given topic. great read. if it's written by a single author then i would love to sign up for doctor, his/her classes. anyway, can we conclude that democracy is too high of an ideal system for people in this century, as they seem to fall into primitive behaviours all over again? i.e. satisfying the need for food and question other basics (money) rather than spending time / effort on cover the advancements in spirit and morality. please excuse my non-native english expressions but i guess you get the idea.

A few days ago, i've finally realised the real no-difference between your Iranian thinking, that of the Chinese, of the Islam terrorists and all their supporters in my European country, in the E.U.,in the U.S., Asia, Middle East, Africa and. ..and royal regimes like those from the North are(Norway,Sweden,Finland and all other royal regimes always propelled by bastard Romanian communist like Iliescu,Ponta,Nastase,Rovana Plumb,E.U.Romanian Socialist policy_makers in E.C.,and all other officials who compound the our earth, Red Romanian Plague(P.S.D.,combined with A.L.D.E., P.C.,P.R.U.,P.R.M. and all their sattelite people, administration, party,and propellers).Funny that i was 10(ten) years old @ the Romanian Revolution in 1989 against the Communist regime, and since then up to now, i have NEVER SEEN in letter my country, any form of abolishment of Communism= equa.to Socialism= Populism= Monarchy= immigration PLUS/0r Never emmigrated islamism, too. Essay Our Earth. As i'm not 38 years old yet)and i'm also far from being at cover, least 41, or 65(the official age for argumentative essay, retirement), , i've never stopped asking myself if i'll ever see in my country, and also in doctor cover letter Europe('cause i'm not sure if the E.U. i propelled when i was a teen, deserves to exist anymore): that democrat and technocrat liberalism, founded on values of proper classical rules,and laws, of conduct(the 10 basic Christian laws).'Cause coincidence or no,i don't believe i'll ever meet that liberalism that is known to stay as a base for democratic system,into this bastard nation, E.U, Europe and entire world, where the propellers of the officially-convicted, or Not-Christian and not-Officially educated people(like Ministers and other officials in my country, are) rule over us, who have never stopped being Right, in legal(official) terms. Argumentative Co-education. But come one, you obscene bastards who propel the rights of the doctor letter, abnormals like minorities, handicapped, disabled, criminal offending gipsies,prostitutes, incestious, socially-assisted, beggars, bolshevik-minds, perverse, and illegals of all-possible unchristian forms: you've never stopped calling me personally(an always bright, top cultured and stable plus professionally upright always correct female), in typewriter size so different uncultured forms.So, in my country Romania where almost half from cover letter, its populaion, is officially known to be illetarate, while more than over half from the educated populations, is essay about co-education known to letter form that category of dottori/dottoresse equal to people filled with unfair post-graduate titles of different sorts(with accents on private studies which are known to be desastruous, in Romania): have you ever cared i've never stopped condemning your official or officialized illiteracy, peasantry, low cultured drcisions and populism, that never stopped propelling the tribalism, or conservative populism in the traditional Romanian peasantry?I mean, pink poneys, mici,gratare, sarmalute, copii,a procrea, babet/bosorogime,pers.cu dizabilitati/handicap, profesori si profesoare de ultima speta care au impinzit ministerele si invatamintul si firmele Rominesti, Is that what you call on, either Romanian, or European, or simply international culture whic. ONLY PUTS TOGETHER works and names like Brincusi, Rodin, Eminescu, Eliade, Leonardo, and others from their definite periods in history of typewriter paper size, civilisations, and thinking ? Have you ever believed that history of the letter, arts, ever meant Bosch is equal to paper Picasso, and doctor that with Rembrandt, or with Tonitza, Luchian and on? And i am asking you all these now, for the sinplest reason the Romanian unemployment law, that of staying against the unfair competition.plus the Romanian Constitution, the typewriter size, European laws(on privacy of comnunications, secrecy of doctor cover, thoughts.independence,fairness and on): have lost their meaning completely, into an Europe and E.U.,whete the most unfair, convicted,ex-convicted, primitive peasants and obscene city-people, are illegally permitted to interract with the normal-never convicted, and fair and civilised never-terrorist and native and never-incestious thinking people alike me,are. Is that what you are calling democracy? Is that what you understand from the compulsory decisions of essay question, Vienna's Convention?Is that what you understand from the international law, and values of doctor letter, inrernational culture (where the internationally convened days of international celebration)? ..where these days of bibliography for research papers, celebration, are only doctor cover letter, politicized or politically chosen days of international celebration, that has nothing to do with culture)?? All in all,just take all my latest official papers i've left last week,at the official registry of the Romanian National Museum of Art(including my different resumees, my official detailed demonstration of my COMPLETE female health necessary for the legality of the majority of paid jobs).Plus my ALWAYS CLEAN CRIMINAL RECORD,added to my ALWAYS CLEAN DIPLOMAS AND CERTIFICATES..Do remember all complete official proves i've left bot here, within the on censorship in schools, Romanian Ministry of Foreign Affairs,in that of Culture, that of Labour and in the main instiutions of Romanian Law, and Justice(all these,alway officially,and also privately communicating with the international official instituions,and embassies)..So, as i'll be 38 from almost 2 months from now on, and doctor i keep being in this very ptecise moment, in in schools that identical situation i've been all my life, before and doctor cover after i've got my official top professional, and top cultured titles, please tell me: has ever democracy existed in essay our earth my European country, first ? Causei have no other reasons to care about what others have, in their countries and doctor regions, so please do respect and apply on, my Romanian and European democrat official rights, at our earth, least ! And 'democracy has never been equal to minority(ethnic, not-Christian in doctor letter Romania,convicted or ex-convicte, elligible for conviction, elligible for any form of social assistance, and bibliography for research on)

Democracy has Never been a fair form of governance. Doctor Cover. Democracy is simply, dictatorship By the majority. The will of the majority is imposed on the minority and that does not bring any contentment to the minority. Quote for the expresso daily say. loneliness doesn't have a sex or religion The democracy right and wrong are based the people and the policies also making by the consideration of 2008, people. The verity of methods are possible to get right democracy. The Academic writing help to get the ideas and tips about the same.

The dangers of doctor letter, a democratic regime would be the idea that the people do not have a say in the running of their country. It would be a situation of the type we can see in Ukraine today, with the government being unable to direct politics according to the needs of the citizens; a regime where external factors cause popular opinion to fall by the wayside. Visit: Who is the author that wrote this article? Impower Solutions is award winning web design and essay co-education development company in India. We have 10+ years experience and over 2000+ projects delivered. Doctor Cover. http://impowersolutions.com/ Thank You Impower Solutions. https://radzad.com. This ideology can help us a lot. We need this for our earth, more results. Copyright The Economist Newspaper Limited 2017.

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